Brain Cancer ISU


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Brain Cancer ISU

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Brain Cancer ISU

  1. 1. BRAIN CANCER By Filipe & Nestor.
  2. 2. General Idea Brain cancer is a tumour or tumours within the brain which consist of a group of strange and not normal cells.  This tumour can be either malignant or benign.  Malignant Tumour Benign Tumour
  3. 3. General Idea  They can also be primary or secondary, Primary Tumour -Came from cells in the brain. -Remain in the brain or the spinal cord.  Secondary Tumour -Came from cells elsewhere in the body. These brain tumours can either be found within or around the brain.
  4. 4. General Idea The common tumour types within the brain include,  Astrocytoma,  Grade 1: Pilocytic Astrocytoma  Grade 2: Astrocytoma (Astroblastoma)  Grade 3: Anaplastic Astrocytoma  Grade 4: Glioblastoma Multiforme 
  5. 5. General Idea  One who has brain cancer will face symptoms such as,  Headaches-  Seizures-  Visual Changes-
  6. 6. General Idea  Personality Changes-  One-Sided Weakness-  Hearing Loss-
  7. 7. General Idea  Dizziness-  Nausea and Vomiting-  One Sided Paralysis-
  8. 8. Causes While it is not certain what causes this cancer, there are many theories as to why it occurs. Aging  Age: As we get older, the risk of brain cancer tends to increase but new diagnoses have shown that they are more common in young adults.  Medical Radiation: Frequent uses of radiotherapy, CT scans or X-rays to the head influence the chances of gaining cancer  Radiotherapy
  9. 9. Causes Other cancers: Anyone who has other cancers in the past may have an increase chance in the future to have brain cancer.  Genetics:  People with rare syndromes such as Lung Cancer Neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 or Tuberous sclerosis increase their risk of obtaining this type of cancer.  Gorlin Syndrome (Another syndrome that increases risk)
  10. 10. Causes Medical conditions and medicines: A person with HIV or Aids doubles the risk of gaining brain cancer in their life. Also, women who take hormone replacement therapy (HRT) slightly increase the gaining of it as well.  HIV The size of your body: HRT Those overweight have a slightly increase chance of having brain cancer than those thin and slim.  Overweight
  11. 11. Causes Mobile Phones: While there is still not enough evidence to suffice a connection, they do emit radio waves that may be the reason what causes brain cancer.  Smoking and Alcohol: Cell phones Though still unclear, studies have shown increase risks of gaining it.  Smoking & Alcohol
  12. 12. Prevention Unfortunately, as of now, there is still no way to prevent brain cancer.  However, there are some ways to assist in preventing it from becoming a serious threat in your life. 
  13. 13. Prevention While still unconfirmed, there are theories that other methods may prevent brain cancer.  Macrobiotic Diets: Consisting of grains supplemented with other food like vegetables supposedly go far in the long run.  The Non-usage of Cellular Phones: Since phones emit radio waves and this may be a cause of brain cancer, not using these types of phones may aid in a decrease chance of gaining brain cancer.  Cell Phones Macrobiotic Diet
  14. 14. Prevention Early Diagnoses: Enables us to have the ability to find signs of a possible cancer occurring within or around the brain.  Treating of Tumours: Eliminating the tumours around or within the brain aid very much in decreasing the chances of getting brain cancer.  Type of Treatment: Surgery CT Scan
  15. 15. Diagnosis There are many ways of diagnosing a patient for any signs of a potential brain tumour occurring.  CT Scan: A CT Scanner is the most commonly used as to acquire pictures of the brain. Any abnormalities with CT Scanner the brain will appear on the CT Scan.  MRI Scan: These machines give us further detailed scans than the CT Scan but are only used depending on if any abnormalities were found.  MRI Scanner
  16. 16. Diagnosis Neurological Exam: Neurological This exam includes a physician to check many things Exam of a person such as their vision, hearing, and memory. By doing so, this may give the doctor a clue as to if there is a brain tumour and where it might be found.  Angiogram: It is a type of X-ray upon which a contrast dye is injected into the main arteries as to view the brains’ arteries and veins.  Angiogram of The Brain
  17. 17. Diagnosis Brain Scans: A contrast dye is injected into a vein of either arm and generally, this dye will be soaked up more in a brain tumour, making the tumour easy to view.  Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI): This will measure the flow of water that is in the white matter tracts of the brain, providing a scan of the structure of the brain as well as to compare changes over time.  DTI Brain Scan
  18. 18. Diagnosis Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI) scans: A FMRI is used to discover and pinpoint where exactly a particular disorder may be in some part of the brain. Patients may also be instructed to do a specific task as to pinpoint the area.  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scans: MRI Scans use magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed pictures of the brain, showing visual slices to create a 3-D view of a tumour. FMRI  MRI
  19. 19. Diagnosis Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scans: These scans will find any change in cells as they grow. A radioactive glucose is injected where it is then absorbed more in a tumour of the brain than elsewhere which allows us to see the growth.  Biopsy: PET Scan A surgical procedure upon which a small sample of the tumour is removed for examination. Usually, it occurs during the surgery to remove the brain tumour (open biopsy).  Preparation For Biopsy
  20. 20. Diagnosis Biopsy (continued): There are 2 other biopsies. They include,  Needle Biopsy Stereotactic Biopsy -A small hole is made into the skull by a drill and then a needle is inserted into the tumour. -The needle is then removed, containing a sample of the tumour. -A computer is used as well as a 3-D scanning device. -With these machines, a tumour is then looked for.
  21. 21. Diagnosis Blood & Urine Tests: A patient’s body will be tested as to determine its levels of hormones. Abnormal levels of specific hormones indicate and help diagnose a syndrome.  Bone Scan: This type of scan aids doctors and surgeons in Blood & Urine viewing a skull base brain tumour. Tests Aiding 
  22. 22. Treatment When it comes to treatments for brain cancer, 3 standard treatments are utilized:  Surgery  Radiation Therapy  Chemotherapy  A wait-and-see approach (observations) may also be utilized as to monitor any changes occurring in the brain tumour/s.  Treatment plans are individualized along with what type as well as the grade of the tumour. 
  23. 23. Treatment Surgery: Usually being the first treatment depending on if the tumour is in an operable area. The purpose of it is to remove as much of the tumour or tumours as well as obtaining an accurate diagnosis by the pathologist.  Surgery
  24. 24. Treatment Radio Therapy: Radio therapy is the involvement of high levels of radiation targeting directly at a tumour of the brain. Normal radiation therapy lasts for at least 6 weeks. There are 2 types of radio therapy,  Stereotactic Radiosurgery Gamma Knife -Given as one single treatment -Treats meningiomas, pituitary tumours, acoustic neuromas, and secondary tumours. Radio Therapy
  25. 25. Treatment Chemotherapy: The utilization of medication to stagnant or slow down the growth of tumour cells in brain cancer. It is either given to the patient orally or intravenously.  Temozolomide Or Temodal: For brain tumour (brain cancer) patients, this is becoming quite the common chemo drug for them. Chemotherapy Unfortunately, it very expensive unless covered by insurance. Often it is given along side with radio therapy for high-grade gliomas.  Temozolomide
  26. 26. Works Cited Foundation, B. T. (n.d.). Brain tumour 101 [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from Brain Tumour Foundation of Canada website: -sheets/Brain-Tumour-101.pdf  Uk, C. R. (n.d.). Brain tumour risks and causes. Retrieved from Cancer ResearchUK website: 
  27. 27. Works Cited Davis, C. P. (n.d.). Brain cancer (cont.) (M. C. Stöppler, Ed.). Retrieved from MedicineNet website: m  University, J. H. (n.d.). How to diagnose brain tumors [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins Medicine website: rgery/specialty_areas/brain_tumor/diagnosis/howto-diagnose-brain-tumors.html 
  28. 28. Works Cited Medicine, J. H. (n.d.). Skull base tumor center. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins Medicine website: rgery/specialty_areas/brain_tumor/center/skullbase/  Medicine, J. H. (n.d.). Diagnosis of a pituitary tumor. Retrieved from Johns Hopkins Medicine website: rgery/specialty_areas/pituitary_center/pituitarytumor/diagnosis.html 