Brain cancer is a tumour or tumours within the brain
which consist of a group of strange and not normal
This tumour can be either malignant or benign.
They can also be primary or secondary,
-Came from cells in the
-Remain in the brain or the
-Came from cells elsewhere
in the body.
These brain tumours can either be found within or
around the brain.
The common tumour types within the brain include,
Grade 1: Pilocytic Astrocytoma
Grade 2: Astrocytoma (Astroblastoma)
Grade 3: Anaplastic Astrocytoma
Grade 4: Glioblastoma Multiforme
One who has brain cancer will face symptoms such
Nausea and Vomiting-
One Sided Paralysis-
While it is not certain what causes this cancer, there
are many theories as to why it occurs.
As we get older, the risk of brain cancer tends to
increase but new diagnoses have shown that they
are more common in young adults.
Frequent uses of radiotherapy, CT scans or X-rays to
the head influence the chances of gaining cancer
Anyone who has other cancers in the past may have
an increase chance in the future to have brain
People with rare syndromes such as
Neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2 or Tuberous
sclerosis increase their risk of obtaining this type of
(Another syndrome that
Medical conditions and medicines:
A person with HIV or Aids doubles the risk of gaining
brain cancer in their life. Also, women who take
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) slightly
increase the gaining of it as well.
The size of your body:
Those overweight have a slightly increase chance of
having brain cancer than those thin and slim.
While there is still not enough evidence to suffice a
connection, they do emit radio waves that may be
the reason what causes brain cancer.
Smoking and Alcohol:
Though still unclear, studies have shown increase
risks of gaining it.
Unfortunately, as of now, there is still no way to
prevent brain cancer.
However, there are some ways to assist in
preventing it from becoming a serious threat in your
While still unconfirmed, there are theories that other
methods may prevent brain cancer.
Consisting of grains supplemented with other food
like vegetables supposedly go far in the long run.
The Non-usage of Cellular Phones:
Since phones emit radio waves and this may be a
cause of brain cancer, not using these types of
phones may aid in a decrease chance of gaining
Enables us to have the ability to find signs of a
possible cancer occurring within or around the
Treating of Tumours:
Eliminating the tumours around or within the brain aid
very much in decreasing the chances of getting
Type of Treatment:
There are many ways of diagnosing a patient for
any signs of a potential brain tumour occurring.
A CT Scanner is the most commonly used as to
acquire pictures of the brain. Any abnormalities with CT Scanner
the brain will appear on the CT Scan.
These machines give us further detailed scans than
the CT Scan but are only used depending on if any
abnormalities were found.
This exam includes a physician to check many things Exam
of a person such as their vision, hearing, and
memory. By doing so, this may give the doctor a
clue as to if there is a brain tumour and where it
might be found.
It is a type of X-ray upon which a contrast dye is
injected into the main arteries as to view the brains’
arteries and veins.
A contrast dye is injected into a vein of either arm and
generally, this dye will be soaked up more in a brain
tumour, making the tumour easy to view.
Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI):
This will measure the flow of water that is in the white
matter tracts of the brain, providing a scan of the
structure of the brain as well as to compare
changes over time.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI)
A FMRI is used to discover and pinpoint where
exactly a particular disorder may be in some part of
the brain. Patients may also be instructed to do a
specific task as to pinpoint the area.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scans:
MRI Scans use magnetic fields and radio waves to
produce detailed pictures of the brain, showing
visual slices to create a 3-D view of a tumour.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scans:
These scans will find any change in cells as they
grow. A radioactive glucose is injected where it is
then absorbed more in a tumour of the brain than
elsewhere which allows us to see the growth.
A surgical procedure upon which a small sample of
the tumour is removed for examination. Usually, it
occurs during the surgery to remove the brain
tumour (open biopsy).
There are 2 other biopsies. They include,
-A small hole is made into
the skull by a drill and then
a needle is inserted into the
-The needle is then
removed, containing a
sample of the tumour.
-A computer is used as well
as a 3-D scanning device.
-With these machines, a
tumour is then looked for.
Blood & Urine Tests:
A patient’s body will be tested as to determine its
levels of hormones. Abnormal levels of specific
hormones indicate and help diagnose a syndrome.
This type of scan aids doctors and surgeons in
Blood & Urine
viewing a skull base brain tumour.
When it comes to treatments for brain cancer, 3
standard treatments are utilized:
A wait-and-see approach (observations) may also
be utilized as to monitor any changes occurring in
the brain tumour/s.
Treatment plans are individualized along with what
type as well as the grade of the tumour.
Usually being the first treatment depending on if the
tumour is in an operable area. The purpose of it is
to remove as much of the tumour or tumours as
well as obtaining an accurate diagnosis by the
Radio therapy is the involvement of high levels of
radiation targeting directly at a tumour of the brain.
Normal radiation therapy lasts for at least 6 weeks.
There are 2 types of radio therapy,
-Given as one single
-Treats meningiomas, pituitary
tumours, acoustic neuromas,
and secondary tumours.
The utilization of medication to stagnant or slow down
the growth of tumour cells in brain cancer. It is
either given to the patient orally or intravenously.
Temozolomide Or Temodal:
For brain tumour (brain cancer) patients, this is
becoming quite the common chemo drug for them.
Unfortunately, it very expensive unless covered by
insurance. Often it is given along side with radio
therapy for high-grade gliomas.
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