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Revista espirito livre_014_maio2010

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  • 11. FROXQD#GR#OHLWRU Ghqwuh# dv# sxeolfdÇÕhv# olgdv# sru# plp/# d# Hvslulwr# Jrvwr#pxlwr/#d#txdolgdgh#gdv#pdwÉuldv#É#htxlsd0 Olyuh#É#d#uhylvwd#txh#pdlv#ph#fkdpd#dwhqÇÃr#sh0 uÁyho#Àv#uhylvwdv#pdlv#srsxoduhv#h#whp#uhsuhvhq0 od# txdolgdgh# gdv# uhgdÇÕhv# h# shod# vlpsolflgdgh# wdgr#ehp#r#srqwr#gh#ylvwd#gr#vriwzduh#olyuh1 frp#txh#vh#wudwd#rv#whpdv1 Odxglydq#Iuhluh#gh#Dophlgd#0#Vreudglqkr2ED Sdeor#Urguljr#Vdqwrv#0#PdfdsÁ2DS Wudwd0vh#gh#xpd#uhylvwd#txh#wud}#dv#pdlv#yduldq0 Frqvlghur# xpd# gdv# phokruhv# uhylvwdv# gh# sxqkr# whv# hqwuhylvwdv# gh# Ífrqhv# gr# pxqgr# olyuh# h# Ówl0 olyuh#gr#Eudvlo/#txlÇd#gr#pxqgr/#vhpsuh#glyxojdq0 pdv# pdwÉuldv# vhp# qhqkxp# fxvwr# sdud# qÓv# gr#%r#pxqgr#olyuh%#h#vxdv#dwhqxÂqfldv#mÁ#whp#ox0 ohlwruhv# txh# qÃr# whp# rv# frqglÇÕhv# gh# dvvlqdu# jdu#uhvhuydgr#qdv#plqkdv#ohlwxudv1 rxwudv#uhylvwdv#gd#Áuhd1# Udlovrq#UdpÉv#Vrxvd#0#FhloÂqgld2GI Urvehuj#P1#Er}}hwwwr#0#Eduud#gr#Exjuhv2PW Dfrpsdqkr# d# uhylvwd# d# srxfr# whpsr/# pdv# qhv0 Ohlr# wrgr# phv111# Srvvr# gl}hu# txh# hod# É# xpd# vh#srxfr#dgruhl#wrgrv#rv#duwljrv#sxeolfdgrv#dwÉ# Ówlpd#ihuudphqwd#gh#glyxojdÇÃr#gr#Olqx{1 hqwÃr$# Xpd# lqlfldwlyd# orxyÁyho# h# xp# Ówlpr# suh0 OhÔqlgdv#Slqkhlur#0#Ehor#Krul}rqwh2PJ vhqwh#sdud#wrgd#d#frpxqlgdgh$ PÁuflr#Zllohu#E1#Ihuuhlud#0#Dqdqlqghxd2SD D# Uhylvwd# HvsÍulwr# Olyuh# É# d# phokru# sxeolfdÇÃr# qdflrqdo#vreuh#vriwzduh#olyuh1 Dfkr#xpd#lqfldwlyd#edfdqd/#xp#hviruÇr#sru#sdu0 Vhujlr#Ulfdugr#PloduÉ#0#VÃr#Sdxor2VS wh# gh# yÁulrv# shvvrdv# hp# wruqr# gd# olehugdgh1# Ol0 ehugdgh# gh# vriwzduh/# olehugdgh# gh# h{suhvvÃr1# Xpd#Ówlpd#uhylvwd#vreuh#vriwzduh#olyuh#h#xpd#lql0 Vhpsuh#frp#duwljrv#lqwhuhvvdqwhv#sdud#txhp#yl0 fldwlyd# orxyÁyho/# txh# hqultxhfh# qrvvr# phufdgr# yh#qhvvh#orxfr#pxqgr#gd#whfqrorjld#=, hglwruldo/# wÃr# fduhqwh# gh# sxeolfdÇÕhv# krqhvwdv/# Fh}du#Dxjxvwr#Ph}}dolud 0#Sdwr#Eudqfr2SU rqgh#r#txh#idoh#pdlv#dowr#É#d#yhudflgdgh#gdv#lq0 irupdÇÕhv#suhvwdgdv#h#qÃr#r#glqkhlur#grv#dqxq0 UltxÍvvlpd#hp#vh#idodqgr#gh#Vriwzduh#Olyuh1#³wl0 fldqwhv1# Frqwlqxhp# exvfdqgr# d# h{fhoÊqfld/# pd# irqwh# gh# shvtxlvd# vreuh# qrydv# whfqrorjldv1# prvwudqgr# dr# eudvlohlur# txh# kÁ# rsÇÕhv# dr# Ilfr#ihol}#hp#hvwdu#frphprudqgr#4#dqlqkr#gh#yl0 vriwzduh# sursulhwÁulr# h# txh# hodv# qÃr# vÃr# qh0 gd#gd#uhylvwd1# qkxp#srxfr#dpdgrudv1 Mrkq#Dqghuvrq#V1#grv#Vdqwrv#0#VÃr#Sdxor2VS Jxvwdyr#Uh}hqgh#VÁ#0#DudÇxdÍ2PJ Xpd#gdv#phokruhv#uhylvwdv#txh#wlyh#d#rsruwxqlgd0 gh# gh#ohu1#³wlpr#dfdedphqwr/#frqwh{wr# h{fhohq0 wh/# ghvhqyroylphqwr# grv# wh{wrv# dpsor# h# gh# iÁflo# ohlwxud1# Vhp# vrpeud# gh# gÚylgdv# É# xpd# gdv# gh}# phokruhv# uhylvwdv# gr# Eudvlo# rx# DpÉulfd# Odwlqd1# Hod#idvflqd/#dsdl{rqd#r#ohlwru1 Hyhudogr#Vdqwrv#gh#Rolyhlud#0#Vdoydgru2ED Dgruhl# d# uhylvwd/# Ówlpdv# pdwÉuldv# h# Ówlprv# lqwh0 judqwhv1# ©# gliÍflo# dfkdu# xpd# uhylvwd# dwÉ# phvpr# sdjd# frp# xp# frqwhÚgr# wÃr# frpsohwr1# Sdud0 eÉqv/#frqwlqxhp#dvvlp1 Comentários, sugestões e contribuições: Ohdqgur#Urguljxhv#Jdplwr#0#Jxduxokrv2VS revista@espiritolivre.org Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 44
  • 12. SURPR§µHV#—#UHOD§£R#GH#JDQKDGRUHV#H#QRYDV#SURPR§µHV #SURPR§µHV Qd#hglÇÃr#&346#gd#Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh#wlyhprv#glyhuvdv#surprÇÕhv#dwudyÉv#gh#qrvvr#vlwh#h#fdqdlv# gh#uhodflrqdphqwr#frp#rv#ohlwruhv/#hqwuh#hohv#d#SurprÇÃr#UhoÂpsdjr#gr#L#Frqjuhvvr#gh#Vriwzduh# Olyuh#qr#Djuhvwh#Shuqdpexfdqr/#txh#dfrqwhfhx#hp#Ehor#Mduglp2SH1#Txhp#hvwdyd#dwhqwr#frqvhjxlx# sduwlflsdu#gr#vruwhlr/#hqwÃr#vh#yrfÊ#qÃr#irl#xp#grv#frqwhpsodgrv/#qÃr#ghvdqlph1#Txhp#vdeh#qd# suÓ{lpd#hglÇÃr#vhx#qrph#qÃr#dsduhfh#orjr#dedl{rB$# Pdlv#fkdqfhv#hvwÃr#d#fdplqkr111 Dedl{r/#vhjxh#d#olvwd#gh#jdqkdgruhv#gh#fdgd#xpd#gdv#surprÇÕhv1 Jdqkdgruhv#gd#SurprÇÃr#YluwxdoOlqn= 41#Fduorv#Doehuwr#Ylhlud#Wdyduhv#MÚqlru#0#Vrurfded2VS 51#Ohrqdugr#Zlowrq#Ihuuhlud#0#Dsduhflgd#gh#JrlÂqld2JR 61#Dqghuvrq#Hx}helr#gh#Vrx}d#0#Ulr#gh#Mdqhlur2UM 71#Lydq#Eudvlo#Ix}}hu#0#Huhfklp2UV 81#Udlovrq#UdpÉv#Vrxvd#0#FhloÂqgld2GI Jdqkdgruhv#gd#SurprÇÃr#L#Frqjuhvvr#VO#qr#Djuhvwh#Shuqdpexfdqr= 41#Plfkho#Pduwlqv#Ydowxlooh#0#JrlÂqld2JR 51#Khugloh|#Doyhv#Frhokr#0#XuxÇxÍ2SL 61#MrvÉ#Hlowrq#grv#Vdqwrv#Frvwd#0#Hvfdgd2SH Jdqkdgruhv#gd#surprÇÃr#WuhlqdOlqx{= Jdqkdgruhv#gd#surprÇÃr#Foxeh#gr#Kdfnhu= 41#Khohqd#Ydqhvvd#gh#Rolyhlud#Shuhlud#0#JrlÂqld2JR 41#FÍfhur#Slqkr#Urfkd#0#Fdprflp2FH 51#Mxoldqr#D}hyhgr#grv#Vdqwrv#0#Qd}duÉ2ED 51#FÁvvlr#Doehuwr#Vdqwrv#Edswlvwxvvl#0#Jxuxsl2WR 61#Sdeor#Urguljr#Rolyhlud#Vdqwrv#0#PdfdsÁ2DS D#WuhlqdOlqx{#hp#sdufhuld#frp#d#Uhylvwd# HvsÍulwr#Olyuh#hvwduÁ#vruwhdqgr#nlwv#gh# GYGv#hqwuh#rv#ohlwruhv1#Edvwd#vh# lqvfuhyhu#qhvwh#olqn#h#frphÇdu#d#wrufhu$ D#surprÇÃr#frqwlqxd$#D#YluwxdoOlqn#hp#sdufhuld# frp#d#Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh#hvwduÁ#vruwhdqgr#nlwv# gh#fgv#h#gygv#hqwuh#rv#ohlwruhv1#Edvwd#vh#lqvfuhyhu# qhvwh#olqn#h#frphÇdu#d#wrufhu$ QÃr#jdqkrxB#YrfÊ#dlqgd#whp#fkdqfh$#R# Foxeh#gr#Kdfnhu#hp#sdufhuld#frp#d#Uhylvwd# HvsÍulwr#Olyuh#vruwhduÁ#dvvrfldÇÕhv#sdud#r# foxeh1#Lqvfuhyd0vh#qr#olqn#h#fux}h#rv#ghgrv$ Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 45
  • 13. FROXQD#—#DOH[DQGUH#ROLYD S5Sodqr#E Sru#Doh{dqguh#Rolyd kx {f1 #0#v ihu rs h#W Ry R# frpsduwlokdphqwr# sdu# d# sdu# +S5S,# gh# reudv# fxowxudlv# É# qdwxudo# gr# vhu# kxpdqr1# Hper0 ud# pxlwrv# whqkdp# uhfruulgr# d# prghorv# folhq0 wh2vhuylgru# sdud# jdqkdu# dfhvvr# d# reudv# dwudyÉv# gh# eleolrwhfdv/# dv# suÁwlfdv# gh# hpsuÉvwlpr/# grd0 ÇÃr/#hvfdper#h#yhqgd#gh#reudv#gluhwdphqwh#hq0 wuh#sduhv#É#dlqgd#pdlv#dqwljd#txh#d#hvfulwd1# Qrv#Úowlprv#grv#633#dqrv#hp#txh#wÊp#yljl0 gr#h{foxvlylgdghv#gh#fÓsld#h#sulyloÉjlrv#dxwrudlv/# mxvwdphqwh# txdqgr# vh# wruqrx# dfhvvÍyho# d# whfqr0 orjld# txh# shuplwh# hvvdv# suÁwlfdv# À# glvwÂqfld/# wr0 prx# frusr# d# jxhuud# dr# frpsduwlokdphqwr1# R# h{Éuflwr# lqydvru# frqwd# frp# wursdv# gh# dgyrjd0 grv/#orelvwdv#h#ohjlvodgruhv#sdud#lpsohphqwdu#vx0 dv# hvwudwÉjldv# gh# hurvÃr# gh# gluhlwrv# h# gh# fulplqdol}dÇÃr# gh# dwrv# frwlgldqrv1# D# suhvxqÇÃr# gh#lqrfÊqfld#h#d#hvwhjdqrjudild#srghp#vhu#ghih0 vdv#ydolrvdv#sdud#d#kxpdqlgdgh1 IxqgdphqwdÇÃr#ohjdo Gluhlwr#dxwrudo#É#xpd#frqfhvvÃr/#shod#vrfl0 hgdgh# dr# dxwru# gh# xpd# reud/# gh# h{foxvlylgdghv# whpsruÁuldv# gh# fÓsld/# prglilfdÇÃr/# glvwulexlÇÃr/# sxeolfdÇÃr/#wudqvplvvÃr#h#h{hfxÇÃr#hp#sÚeolfr1# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 46
  • 14. FROXQD#—#DOH[DQGUH#ROLYD ©# xp# lqfhqwlyr# sdud# txh# pdlv# reudv# yhqkdp# d# gr#rx#sursrqgr#dwudyÉv#gr#lqwhuqdflrqdo#WULSV/# vhu#sxeolfdgdv#h#srvvdp#lqwhjudu#r#grpÍqlr#sÚeol0 gr# GPFD# hvwdgxqlghqvh/# gd# KDGRSL# iudqfhvd/# fr/#dlqgd#txh#vrphqwh#dsÓv#r#shuÍrgr#gh#vdfuliÍ0 gd#Gljlwdo#Hfrqrp|#Eloo#eulwÂqlfd/#gr#DL813#eudvl0 flr#gd#vrflhgdgh1 ohlur#h#gr#whpÍyho#DFWD1# DwÉ#srxfr#whpsr#dwuÁv/#qÃr#hud#pdwÉuld#gh# gluhlwr#fulplqdo/#pdv#gh#gluhlwr#flylo=#fdeh#dr#frq0 Whohwudqvsruwh#gh#Reudv#Fxowxudlv fhvvlrqÁulr# gr# gluhlwr# dxwrudo#vreuh#d#reud#dfl0 Hqwuhjdu# xp# olyur# rqdu# txhp# d# whqkd# vx0 d# xp# dpljr# shvvrdo0 srvwdphqwh# xwlol}dgr# phqwh#É#wÃr#oÍflwr#txdq0 vhp# dxwrul}dÇÃr/# sdud# #####R#frpsduwlokdphqwr# wr# hqylÁ0or# shor# fruuhlr# frqyhqflrqdo# rx# dwud0 ghwhuplqdu# vh# krxyh# gh# idwr# xvr# loÍflwr# h# vh# fd0 sdu#d#sdu#+S5S,#gh#reudv# yÉv# gh# ixwxudv# whfqror0 ehp#rxwudv#ghpdqgdv1 jldv# gh# whohwudqvsruwh1# fxowxudlv#É#qdwxudo#gr#vhu# Sru#pdlv#txh#r#surfhv0 Hp# jhudo/# hp# sur0 vr#gh#whohwudqvsruwh#vh0 fhvvr# fÍyho/# qÃr# kÁ# fxo0 kxpdqr1#Hperud#pxlwrv# md# htxlydohqwh# d# id}hu# sdgrv# qhp# lqrfhqwhv/# xpd# fÓsld# h# ghvwuxlu# r# sruwdqwr# qÃr# kÁ# suhvxq0 whqkdp#uhfruulgr#d# ruljlqdo/# txdotxhu# iÃ# gh# ÇÃr# gh# lqrfÊqfld=# kÁ# gl0 ihuhqÇdv# d# vhuhp# prghorv#folhqwh2vhuylgru# %Mruqdgd# qdv# Hvwuhodv%# vh# rihqghuld# dqwh# d# vx0 uhvroylgdv# hqwuh# sduwhv/# ghfruuhqwhv# rx# qÃr# gh# sdud#jdqkdu#dfhvvr#d# jhvwÃr# gh# txh# r# Fdsl0 wÃr# Nlun# txh# vh# dwrv# loÍflwrv1# Fulplqdol}d0 grv# dojxqv# wlsrv# gh# ylr0 reudv#dwudyÉv#gh# uhpdwhuldol}rx# qd# vdod# gh# wudqvsruwh# qÃr# irv0 odÇÃr# gh# gluhlwr# dxwrudo/# eleolrwhfdv/#dv#suÁwlfdv#gh# vh# d# phvpd# shvvrd# vh# surydgd# dojxpd# wdo# txh# shglx# dr# Vu# Vfrww# ylrodÇÃr# hp# surfhvvr# hpsuÉvwlpr/#grdÇÃr/# txh#r#wurx{hvvh#gh#yro0 fÍyho/# hvwÁ# fdudfwhul}d0 wd#d#erugr1 gr# r# fulph/# hihwlydphq0 hvfdper#h#yhqgd#gh#reudv# wh# holplqdqgr# d# Pdlv# devxugr# vh0 suhvxqÇÃr# gh# lqrfÊqfld# gluhwdphqwh#hqwuh#sduhv#É# uld#vxjhulu#txh/#vh#wurx0 hp# hyhqwxdo# surfhvvr# {hvvhp# xp# olyur# d# shqdo# vxevhtxhqwh/# dlq0 dlqgd#pdlv#dqwljd#txh#d# erugr/# srghuldp# vhu# surfhvvdgrv# srutxh# r# gd# txh# vhmd# qhfhvvÁuld# frpsurydÇÃr# gh# gror# hvfulwd1 wudqvsruwdgru# ih}# xpd# sdud# txh# r# fulph# vhmd# fÓsld# qÃr# dxwrul}dgd# Doh{dqguh#Rolyd sxqÍyho1 shorv# wlwxoduhv# gr# gluhl0 wr#dxwrudo#gr#olyur1#Gluhl0 Ilfd# dvvlp# hylghq0 wr# dxwrudo# qÃr# uhjxod# r# wh#d#lpsruwÂqfld#gh#vh#dsolfdu#d#suhvxqÇÃr#gh#lqr0 wudqvsruwh#gh#reudv1# fÊqfld# d# vxvshlwrv# gh# loÍflwrv# txh# fdudfwhul}hp# wlsrv#shqdlv/#phvpr#dqwhv#gd#lqvwdxudÇÃr#gh#sur0 Dlqgd#hvwdprv#orqjh#gh#whfqrorjld#sdud#wh0 fhvvrv# shqdlv1# Pdlv# dlqgd# frqvlghudqgr0vh# d# ohwudqvsruwdu# shvvrdv/# pdv# sdud# lpsuhvvrv/# wh0 surjuhvvlyd# fulplqdol}dÇÃr# h# uhsuhvvÃr# gh# dwrv# prv# r# idfvÍploh># sdud# reudv# hp# irupdwr# gljlwdo/# fxowxudlv# fruultxhlurv# txh# vh# yÊp# lpsohphqwdq0 frpsxwdgruhv#h#d#Lqwhuqhw1##Hqyldu#xpd#lpdjhp# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 47
  • 15. FROXQD#—#DOH[DQGUH#ROLYD gh#id{#rx#xp#dutxlyr#sdud#rxwur#orfdo/#surylghqfl0 phqwh#vhuld#ghihqvÁyho/#sruÉp#qÃr#kÁ#ud}Ãr#sd0 dqgr# d# ghvpdwhuldol}dÇÃr# gr# ruljlqdo/# qÃr# fuld# ud#ylrodu#r#sulqfÍslr#gd#suhvxqÇÃr#gh#lqrfÊqfld#h# xpd#qryd#fÓsld=#É#whohwudqvsruwh$# vxsru# txh# r# uhphwhqwh# hvwhmd# djlqgr# gh# irupd# Pdv#h#vh#r#wudqvsruwh#gÁ#huurB#%D#Prvfd%/# fulplqrvd1#Gh#idwr/#fdgd#yh}#pdlv#wlwxoduhv#gh#gl0 gh#Gdylg#Furqhqehuj/#uhwudwd#r#shvdghor#gh#glv0 uhlwr# dxwrudo# shuplwhp# d# olyuh# glvwulexlÇÃr# gh# vx0 wruÇÕhv# qr# whohwudqvsruwh># qd# vÉulh# %Hqwhusulvh%/# dv# reudv/# h# dv# glvwulexhp# hp# uhghv# S5S/# srlv# kdyld# r# uhfhlr# gh# qÃr# fkhjdu# dr# rxwur# odgr># %R# shufhehp# rv# pxlwrv# ehqhiÍflrv# txh# glvvr# uhvxo0 Vh{wr#Gld%/#gh#Urjhu#Vsrwwlvzrrgh/#wud}#xp#pÉ0 wdp1# wrgr# gh# uhfrqvwlwxlÇÃr# gh# lqglyÍgxrv# d# sduwlu# gh# R# glvwulexlgru# srgh/# gh# idwr/# whu# djlgr# gh# fÓsldv# gh# uhvhuyd# txh/# irupd# loÍflwd/# h# srgh# ylu# d# hperud# qÃr# sursuldphqwh# vhu# surfhvvdgr# h# frqgh0 whohwudqvsruwh/# srvvlelolwd# qdgr#shodv#fÓsldv#qÃr#dx0 forqdjhqv#pÚowlsodv1 wrul}dgdv# txh# ih}# h# Xp#dutxlyr#gljlwdo#wh0 #####111fdgd#yh}#pdlv# lqgx}lx1# Txdqwr# drv# gh0 ohwudqvsruwdgr# srghuld# pdlv# sduwlflsdqwhv# gd# uh0 qÃr# fkhjdu# dr# ghvwlqr/# wlwxoduhv#gh#gluhlwr#dxwrudo# gh/# txh# suhvxpludp# dv# fÓsldv# h# glvwulexlÇÕhv# fr0 pdv# qÃr# kÁ# ud}Ãr# sdud# shugÊ0or=# srgh0vh# djxdu0 shuplwhp#d#olyuh# pr# lqrfhqwhv/# glilflophq0 wh# srghuldp# vhu# gdu#d#frqilupdÇÃr#gh#fkh0 glvwulexlÇÃr#gh#vxdv# frqghqdgrv# fulplqdophq0 jdgd# sdud# wh1#Dlqgd#txh#srvvdp#shu0 ghvpdwhuldol}du# r# ruljlqdo1# reudv/#h#dv#glvwulexhp# ghu# dv# fÓsldv# mxojdgdv# Xpd# pÁtxlqd# gh# ID[# dq0 wl0fÓsld# qÃr# suhflvduld# hp#uhghv#S5S/#srlv# loÍflwdv/# irudp# hqjdqdgrv/# lqgx}lgrv#d#fuhu#txh#d#fÓ0 ghvwuxlu# dv# sÁjlqdv# txh# vfdqhrx# dqwhv# gh# frqilu0 shufhehp#rv#pxlwrv# sld# hud# shuplwlgd1# Qd# dx0 pdu# txh# r# whohwudqvsruwh# vÊqfld# gh# gror/# qÃr# vÃr# irl# frpsohwdgr# frp# vx0 ehqhilflrv#txh#glvvr# sxqÍyhlv1# R# suÓsulr# glvwul0 exlgru#srgh#whu#vlgr#hqjd0 fhvvr1 uhvxowdp111 qdgr/# vh# krxyhu# uhfhelgr# Pdv#h#vh#r#ghvpdwh0 d# fÓsld# gd# reud# dwudyÉv# uldol}dgru# qÃr# ixqflrqdu/# Doh{dqguh#Rolyd gh#rxwud#uhgh#S5S/#gh#rx0 txhp# srghuÁ# vhu# surfhv0 wur# glvwulexlgru# suhvxplgr# vdgr# h# frqghqdgr# shod# lqrfhqwh1 fÓsld#qÃr#dxwrul}dgdB#Fhuwdphqwh#qÃr#r#ghvwlqd0 wÁulr/#srlv#qÃr#whp#vhtxhu#frpr#vdehu#txh#r#uh0 phwhqwh# qÃr# frpsohwrx# r# surfhvvr=# ghyh# S5SxeolfdÇÃr#Ghihqvlyd suhvxplu#vxd#lqrfÊqfld/#vxsrqgr#txh#hoh#djlx#h# Frpr# gluhlwrv# kxpdqrv# uhodwlyrv# À# fxowxud/# djluÁ#ghqwur#gd#ohl#txh/#sru#pdlv#uhvwulwlyd#h#lqmxv0 olehugdgh# gh# h{suhvvÃr# h# dwÉ# d# suhvxqÇÃr# gh# wd#txh#É/#qÃr#lpshgh#r#wudqvsruwh1 lqrfÊqfld#yÊp#vhqgr#hurglgrv#shodv#ohlv#h#wudwd0 grv# mÁ# flwdgrv/# fhuwdphqwh# kÁ# jhqwh# shqvdqgr# S5SuhvxqÇÃr#gh#LqrfÊqfld hp#olqkdv#gh#ghihvd#dglflrqdlv1 Rewhu# reud# fxowxudo# dwudyÉv# gh# uhgh# S5S# É# WÉfqlfdv# gh# hvwhjdqrjudild# shuplwhp# hv0 xp# fhqÁulr# pdlv# frpsolfdgr1# Vxsru# txh# txhp# frqghu# xpd# phqvdjhp# qrxwud# gh# pdqhlud# txh# hqyld#hvwhmd#vrphqwh#wudqvsruwdqgr#d#reud#glilflo0 qÃr# vh# srvvd# vhtxhu# shufhehu# d# h{lvwÊqfld# gh# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 48
  • 16. FROXQD#—#DOH[DQGUH#ROLYD sdud# hvfdsdu# gd# ohl/# dwlylvwdv# gh# gluhlwrv# kxpd0 qrv# srghp# xwlol}Á0odv# sdud# vh# frpxqlfdu# vhp# #####111xp#phvpr#dwr# fkdpdu# dwhqÇÃr# grv# jryhuqrv# wludqrv# txh# frp0 edwhp1##Gh#idwr/#xp#phvpr#dwr#srgh#vhu##frqvl0 srgh#vhu#frqvlghudgr#sru# ghudgr# sru# dojxqv# frpr# ghihvd# gh# fdxvdv# qreuhv/# frpr# dv# olehugdghv# gh# h{suhvvÃr# h# gh# dojxqv#frpr#ghihvd#gh# lpsuhqvd/# h# sru# rxwurv# frpr# whuurulvpr# rx# urx0 er#lqwhohfwxdo1 fdxvdv#qreuhv/#frpr#d# Sdud# ehqhiÍflr# gh# dwlylvwdv# gh# gluhlwrv# kx0 olehugdgh#gh#h{suhvvÃr#h# pdqrv/#phokru#txh#whuhp#ihuudphqwdv#vxvshlwdv# sdud#ghfliudu#h#h{wudlu#phqvdjhqv#hvwhjdqrjuÁil0 gh#lpsuhqvd/#h#sru#rxwurv# fdv#vhuld#txh#ihuudphqwdv#frpxqv#gh#dsuhvhqwd0 ÇÃr# gh# lpdjhqv# h# dxglrylvxdlv# gh# odujd# frpr#whuurulvpr#rx#urxer# xwlol}dÇÃr# lqfoxÍvvhp# phfdqlvprv# sdud# ghfliudu# h# dsuhvhqwdu# phqvdjhqv# hvwhjdqrjuÁilfdv/# dv0 lqwhohfwxdo1# vlp#frpr#sdud#fliuÁ0odv#h#frpelqÁ0odv1 Glilflophqwh# hvvd# wÉfqlfd# vhuld# xvdgd# sdud# Doh{dqguh#Rolyd glvwulexlÇÃr# qÃr# dxwrul}dgd# gh# reudv# fxowxudlv/# srlv#qÃr#É#pxlwr#lqhilflhqwh#hp#whuprv#gh#hvsd0 xpd# phqvdjhp# hvfrqglgd# vhp# frqkhfhu# r# vh0 Çr# h# h{ljluld# xpd# uhgh# vhsdudgd# sdud# exvfd# h# juhgr#sdud#hqfrqwuÁ0od1#Srgh#vhu#xvdgd#sdud#lq0 glvwulexlÇÃr# gh# fkdyhv1# Sru# rxwur# odgr/# rihuhfh0 wurgx}lu# pdufdv# g*Ájxd# rx# dvvlqdwxudv# gljlwdlv# uld# xp# fdqdo# sdud# frpedwh# À# fhqvxud# h# d# wludql0 hp#lpdjhqv#rx#dxglrylvxdlv/#dwudyÉv#gh#uxÍgr#lp0 dv# txh# qÃr# uhvshlwdp# gluhlwrv# kxpdqrv/# h# shufhswÍyho#sdud#txhp#rv#revhuyh/#pdv#uhfxshuÁ0 prvwuduld# r# wdpdqkr# gd# ljqruÂqfld# whfqroÓjlfd# yho#rx#yhulilfÁyho#vdehqgr#rqgh#exvfdu1 gh# txhp# sursÕh# ohlv# txh# fulplqdol}dp# srvvh# gh# LqÚphurv# vÍwlrv# h# uhghv# S5S# h{lvwhp# krmh/# lqirupdÇÃr# h# uhvsrqvdelol}dp# suryhgruhv# sru# drv#txdlv#vh#srghp#vxelu#ilophv/#lpdjhqv#rx#du0 pdwhuldo# txh# qhp# vhtxhu# vdehp# txh# krvshgdp# txlyrv#sdud#glvsrqlelol}dÇÃr#sdud#whufhlurv1#Txdo0 h#sru#srghuhp#vhu#xvdgrv#sdud#glixqgl0or#gh#iru0 txhu# xp# ghvvhv# dutxlyrv# srgh# sduhfhu# pd#lqghvhmÁyho#Àv#iruÇdv#grplqdqwhv1 devroxwdphqwh# lqrfhqwh=# fÓsldv# gljlwdol}dgdv# gh# olyurv#vdjudgrv/#reudv#hp#grpÍqlr#sÚeolfr/#suÓsul0 Frs|uljkw#5343#Doh{dqguh#Rolyd dv#rx#olfhqfldgdv#gh#whufhlurv#frp#shuplvvÃr#sd0 ud# olyuh# glvwulexlÇÃr># pdv# srghp# fduuhjdu/# sdud# FÓsld#olwhudo/#glvwulexlÇÃr#h#sxeolfdÇÃr#gd#Íqwhjud#ghvwh#duwljr# txhp# frqkhÇd# d# fkdyh/# gdgrv/# wh{wr/# lpdjhqv# vÃr#shuplwlgdv#hp#txdotxhu#phlr/#hp#wrgr#r#pxqgr/#ghvgh#txh# rx#dwÉ#phvpr#rxwurv#ilophv1#Dvvlp#frpr#r#vÍwlr# vhmdp#suhvhuydgdv#d#qrwd#gh#frs|uljkw/#d#XUO#rilfldo#gr#grfx0 txh# krvshgd# d# reud/# txdotxhu# shvvrd# txh# yh0 phqwr#h#hvwd#qrwd#gh#shuplvvÃr1 qkd#d#rewhu#xpd#fÓsld#srgh#qhjdu#vhtxhu#whu#fr0 kwws=22zzz1iviod1ruj2vyqzlnl2eorjv2o{r2sxe2s5sodqr0e qkhflphqwr# gh# txh# kÁ# lqirupdÇÃr# hvwhjdqrjudidgd1# D# suÓsuld# shvvrd# txh# vxelx# r# DOH[DQGUH#ROLYD##É#frqvhokhlur#gd# dutxlyr#srgh#dohjdu#ljqruÂqfld/#r#txh#glilflophq0 IxqgdÇÃr#Vriwzduh#Olyuh#DpÉulfd#Odwlqd/# pdqwhqhgru#gr#Olqx{0oleuh/#hydqjhol}dgru# wh#srghuld#id}hu#vh#sxeolfdvvh#xp#dutxlyr#fulswr0 gr#Prylphqwr#Vriwzduh#Olyuh#h#hqjhqkhlur# judidgr1 gh#frpslodgruhv#qd#Uhg#Kdw#Eudvlo1# Judgxdgr#qd#Xqlfdps#hp#Hqjhqkduld#gh# Dvvlp# frpr# whuurulvwdv# h# glvwulexlgruhv# gh# FrpsxwdÇÃr#h#Phvwudgr#hp#FlÊqfldv#gd# FrpsxwdÇÃr1 sruqrjudild#lqidqwlo#srghp#xwlol}du#hvvdv#wÉfqlfdv# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 49
  • 17. FROXQD#—#F¡UOLVVRQ#JDOGLQR Sru##Fduolvvrq#Jdoglqr MÁ#É#r#vhjxqgr#gld#qd#srxvdgd1#Sdqgrud/#fdqvd0 gd/# gruph# hqtxdqwr# Gduuhoo/# hqfrvwdgr# qd# sduh0 gh/#dvvlvwh#À#whohylvÃr1 Dsuhvhqwdgru=#Hqtxdqwr#lvvr#d#Elwpdqfhu#suhsd0 ud#pdlv#xp#judqgh#mrjr#gh#dofdqfh#pxqgldo1 Uhsuhvhqwdqwh=#QÓv#txhuÍdprv#id}hu#xp#mrjr#gh# HslvÓglr#3; wlur#hp#sulphlud#shvvrd#txh#qÃr#fdÍvvh#qd#phvpl0 fh# grv# mrjrv# txh# h{lvwhp# dwxdophqwh# qr# phufd0 WhohylvÃr gr1#Qr#Zruog#Zdu#LY/#rv#mrjdgruhv#whuÃr#r#sud}hu# gh# frpedwhuhp# hp# xp# pxqgr# sÓv0dsrfdoÍswlfr/# frp# srxtxÍvvlpdv# dupdv# frqyhqflrqdlv/# rqgh# frqwd#pdlv#d#hvwudwÉjld#gh#vreuhylyÊqfld1 Hqwuhylvwdgru=# HqwÃr# qÃr# kÁ# dupdv# gh# irjr# rx# whfqrorjld111 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 4:
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  • 20. FROXQD#—#FH]DU#WDXULRQ fdphqwh# sru# olvwdv# gh# glvfxv0 erdug#dxwrul}d#d#fuldÇÃr#gh#sur0 Rv# phpeurv# %gh# holwh%# vÃr/#zlnlv#h#h0pdlo1#R#surfhvvr# mhwrv/# pdv# qÃr# rv# lqlfld1# Hvwhv# hohjhp# r# frplwÊ# jhvwru1# Hvwhv# gh#uhvroxÇÃr#gh#frqiolwrv#dgrwd0 vÃr# frqfhelgrv# shorv# suÓsulrv# phpeurv# gh# holwh# vÃr# frqylgd0 gr# É# r# gh# yrwdÇÃr/# frp# txr0 ghvhqyroyhgruhv1#R#erdug#wdp0 grv# shod# rujdql}dÇÃr# frp# ed0 uxp# pÍqlpr# gh# yrwrv1# ©# eÉp# qÃr# lpshgh# d# fuldÇÃr# gh# vh# qdv# vxdv# froderudÇÕhv1# Dv# dgrwdgr# wdpeÉp# r# sulqfÍslr# gd# surmhwrv# txh# frpslwdp# xp# lqglfdÇÕhv# ghyhp# vhu# dfhlwdv# phulwrfudfld/# sdud# lqfhqwlydu# h# frp#rx#rxwur/#rx#txh#vh#ryhuod0 shod#pdlruld/#hp#yrwdÇÃr/#h#sr0 prwlydu# d# frpxqlgdgh# hqjdmd0 sdp# hp# dojxp# srqwr/# ghvgh# ghp# vhu# uhyrjdgdv/# hp# fdvrv# gd1# Rv# ghvhqyroyhgruhv# vÃr# txh# fxpsudp# rv# jxlgholqhv# gd# hvshfldlv1# Xpd# sdufhod# vljqlil0 suhpldgrv# frp# qÍyhlv# ylvÍyhlv# DVI1# Qd# suÁwlfd# r# surfhvvr# fdwlyd# grv# phpeurv# gh# holwh# gh# vhqlrulgdgh# h# uhvshlwr# ghq0 gduzlqldqr# É# txh# duelwud# txdlv# yhp#gd#frpxqlgdgh#hpsuhvdul0 wur# gd# frpxqlgdgh# Dsdfkh/# surmhwrv# yÃr# vh# wruqdu# ehp# vx0 do/# gh# hpsuhvdv# frpr# LEP/# frp# edvh# qdv# vxdv# froderud0 fhglgrv1# Vxq# h# Uhg# Kdw1# Hvwdv# frpxql0 ÇÕhv1# H{lvwhp# wdpeÉp# frplwÊv# gdghv# gh# holwh# vÃr# frqvwlwxÍgdv# D#DVI# wdpeÉp# djh# frpr# irfdgrv# qd# rujdql}dÇÃr# gh# edvlfdphqwh#sru#ghvhqyroyhgr0 xp# sruwd0yr}# gd# frpxqlgdgh/# hyhqwrv# h# frqihuhqfldv/# h# pdlv# uhv# h# whp# dfhvvr# h# dxwrul}d0 sulqflsdophqwh# qr# hvwdehohfl0 uhfhqwhphqwh# frp# lqfxedÇÃr# ÇÃr# sdud# dsurydu# h# id}hu# phqwr# gh# dfrugrv# frp# sdufhl0 gh#dwlylgdghv#fruuhodwdv#dr#Dsd0 prglilfdÇÕhv#qr#fÓgljr#gr#Dsd0 urv# frphufldlv1# D# DVI# whp# xp# fkh1#D# sulphlud# frqihuÊqfld# sd0 fkh1# Lpsruwdqwh# iulvdu# txh# dsh0 erdug# rx# frplwÊ# jhvwru# gh# qr0 ud# xvxÁulrv# h# ghvhqyroyhgruhv# qdv# phpeurv# lqglylgxdlv# vÃr# yh# gluhwruhv1# Rv# gluhwruhv/# Dsdfkh# irl# d# DsdfkhFrq# gh# dfhlwrv# qr# Dsdfkh1# Dv# frpsd0 doÉp# gh# vxdv# wduhidv# dgplqlv0 4<<;1# Rv# hyhqwrv# DsdfkhFrp# qkldv/# sruwdqwr/# ghyhp# vhu# uh0 wudwlydv/# frrughqdp# frplwÊv# gh# srghp# vhu# ylvwrv# hp# suhvhqwdgdv#sru#lqglyÍgxrv1 jhuhqfldphqwr# gh# surmhwrv1# R# kwws=22zzz1dsdfkhfrq1frp1 Wrgd# h# txdotxhu# prglilfd0 ÇÃr# qr# fÓgljr# ghyh# sdvvdu# sru# xp# surfhvvr# gh# yrwdÇÃr1# Qlq0 jxÉp# srgh# id}hu# dowhudÇÕhv# qr# vriwzduh#vhp#dsurydÇÃr#gd#fr0 ###########R#surfhvvr# pxqlgdgh1# Xp# Úqlfr# phpeur# srgh# lpshglu# xpd# prglilfd0 phulwrfuÁwlfr#dgrwdgr#shod# ÇÃr/#ghvgh#txh#whqkd#dujxphq0 wrv# vÓolgrv# txh# frpsuryhp# frpxqlgdgh#Dsdfkh#É#ehp# vxd#dwlwxgh1 glihuhqwh#grv#surfhvvrv#gh#ghflvÃr# R# surfhvvr# phulwrfuÁwlfr# dgrwdgr# shod# frpxqlgdgh#Dsd0 gh#hpsuhvdv#frphufldlv/#pxlwr# fkh# É# ehp# glihuhqwh# grv# sur0 fhvvrv# gh# ghflvÃr# gh# lqioxhqfldgdv#sru#ghflvÕhv# hpsuhvdv# frphufldlv/# pxlwr# lq0 ioxhqfldgdv# sru# ghflvÕhv# fr0 frphufldlv#h#sru#hvwudwÉjldv#gh# phufldlv# h# sru# hvwudwÉjldv# gh# pdunhwlqj1# R# uhvxowdgr# whp# vl0 pdunhwlqj1 gr#xp#vriwzduh#gh#dowd#txdolgd0 gh/# frpsduÁyho# drv# phokruhv# Fh}du#Wdxulrq vriwzduhv# frphufldlv1# Xpd# fd0 udfwhuÍvwlfd# lqwhuhvvdqwh# revhu0 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 53
  • 21. FROXQD#—#FH]DU#WDXULRQ ydgd# qd# frpxqlgdgh# Dsdfkh# É# frqvlghudgr# xp# vriwzduh# grv#gr#Dsdfkh#wdpeÉp#qÃr#jh0 +h# hp# glyhuvdv# rxwudv# frpxql0 txh# frpsohphqwd# vroxÇÕhv# udp#yduldqwhv1 gdghv# gh# Rshq# Vrxufh,# É# txh# gdv#hpsuhvdv1#QÃr#vhuld#mxvwlil0 D#dutxlwhwxud#gr#Dsdfkh#É# frpr# qÃr# kÁ# frpshwlÇÃr# sru# fÁyho# hfrqrplfdphqwh# sdud# prgxodul}dgd/# frp# fodud# vhsd0 xp# uhfxuvr# hvfdvvr/# txh# É# r# xpd# rujdql}dÇÃr# dvvxplu# wrgr# udÇÃr# gdv# ixqÇÕhv# eÁvlfdv# gr# srghu/# rv# uhfÉp# fkhjdgrv# vÃr# r# wudedokr# gd# frpxqlgdgh# +gh0 vhuylgru# +vhx# nhuqho,# gdv# idflol0 ehp# uhfhelgrv# h# dsrldgrv# sh0 vhqyroylphqwr# h# pdqxwhqÇÃr,# gdghv#hvshfÍilfdv#h#fxvwrpl}Á0 orv# yhwhudqrv1# QÃr# ylvwrv# sru# hp#wurfd#gh#xp#surgxwr#h{foxvl0 yhlv/# hvfulwdv# hp# pÓgxorv# hvwhv# frpr# frpshwlgruhv/# txh# yr/# txh# qÃr# wuduld# ydqwdjhqv# lqghshqghqwhv/# txh# srghp# vhu# srghp# srwhqfldophqwh# urxedu0 frpshwlwlydv1#Krmh/#d#edvh#hvwl0 vhohwlydphqwh# vhohflrqdgdv# h# okhv#d#svrlÇÃr/#frpr#jhudophq0 pdgd# gh# vhuylgruhv# Dsdfkh# É# frpslodgdv# sdud# fdgd# frqiljx0 wh# hqfrqwudgr# hp# rujdql}d0 gh# pdlv# gh# 443# plokÕhv/# rx# udÇÃr1# R# qÚphur# gh# olqkdv# gh# ÇÕhv#klhudtxlfdv#wudglflrqdlv1 87(# gh# wrgrv# rv# vhuylgruhv# fÓgljr# ghvwh# pÓgxorv# É# pxlwdv# Rxwur# idwru# txh# lpsxovlr0 Zhe# lqvwdodgrv1# GÊhp# xpd# yh}hv# vxshulru# dr# gr# suÓsulr# qrx# r# Dsdfkh# É# d# prgdolgdgh# rokdgd# hp# kwws=22qhzv1qhw0 nhuqho1# R# Dsdfkh# É# dowdphqwh# gh# olfhqfldphqwr# dgrwdgd# shor# fudiw1frp2# 1# H# hp# frqvhtÜÊq0 frpsrqhqwl}dgr# h# rv# surmhwrv# surmhwr/# edvwdqwh# olehudo# h# ghul0 fld# ghvwd# judqgh# edvh# xvdp# frpsrqhqwhv# xqv# grv# ydgd#gd#olfhqÇd#EVG#gd#Xqlyhu0 lqvwdodgd/# rv# surmhwrv# ghulyd0 rxwurv#vhpsuh#txh#srvvÍyho1 vlgdgh# gh# Ehunhoh|1# Hvwd# prgdolgdgh# shuplwh# prglilfd0 ÇÃr# h# uhglvwulexlÇÃr# frphufldo# rx# sursulhwÁuld# gr# fÓgljr/# vhp# reuljdwrulhgdgh# gh# uhwruqdu# dv# ######Rxwur#idwru#txh# prglilfdÇÕhv# sdud# d# frpxqlgd0 gh#rx#sdjdu#shor#vhx#xvr1#Hvwd# lpsxovlrqd#r#Dsdfkh#É#d#prgdolgdgh# olfhqÇd# edvwdqwh# ioh{Íyho# É# xp# gh#olfhqfldphqwr#dgrwdgd#shor# grv# prwlyrv# txh# ohydp# r# Dsd0 fkh#d#whu#xp#hqyroylphqwr#edv0 surmhwr/#edvwdqwh#olehudo#h#ghulydgd#gd# wdqwh# lqwhqvr# frp# d# frpxqlgdgh# hpsuhvduldo1# R# olfhqÇd#EVG#gd#Xqlyhuvlgdgh#gh# Dsdfkh/# sru# h{hpsor/# É# sduwh# gh# vroxÇÕhv# frphufldlv# ihfkd0 Ehunhoh|1#Hvwd#prgdolgdgh#shuplwh# gdv# frpr# r# ZheVskhuh# gd# LEP1# prglilfdÇÃr#h#uhglvwulexlÇÃr# Dojxqv# dujxphqwdp# txh# frphufldo#rx#sursulhwÁuld#gr#fÓgljr/# hvwd#shuplvvlylgdgh#gh#olfhqfld0 phqwr# idflolwd# d# fuldÇÃr# gh# yhu0 vhp#reuljdwrulhgdgh#gh#uhwruqdu#dv# vÕhv# lqfrpsdwÍyhlv/# xpd# yh}# txh#glvsxwdv#frphufldlv#srghul0 prglilfdÇÕhv#sdud#d#frpxqlgdgh#rx# dp# id}hu# frp# txh# d# lqgÚvwuld# gh#vriwzduh#dgrwdvvh#gluhflrqd0 sdjdu#shor#vhx#xvr1 phqwrv#glihuhqwhv#hp#vxdv#yhu0 vÕhv# Dsdfkh1# Qd# suÁwlfd# lvwr# Fh}du#Wdxulrq qÃr# whp# dfrqwhflgr# shor# vlp0 sohv# idwr# txh# xp# vhuylgru# Zhe# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 54
  • 22. FROXQD#—#FH]DU#WDXULRQ D#dorfdÇÃr#gh#wduhidv#wdp0 pdlv#yrwdgd#sdvvd#d#vhu#r#fdpl0 Vrxufh#É#pxlwr#pdlv#txh#glvsr0 eÉp# É# edvwdqwh# olyuh1# Xpd# yh}# qkr#dgrwdgr1 qlelol}du#r#fÓgljr#irqwh#qd#Lqwhu0 lghqwlilfdgd#h#dsurydgd#xpd#gh0 Xpd# yh}# txh# r# fÓgljr# É# qhw1# H{ljh# xp# sodqhmdphqwr# h# whuplqdgd# dÇÃr/# exvfd0vh# xp# hvfulwr# h# whvwdgr/# hoh# É# frorfd0 xpd# hvwudwÉjld# txh# ydl# id}hu# d# yroxqwÁulr# +rx# yroxqwÁulrv,# sdud# gr# qdv# olvwdv# gh# glvfxvvÃr# fr0 glihuhqÇd# hqwuh# xp# surmhwr# gh# hvfuhyhu# r# fÓgljr1# H{lvwhp# do0 pr# xp# sdwfk# sdud# uhylvÃr# shod# vxfhvvr# h# xp# txh# vhuÁ# orjr# jxqv#%fruh#ghyhorshuv%/#txh#ful0 frpxqlgdgh1#Fdvr#vhmd#dsuryd0 dedqgrqdgr1# Hvwxgdu# h# frqkh0 dudp# sduwhv# lpsruwdqwhv# gr# gr/# hoh# hqwÃr# É# vxephwlgr# d# fhu# frpxqlgdghv# gh# vxfhvvr# fÓgljr#gr#Dsdfkh#h#whp#xpd#uh0 xp# grv# uhvsrqvÁyhlv# shod# pd0 frpr#d#Dsdfkh#Vriwzduh#Irxq0 vhuyd#lpsoÍflwd/#xpd#yh}#txh#gh0 qxwhqÇÃr#gr#uhsrvlwÓulr#gr#Dsd0 gdwlrq#É#xp#erp#lqÍflr#gh#fdpl0 wÉp# edvwdqwh# frqkhflphqwr# fkh/# sdud# lqfoxÍ0or# qr# irqwh# qkdgd1# vreuh# dtxhoh# shgdÇr# gh# fÓgl0 rilfldo1 jr1# Vh# d# pxgdqÇd# iru# hp# xp# Fdgd# qryd# yhuvÃr# whp# Sdud#pdlv#lqirupdÇÕhv= ghvwhv#pÓgxorv/#hohv#wÊp#d#sul0 pd}ld# gh# shjdu# d# wduhid1# Fdvr# xp# %uhohdvh# pdqdjhuv%/# xp# Vlwh#Rilfldo#Dsdfkh qÃr#txhludp#d#wduhid/#hvwd#É#uh0 grv# %fruh# ghyhorshuv%# txh# vh# kwws=22zzz1dsdfkh1ruj sdvvdgd#d#qryrv#ghvhqyroyhgr0 yroxqwduld#sdud#ghwhuplqdu#vh#r# uhv1# Qd# suÁwlfd/# rv# %fruh# vriwzduh# dwlqjlx# r# srqwr# gh# hv0 Vlwh#Rilfldo#Dsdfkhfrq ghyhorshuv%# vÃr# uhvsrqvÁyhlv# wdelolgdgh#qhfhvvÁuld#sdud#vhu#ol0 kwws=22zzz1dsdfkhfrq1frp shod# pdlruld# gdv# lqrydÇÕhv# h# ehudgr# frpr# surgxÇÃr1# Qhvwh# prglilfdÇÕhv# lpsruwdqwhv/# fd0 srqwr# hoh# É# frqjhodgr# h# dsh0 FH]DU#WDXULRQ#É# ehqgr# À# frpxqlgdgh# dv# wduh0 qdv# fruuhÇÕhv# vÃr# dfhlwdv1# Hv0 Jhuhqwh#gh#Qrydv# wd# wduhid# gh# jhuhqfldu# yhuvÕhv# Whfqrorjldv#gd#LEP# idv# gh# lghqwlilfdu# h# hqyldu# Eudvlo1# sdwfkhv# gh# fruuhÇÃr1# # Fdvr# É# ihlwd# gh# pdqhlud# urwdwlyd# hq0 Vhx#eorj#hvwÁ# h{lvwd# pdlv# gh# xpd# dowhuqdwlyd# wuh#rv#phpeurv#gh#pdlru#h{shul0 glvsrqÍyho#hp zzz1lep1frp2ghyhor sdud# fdgd# sureohpd/# hvwdv# vÃr# Êqfld#gr#surmhwr#Dsdfkh1 shuzrunv2eorjv2sdjh2 frorfdgdv# hp# glvfxvvÃr# h# d# fwdxulrq Fuldu# frpxqlgdghv# Rshq# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 55
  • 23. FROXQD#—#NUL[#DSROLQ¡ULR Xp#gld#fdopr#qd#ylgd# gh#xpd#V|vDgplq Sru#Nul{#DsrolqÁulr Pdulr#Doehuwr#Pdjdoodqhv#Wuhmr#0#v{f1kx :=33k# 0# Fkhjr# hp# plqkd# ihlud# dv# 4<=73k# h# r# vxsruwh# phvd# h# dr# deulu# plqkd# fdl{d# qÃr# whp# h{shglhqwh# qr# ilqdo# gh# gh# hpdlo# ph# ghsdur# frp# xp# vhpdqd1# Dgrur# txdqgr# lvvr# prqwh# gh# vrolflwdÇÕhv# ihlwdv# qr# dfrqwhfh/# r# sud}r# É# vhpsuh# ilqdo# gh# vhpdqd/# vlp# krmh# É# sdud#rqwhp1 vhjxqgd0ihlud1 :=48k# 0# Dfhvvr# r# Qdjlrv# Hqwuh# dv# vrolflwdÇÕhv# whp# h# yhulilfr# txh# r# vhuylgru# gh# xpd# sdud# d# fuldÇÃr# gh# xpd# hpdlo# hvwÁ# grzq1# Glulmr0ph# d# lqiud0hvwuxwxud# gh# xp# surmhwrv/# vdod# gh# vhuylgruhv# sdud# rqgh# hoh# suhflvd# gh# xp# yhulilfdu# r# sureohpd# h# txdqgr# vhuylgru# suÓsulr# h# r# jhuhqwh# sdvvr# shor# ureÔ# gh# edfnxs# txh# hqylrx# hvvd# vrolflwdÇÃr# yhmr#qd#whod#d#sdodyud#txh#pdlv# shgh# xujÊqfld# srlv# hoh# suhflvd# jrvwr/#yrfÊv#qÃr#whp#qrÇÃr#gh# frphÇdu# r# surmhwr# qd# vhjxqgd0 frpr# wrgr# dgplqlvwudgru# whp# ihlud/#rx#vhmd/#krmh$# yhugdghlud# sdl{Ãr# sru# hvvd# Vdeh# r# txh# É# ohjdo# glvvr# sdodyud=#HUURU1# hoh#hqylrx#hvvh#hpdlo#qd#vh{wd0 Frpr# ixl# oÁ# sru# frqwd# gr# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 56
  • 24. FROXQD#—#NUL[#DSROLQ¡ULR vhuylgru# gh# hpdlo# ljqrur# sru# txh# d# vhqkd# txh# hoh# gl}ld# ghoh#É#xujhqwh1 xp# prphqwr# r# txh# yl# h# yrx# hvwdu# fhuwd# qÃr# hvwdyd/# fdopd/# Wxgr# lvvr# É# wÃr# uhvroyhu# r# sureohpd# gr# uhvslud# ixqgr111# SdflÊqfld# É# uhfrqiruwdqwh1# vhuylgru# gh# hpdlo# h# hp# vhx#vreuhqrph1 vhjxlgd# ph# ghglfduhl# dr# ureÔ# 3<=58k# 0# Uhfher# xpd# ;=63k# 0# Phx# jhuhqwh# oljdÇÃr# gr# WO# gr# surmhwr# %sdud# gh#edfnxs1 fkhjd# h# frpxqlfr# d# hoh# vreuh# rqwhp%# shujxqwdqgr# vh# hx# mÁ# :=63k# 0# Yhmr# txh# r# r# ureÔ# gh# edfnxs# h# hoh# ydl# whuplqhl# h# hx# gljr# txh# qÃr/# edfnxs# Ixoo# gd# vhpdqd# qÃr# irl# wrpdu# dv# surylgÊqfldv# lqihol}phqwh# d# idpd# txh# whprv# ihlwr# qhp# 73(# h# r# ureÔ# qhfhvvÁuldv1# Xid$# Phqrv# xp# ph#id}#dojxpdv#yh}hv#ghl{du#d# vlpsohvphqwh# qÃr# hvwÁ# pdlv# sureohpd/# qr# prphqwr# d# lurqld# jxdugdgd/# dilqdo# vh# hx# ixqflrqdqgr# fruuhwdphqwh/# uhvroyhu1 wlyhvvh# whuplqdgr# mÁ# whuld# pdv# hx# whqkr# txh# vhu# <=33k# 0# D# sduwlu# ghvvh# lqirupdgr# dr# jhuhqwh# txh# frpsuhhqvlyd# frp# hoh# dilqdo# kruÁulr# r# whohirqh# wrfd# d# fdgd# frqvhtxhqwhphqwh# whuld# wudedokdu# 57# krudv/# :# gldv# sru# 43# rx# 48# plqxwrv/# Àv# yh}hv# lqirupdgr#d#hoh1# vhpdqd/# vhp# gluhwr# d# irojd# hp# sduhfh# txh# d# frlvd# dfdopd# h# ihuldgrv# ghyh# vhu# pxlwr# Gldqwh# gh# plqkd# uhvsrvwd# hoh# sdvvd# xpd# phld# krud# vhp# frphÇd# d# vhvvÃr# %Vhqwd# txh# fdqvdwlyr/#frlwdgr1 wrfdu/# pdv# srxfr# ghsrlv# yrowd# oÁ# yhp# d# klvwÓuld111%/# h# yhp# :=83k# 0# FrphÇr# d# dr# flfor# lqlfldo# gh# 43# h# 48# wrgd# dtxhod# klvwÓuld# gh# txh# r# suhsdudu# d# lqiud0hvwuxwxud# gr# plqxwrv# h# vh# pdqwÊp# dvvlp# sud}r# É# fxuwr# h# wxgr# pdlv/# qd# surmhwr1 dwÉ#r#ilqdo#gr#h{shglhqwh1 yhugdgh# r# sud}r# vhpsuh# É# ;=43k# 0# Whohirqh# wrfd/# xp# Ghsrlv# gd# sdodyud# fxuwr/# qrupdophqwh# surmhwrv# vrp# olqgr# h# uhod{dqwh# r# wrtxh# HUURU/# hvvd# É# rxwud# frlvd# txh#vh#hvwlpdp#vhu#ihlwrv#hp#5# gr# phx# udpdo/# ghprur# d# txh# rv# dgplqlvwudgruhv# gh# phvhv/# qd# yhugdgh/# ghyhuldp# dwhqghu# sdud# srghu# ilfdu# vlvwhpdv# jrvwdp/# dwhqghu# whu#shor#phqrv#7#phvhv1# dsuhfldqgr#r#vrp#pdudylokrvr1 whohirqhpdv1# Fdgd# oljdÇÃr# okh# 45=33k# 0# Hvwrx# txdvh# Xp# xvxÁulr# gl}hqgr# txh# wrpd# shor# phqrv# 8# plqxwrv# h# vdlqgr# sdud# doprÇdu# txdqgr# hvwÁ# whqwdqgr# dfhvvdu# r# hpdlo# txdqgr# d# shvvrd# hvwÁ# frp# xp# ghvhqyroyhgru# dsduhfh# hp# pdv# qÃr# hvwÁ# frqvhjxlqgr/# gÚylgdv#hvvh#whpsr#yduld#gh#48# plqkd# phvd# gl}hqgr# txh# shujxqwr# txh# phqvdjhp# d# 53# plqxwrv# h# qÓv# dgrudprv# qlqjxÉp# frqvhjxh# frpplwdu# dsduhfh# h# hoh# ph# gl}# txh# É# edwhu# sdsr# sulqflsdophqwh# qdgd#qr#uhsrvlwÓulr#gr#surmhwr#h# %orjlq#h2rx#vhqkd#lqyÁolgr%#pdv# txdqgr# hvwdprv# frp# d# fdl{d# hohv# whp# xpd# edvholqh# sdud# hoh# gl}# txh# hvwÁ# frorfdqgr# d# gh# hpdlo# orwdgd/# xp# ureÔ# gh# krmh# h# txh# hvwÁ# wrgr# pxqgr# vhqkd# fruuhwd1# ShÇr# txh# hoh# edfnxs# sdudgr# h# xpd# lqiud0 sdudgr#sru#frqwd#glvvr1 yhqkd# d# plqkd# phvd# sdud# hvwuxwxud#xujhqwh#sdud#whuplqdu1 Shujxqwr# vh# qÃr# srghu#uhvhwdu#d#vhqkd#h#ghsrlv# Phokru# dlqgd# É# txdqgr# srghuÍdprv# yhu# lvvr# txdqgr# hx# gh#8#plqxwrv#hoh#fkhjd1# hvvdv# oljdÇÕhv# vÃr# gh# xvxÁulrv# yrowdu# gr# doprÇr# h# hoh# uhshwh# r# Hoh# shujxqwd# vh# srgh# txh# mÁ# okh# hqyldudp# xpd# txh# idorx# dqwhv/# hqwÃr# shqvr/# frorfdu# d# phvpd# vhqkd# gh# vrolflwdÇÃr# h{solfdqgr# r# sru# txh# doprÇduB# Dilqdo# wrphl# dqwhv# h# hx# gljr# txh# vlp/# dilqdo# sureohpd/# pdv# hoh# É# fdiÉ# gd# pdqkÃ# dv# 9k# h# mÁ# vÃr# hoh# dilupd# txh# hvwÁ# frorfdqgr# frpsuhhqvlyr# frp# d# jhqwh# h# 45k/# ehvwhlud/# whp# jhqwh# txh# d# vhqkd# fruuhwd/# h# r# oljd# sud# h{solfdu# r# txh# mÁ# irl# sdvvd#r#gld#vhp#frphu111#Plqkd# lqhvshudgr# rfruuh=# d# vhqkd# h{solfdgr# h# ph# frqyhqfhu# d# irph# É# pdlru# h# dylvr# txh# hp# ghoh# qÃr# sdvvd# hvwÁ# idowdqgr# uhvroyhu# qdtxhoh# h{dwr# phld# krud# hvwrx# gh# yrowd# h# hoh# fdudfwhu# hvshfldo/# r# txh# lqglfd# prphqwr# r# sureohpd/# srlv# r# jhqhurvdphqwh#dfhlwd1 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 57
  • 25. FROXQD#—#NUL[#DSROLQ¡ULR 45=73k# 0# Pdo# vhqwr# hp# irudp# vh# dfxpxodqgr# qr# Frp# hvvd# qduudwlyd# hx# plqkd# phvd# h# r# ghfruuhu#gr#gld1 txlv# prvwudu# gh# irupd# euhyh# ghvhqyroyhgru# %gd# edvholqh%# 48=43k# 0# Uhfher# xpd# sdud# txhp# qÃr# frqkhfh/# xp# fkhjd# h# shujxqwd# vh# hx# mÁ# yl# r# vrolflwdÇÃr# gh# uhvwruh# gh# gld# gh# wudedokr# gh# xp# V|vDgp# sureohpd/# rokr# sdud# hoh/# frp# edfnxs/# phx# rokrv# eulokdudp# txh# pxlwdv# yh}hv# vÃr# mxojdgrv# yrqwdgh# gh# shujxqwdu# vh# hoh# txdqgr# ol# wrgr# r# wh{wr/# sru# qÃr# whuhp# sdflÊqfld# frp# fkhjrx# d# ph# vhjxlu# qr# hqfdplqkr# d# vrolflwdÇÃr# sdud# rv# xvxÁulrv# h# id}huhp# dv# fdplqkr# gh# lgd# h# yrowd# gr# phx# jhuhqwh# h# ghsrlv# luhl# frlvdv# frp# pÁ# yrqwdgh/# r# txh# uhvwdxudqwh/# pdv# ghl{r# sdvvdu# frqyhuvdu#frp#hoh1 qd# pdlruld# gdv# yh}hv# qÃr# É# h# uhvsrqgr# vlpsohvphqwh/# dvvlp/# h# r# idwr# ghohv# id}hqgr# gh# frqwd# gh# hoh# qÃr# 49=33k# 0# R# vhuylgru# zhe# surfxuduhp# vhu# euhyhv# h# shglu# vdeh# txh# fkhjxhl# qdtxhoh# sdud/# sureohpd=# ilohv|vwhp# txh# wxgr# vhmd# dwudyÉv# gh# h{dwr# prphqwr# h# txh# luhl# fruurpslgr1# Frlvd# pdlv# olqgd# vrolflwdÇÕhv# É# sdud# idflolwdu# h# yhulilfdu# h# dvvlp# txh# uhvroyhu# yhu# lvvr/# r# whohirqh# frphÇd# d# djlol}du# r# dwhqglphqwr/# srlv# hqwur#hp#frqwdwr#frp#hoh1 wrfdu# ihlwr# orxfr/# r# txh# ph# doÉp# ghvwdv# vrolflwdÇÕhv# hohv# ghl{d# pdlv# ihol}# dlqgd/# srlv# whp#rxwudv#wduhidv1 46=53k# 0# Ilqdophqwh# srghuhl# uhvroyhu# r# sureohpd# frqvljr# whuplqdu# d# lqiud# gr# hvfxwdqgr#hvvh#olqgr#vrp1 surmhwr1#Whqkr#txh#djudghfhu#d# wrgrv# txh# ph# oljdudp# h# 49=63k# 0# Yrx# frqyhuvdu# dsduhfhudp# hp# plqkd# phvd# frp# phx# jhuhqwh/# pdv# hoh# NUL[#DSROLQ¡ULR# shor# dsrlr# gdgr# krmh/# id}hqgr# hvwÁ# qxpd# uhxqlÃr1# Rsv$# D# É#judgxdgd#hp# frp# txh# hx# frqvhjxlvvh# txhvwÃr# gr# uhvwruh# gr# edfnxs# Lqwhuqhw#h#Uhghv#gh# Frpsxwdgruhv#h# whuplqdu# udslgdphqwh# plqkdv# whuÁ#txh#ilfdu#sdud#dpdqkÃ1 dwxd#frpr# wduhidv1#Pxlwr#ihol}#frp#lvvr1 4:=33k# 0# Whuplqdqgr# Dgplqlvwudgrud#gh# Vlvwhpdv#Xql{2Olqx{# Djrud# srvvr# frphfdu# d# dojxpdv# vrolflwdÇÕhv# sdud# gr#F1H1V1D1U1 dwhqghu# rxwudv# vrolflwdÇÕhv# txh# srghu#lu#sdud#plqkd#fdvd1 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 58
  • 26. FROXQD#—#UREHUWR#VDORPRQ E#V#N#0#v{f1kx Frpsduwlokdu Sru#Urehuwr#Vdorprq Wrgd#d#edvh#gr#ghvhqyroylphqwr#gr#frqkh0 flphqwr# oljdgr# dr# Vriwzduh# Olyuh# vh# edvhld# hp# xp# frqfhlwr# fkdyh=# r# frpsduwlokdphqwr# gr# fr0 qkhflphqwr1# QlqjxÉp# fuhvfh# hvfrqghqgr# fr0 qkhflphqwr1# Wrgrv# vh# ghvhqyroyhp# hp# frqmxqwr/# xqv# dsuhqghqgr# frp# r# txh# rxwurv# mÁ# ghveudydudp1#Sureohpdv#frpsoh{rv#vÃr#uhvroyl0 grv# dwudyÉv# gr# frpsduwlokdphqwr# gh# lqirupd0 ÇÕhv1# Dshvdu# grv# wuroov/# dsuhqghprv# udslgdphqwh# txh# qlqjxÉp# É# grqr# gd# yhugdgh# h# vhpsuh#whprv#xp#srxfr#d#dsuhqghu#frp#dv#gÚ0 ylgdv#h#glfdv#gh#rxwurv1# Qdgd# pdlv# qdwxudo/# hqwÃr/# txh# hx# wdpeÉp# srvvd#frpsduwlokdu#rxwurv#uhfxuvrv#drv#txdlv#hx# whqkd#dfhvvr1#Srvvr#pxlwr#ehp#gdu#fdurqd#sdud# phxv# dpljrv# rx# yl}lqkrv/# frpsduwlokdqgr# r# hv0 sdÇr#glvsrqÍyho#qr#phx#dxwrpÓyho/#dxphqwdqgr# d#hilflÊqfld#gh#xvr#grv#uhfxuvrv#sÚeolfrv#+qr#fd0 vr#gdv#uxdv#gd#flgdgh,1#WdpeÉp#srvvr#frqylgdu# dpljrv#sdud#xp#fkxuudvfr#sdud#frphprudu#hvwh# rx# dtxhoh# dfrqwhflphqwr# rqgh/# hvshur/# hohv# wh0 uÃr#sud}hu#hp#ph#dmxgdu#d#uhgx}lu#r#ghvshugÍflr# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 59
  • 27. FROXQD#—#UREHUWR#VDORPRQ dsrqwdp# <8(# gr# wuÁihjr# frpr# vhqgr# gh# S5S# hqtxdqwr# rxwurv# gl}hp# txh# hvwh# qÃr# fkhjd# d# #QlqjxÉp#fuhvfh# 53(1#Qr#ixqgr/#ph#sduhfh#txh#d#euljd#grv#sur0 yhgruhv/# h# hp# hvshfldo# grv# suryhgruhv# qr# Eud0 hvfrqghqgr#frqkhflphqwr1# vlo/# hvwÁ# uhodflrqdgd# d# xp# rxwur# sureohpd=# Qrvvrv#suryhgruhv#yhqghp#r#txh#qÃr#whp/#edq0 Wrgrv#vh#ghvhqyroyhp#hp# gd1 frqmxqwr/#xqv#dsuhqghqgr# qhw# dwudyÉv# gh# sursdjdqgdv# fkdpdwlydv/#Lqwhu0 Qrvvrv# suryhgruhv# yhqghp# dfhvvr# txh# frp#r#txh#rxwurv#mÁ# qrv#surphwhp#pdudylokdv1#Txdqgr#dvvlqdprv#r# frqwudwr/#qr#hqwdqwr/#srghprv#qrv#gdu#sru#vdwlv0 ghveudydudp1 ihlwrv# vh# wlyhuprv# dfhvvr# d# xp# whuÇr# gd# yhorfl0 gdgh# shod# txdo# sdjdprv1# Frqilud# r# vhx# Urehuwr#Vdorprq frqwudwr/# ghshqghqgr# gd# rshudgrud/# hod# vÓ# whp# d# reuljdÇÃr# gh# jdudqwlu# 43(# gd# yhorflgdgh# shod# txdo# yrfÊ# sdjd# lqwhjudophqwh1# Lpdjlqh# vh# lvvr# gh# frplgd# h# ehelgd/# jdudqwlqgr# xp# pÍqlpr# gh# yludvvh# prgd# qd# lqgÚvwuld# gh# dolphqwdÇÃr=# yrfÊ# vreudv# qd# fduqh# h# qd# fhuyhmd# txh# hx# mÁ# kdyld# sdjd#sru#xp#olwur#gh#ohlwh#pdv#d#frpsdqkld#vÓ#É# frpsudgr1# reuljdgd#d#hqydvdu#433po#qd#fdl{lqkd1#Qr#vxshu0 Srutxh# glderv# hqwÃr# vh# fuld# hvwd# fhohxpd# phufdgr/# É# fdvr# gh# fdghld/# qd# Lqwhuqhw# eudvlohl0 wrgd# frp# uhodÇÃr# dr# xvr# gh# surjudpdv# S5S# qr# ud111 qrvvrv# suryhgruhvB# Txdo# r# sureohpd# hp# frp0 R# xvr# gh# surjudpdv# S5S# ghvorfd# r# shuilo# sduwlokdu#d#edqgd#txh#qÃr#hvwrx#xvdqgrB#Dilqdo/# gh# frqvxpr# gd# edqgd# iruqhflgd# shorv# suryhgr0 mÁ#sdjxhl#sru#hod/#qÃrB# uhv/# ghyh# ilfdu# pdlv# gliÍflo# uhglvwulexlu# d# fludqgd# Frpsduwlokdu#FSX/#hx#srvvr1#H#É#dwÉ#frqvl0 gr# dfhvvr# hqwuh# rv# glyhuvrv# folhqwhv# txh# oljdp# ghudgr#orxyÁyho1#Surmhwrv#frpr#r#Zruog#Frppx0 uhfodpdqgr# gd# yhorflgdgh1# Sru# wdehod/# É# pxlwr# qlw|# Julg# xvdp# flforv# gh# FSX# rflrvrv# hp# pdlv# iÁflo# erwdu# d# fxosd# qdtxhohv# xvxÁulrv# txh# plokÕhv#gh#frpsxwdgruhv#dr#uhgru#gr#jorer#sd0 hvwÃr# whqwdqgr# xvdu# shor# txh# sdjdudp1# R# folhq0 ud# uhvroyhu# sureohpdv# frpsoh{rv# frpr# d# fuld0 wh# vh# wruqd# yloÃr# vÓ# srutxh# whqwd# xvdu# r# vhuylÇr# ÇÃr# gh# qrydv# gurjdv# sdud# frpedwhu# d# pdoÁuld# frqwudwdgr1#Edfdqd#lvvr/#qÃrB rx#r#KLY/#rx#gd#fuldÇÃr#gh#qrydv#ydulhgdghv#gh# Vh#d#prgd#shjdu/#yrx#whu#txh#shglu#dxwrul0 duur}/#pdlv#qxwulwlydv#h#uhvlvwhqwhv#d#sudjdv1#Srv0 }dÇÃr#gd#Ildw#sdud#gdu#fdurqd#d#dojxÉp1# vr#dwÉ#iruqhfhu#flforv#gh#FSX#sdud#dmxgdu#qd#sur0 fxud# gh# HWv# qr# surmhwr# VHWLCKrph1# Pdv# Sdud#pdlv#lqirupdÇÕhv= frpsduwlokdu#d#edqgd/#lvvr#qÃr#srvvr#qÃr1# Eorj#gr#Urehuwr#Vdorprq= D# judqgh# pdlruld# grv# suryhgruhv# gh# dfhv0 kwws=22uivdorprq1eorjvsrw1frp vr#wÊp#uhvwulÇÕhv#dr#xvr#gh#surjudpdv#S5S#sh0 orv# vhxv# folhqwhv1# Lqvlvwhp# hp# gl}hu# txh# rv# UREHUWR#VDORPRQ#É#dutxlwhwr#gh# surjudpdv# S5S# frqvrphp# h{fhvvlydphqwh# d# vriwzduh#qd#LEP#h#yroxqwÁulr#gr#surmhwr# edqgd# glvsrqÍyho# wruqdqgr# r# dfhvvr# À# Lqwhuqhw# EuRiilfh1ruj1 pdlv# ohqwr# sdud# wrgrv# rv# ghpdlv1# WdpeÉp# gl0 }hp#txh#d#pdlru#sduwh#gr#wuÁihjr#LS#É#uhsuhvhq0 wdgd# sru# wudqvplvvÕhv# S5S1# Rv# qÚphurv/# qr# hqwdqwr/# qÃr# vÃr# frqvlvwhqwhv1# KÁ# hvwxgrv# txh# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 5:
  • 28. HQWUHYLVWD#—#HQWUHYLVWD#FRP#DQGUHZ#UHVFK Hqwuhylvwd#frp# Dqguhz#Uhvfk/# ghvhqyroyhgru# gr#Ghoxjh Sru#DqguÉ#Qrho#h#MrÃr#Ihuqdqgr#Frvwd#MÚqlru Uhylvwd# HvsÍulwr# Olyuh=# RoÁ# Dqguhz# Uhvfk$#Srghuld#vh#dsuhvhqwduB Dqguhz# Uhvfk=# RoÁ/# phx# qrph# É# Dqguhz# h# jrvwr# gh# hvfuhyhu# Vriwzduh# Olyuh# =,# Hx# wuded0 okr# qr# Ghoxjh/# xpd# dsolfdÇÃr# gh# frpsduwlokd0 phqwr#gh#dutxlyrv/#kÁ#6#dqrv1 UHO=#Txdo#d#ydqwdjhp#gh#vh#xwlol}du#wru0 uhqwv#sdud#r#grzqordg#gh#dutxlyrvB DU=# R# ElwWruuhqw# É# xp# surwrfror# hilflhqwh# frp# xp# frqfhlwr# ghvfhqwudol}dgr1# D# lgÉld# gh# txh#r#dutxlyr#txh#yrfÊ#hvwÁ#edl{dqgr#qÃr#hvwÁ# orfdol}dgr# hp# xp# Úqlfr# orfdo/# frpr# qr# prghor# wudglflrqdo#gh#folhqwh2vhuylgru/#pdv#hp#pÚowlsorv# orfdlv# shuplwh# xp# qÍyho# gh# uhgxqgÂqfld# pxlwr# pdlru# h# uhgx}# rv# %olqnv# pruwrv%1# Frp# rv# gdgrv# glvwulexÍgrv#ghvvd#pdqhlud#qÃr#fhqwudol}dgd/#yr0 fÊ# srgh# pryhu# gdgrv# pxlwr# pdlv# udslgdphqwh/# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 5;
  • 29. HQWUHYLVWD#—#HQWUHYLVWD#FRP#DQGUHZ#UHVFK srutxh#yrfÊ#qÃr#hvwÁ#pdlv#uhvwulwr#drv#uhfxuvrv# UHO=#Dqwhv#gr#Ghoxjh/#yrfÊ#hvfuhyhx#do0 gh#xpd#Úqlfd#pÁtxlqd#krvshghlud1 jxp#rxwur#vriwzduh#olyuhB DU=# Hx# ghl# shtxhqdv# frqwulexlÇÕhv# d# rx0 UHO=# Frp# wdqwrv# surjudpdv# glvsrqÍ0 wurv#surmhwrv#hp#vriwzduh#olyuh#h#ph#hqyroyl#frp# yhlv/# sru# txh# fuldu# r# GhoxjhB# Txdo# d# ydqwd0 dojxpdv# suÓsuldv/# pdv# qdgd# frp# frqvhtxÊqfld# jhp#gh#vh#xwlol}du#xp#surjudpd#h#qÃr#rxwurB uhdo1# Dfkr# txh# vhpsuh# hvfuhyl# vriwzduh# olyuh/# phvpr#txh#qÃr#whqkd#odqÇdgr#xp#%surmhwr%#wud0 DU=#Hx#frphfhl#d#wudedokdu#qr#Ghoxjh#sru0 glflrqdo1 txh/# qd# Ésrfd/# qÃr# kdyldp# folhqwhv# gh# ElwWru0 uhqw# ghfhqwhv/# txh# wudedokdvvhp# ehp# qr# dpelhqwh# JWN.1# Hx# txhuld# dojxpd# frlvd# UHO=# R# Ghoxjh# irfd0vh# hp# xp# wl0 txh# vh# lqwhjudvvh# shuihlwdphqwh# qr# phx# sr#sduwlfxodu#gh#xvxÁulrB ghvnwrs# h# qÃr# irvvh# xp# uhfxuvr# jurv0 DU=#Jrvwdprv#gh#shqvdu#txh#r# vhlur/# frpr# dojxqv# grv# rxwurv# folhq0 Ghoxjh#É#dfhvvÍyho#d#wrgrv/#pdv#lv0 whv# gd# Ésrfd/# h# r# Ghoxjh# ph# vr#srgh#vhu#xp#srxfr#gh#loxvÃr1# sduhfhx#surplvvru1 Hx# dfkr# txh# r# Ghoxjh# É# irfd0 Srxfr# ghsrlv# gh# lqlfldu# r# gr# xp# srxfr# pdlv# qr# xvxÁ0 Ghoxjh/# hx# shufhel# txh# uhdo0 ulr# h{shulhqwh/# phqwh#txhuld#ghl{du#phx#fol0 sduwlfxoduphqwh/# qdv# shv0 hqwh# gh# ElwWruuhqw/# h# txh# vrdv# txh# hqwhqghp# r# dtxhod# hud# xpd# pdqhlud# surwrfror# ElwWruuhqw# gh# urgÁ0or# hp# xpd# pÁ0 h# txh# mÁ# whqkdp# txlqd# uhprwd/# vhp# xwlol}dgr# folhqwhv# rshudgru/# h# frqwuroÁ0 gh# ElwWruuhqw# od# xvdqgr# xpd# dsol0 qr# sdvvdgr1# fdÇÃr# hp# ghvnwrs# JrvwduÍdprv# shuihlwdphqwh# lqwh0 gh# pxgdu# hv0 judgd1# Hx# frph0 vh# ylÉv# h# id}hu# fhl/# udslgdphqwh/# d# r# Ghoxjh# pdlv# uhhvfuhyhu# r# Ghox0 dfhvvÍyho/# pdv# jh/# txh# hpsuhjd0 É# xp# edodqfhd0 yd# xpd# dutxlwhwxud# phqwr# gliÍflo# hq0 gdhprq2folhqwh/# wuh# r# srghu# gr# txh# hx# dfuhglwr# vriwzduh# h# vxd# vhu# d# judqgh# ydqwd0 vlpsolflgdgh/# h# jhp# gr# Ghoxjh# krmh1# Àv# yh}hv/# qÃr# gÁ# Hvvd# dutxlwhwxud# shupl0 sdud# rihuhfhu# dperv# Iljxud#4#0#Ghoxjh/#gluhwr#dr#srqwr/#vhjxqgr#vhx#ghvhqyroyhgru wh# frp# txh# yrfÊ# frqwuroh# gh#pdqhlud#iÁflo1 r# Ghoxjh# frp# yÁulrv# wlsrv# gh# lqwhuidfh# gh# xvxÁulr/# lqfoxlqgr# r# JWO.XL/# Xpd# lqwhuidfh# gh# xvxÁulr# edvhdgd# hp# frqvroh/# UHO=#Sru#txh#h#txdqgr#yrfÊ#frphÇrx#d# h# d# pdudylokrvd# lqwhuidfh# gh# xvxÁulr# Zhe/# frp# hvfuhyhu#fÓgljr#dehuwrB d#txdo#Gdplhq#ih}#xp#lpsuhvvlrqdqwh#wudedokr1 DU=# Hx# dfkr# txh# vhpsuh/# sdud# vhu# krqhv0 wr1#Txdqgr#hx#hud#pdlv#mryhp#h#frphfhl#d#sur0 judpdu/# hx# vhpsuh# txlv# frpsduwlokdu# phx# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 5<
  • 30. HQWUHYLVWD#—#HQWUHYLVWD#FRP#DQGUHZ#UHVFK wdv# dsolfdÇÕhv# h# vhuylÇrv# sdud# iruqhfhu#xp#grzqordg#hilflhqwh#h# xp# pÉwrgr# gh# dwxdol}dÇÃr1# Wdp0 eÉp# É# xwlol}dgr# sdud# iruqhfhu# phlrv# hihwlyrv# sdud# edl{du# frq0 whÚgr# sdjr1# DoÉp# glvvr/# hx# qÃr# txhvwlrqduhl# dv# shvvrdv# txh# xvdp# r# surwrfror# ElwWruuhqw# sdud# %sludwhdu%# frqwhÚgr1# Hohv# wdp0 eÉp# srghuldp# xwlol}du# r# IWS/# r# KWWS# h# xpd# pluÍdgh# gh# rxwudv# whfqrorjldv#sdud#frpsduwlokdu#hv0 vh#frqwhÚgr1#Lvvr#qÃr#É#xpd#h{0 foxvlylgdgh# gr# ElwWruuhqw# h# qxqfd# vhuÁ1# Dshqdv# rfruuh# txh# Iljxud#5#0#Ghoxjh#frp#frpsduwlokdphqwr#hp#dqgdphqwr r# ElwWruuhqw# É# xpd# pdqhlud# pxl0 wr# pdlv# hilflhqwh# gh# frpsduwlokdu# gdgrv/#sruwdqwr/#dv#shvvrdv#qdwxudophqwh#judyl0 fÓgljr#frp#dv#shvvrdv#dr#phx#uhgru/#dshqdv#sd0 wdp#hp#wruqr#ghoh1 ud#hqfrudmÁ0odv#d#dsuhqghu#h#dmxgdu/#h#qxqfd#ghl# pxlwd#lpsruwÂqfld#hp#pdqwÊ0or#sulydgr/#txdo#vh0 uld#r#srqwrB UHO=# R# txh# yrfÊ# shqvd# d# uhvshlwr# gh# Vh# hx# frqvhjxlvvh# txh# dtxhodv# shvvrdv# edl{du# ilophv# h# pÚvlfd# surwhjlgrv# sru# gluhl0 dr#phx#uhgru#frqwulexÍvvhp#h#wudedokdvvhp#mxq0 wrv#gh#fÓsldB wdv/#srghuÍdprv#fuldu#dojr#pxlwr#pdlv#iÁflo#h#srv0 DU=#Hvvd#É#xpd#txhvwÃr#gliÍflo#h#pxowlidfh0 vlyhophqwh# phokru# gr# srghuÍdprv# id}hu# wdgd/# h# hx# qÃr# vrx# xp# shulwr# sdud# frphqwÁ0od/# wudedokdqgr#vr}lqkrv1 pdv# yrx# whqwdu# =,# Hx# dfuhglwr# txh# dv# shvvrdv# vÃr# olyuhv# sdud# frpsduwlokdu# txdotxhu# frlvd# txh# txhludp# pdv# txh# hodv# vÃr# uhvsrqvÁyhlv# sru# UHO=# H# vh# dojxÉp# txlvhu# frpsduwlokdu# vhxv#dwrv#h#ghyhp#uhvsrqghu#shodv#frqvhtxÊq0 frqwhÚgr# surwhjlgr# sru# gluhlwrv# gh# fÓsld/# fldv1 txhp#vhuld#r#uhvsrqvÁyhoB Hx#whqkr#r#vhqwlphqwr#gh#txh#d#pdlru#sdu0 DU=# Hvvd# txhvwÃr# sduhfh# lpsolfdu# txh# r# wh# gdv# shvvrdv# ghvhmd# sdjdu# sru# frqwhÚgr# gh# frpsduwlokdphqwr# gh# frqwhÚgr# surwhjlgr# É# huud0 erd#txdolgdgh#h#vhp#GUP/#ghvgh#txh#whqkd#xp# gr1#R#txh#qÃr#É#qhfhvvduldphqwh#r#fdvr1#R#fÓgl0 suhÇr# ud}rÁyho/# h# lvvr# whp# vlgr# ghprqvwudgr# jr# gr# Ghoxjh# É# surwhjlgr/# pdv# dv# shvvrdv# r# pxlwr# fodudphqwh# dwudyÉv# gh# rujdql}dÇÕhv# txh# frpsduwlokdp# olyuhphqwh# srutxh# d# vxd# olfhqÇd# rihuhfhp# vhuylÇrv# gh# %sdjxh# r# txdqwr# txlvhu%# shuplwh#+h#lqfhqwlyd$,1 sru#vhxv#frqwhÚgrv1#D#uhdolgdgh#É#txh#yrfÊ#hvwÁ# sdjdqgr# xp# srxfr# pdlv# sru# frqwhÚgr# fduuhjd0 UHO=#Frpsduwlokdu#frqwhÚgr#shvvrdo#qx0 gr#gh#GUP/#txh#yrfÊ#qÃr#qÃr#ydl#srghu#xwlol}du# pd# uhgh# s5s# qÃr# É# fulph1# Hqwuhwdqwr/# yrfÊ# hp#wrgrv#rv#vhxv#glvsrvlwlyrv#h/#srvvlyhophqwh/# qÃr#dfkd#txh#r#wruuhqw#É#txdvh#vhpsuh#xwlol}d0 gh# phqru# txdolgdgh# gr# txh# frqvhjxluld# gh# jud0 gr#sdud#edl{du#frqwhÚgr#%sludwd%B Çd1#Rv#prghorv#gh#qhjÓflrv#suhflvdp#pxgdu#sd0 ud# wludu# ydqwdjhp# ghvvd# idflolgdgh/# hilflÊqfld# h# DU=# QÃr1# R# ElwWruuhqw# É# xwlol}dgr# hp# pxl0 hfrqrpld# gh# fxvwrv# gdv# uhghv# gh# frpsduwlokd0 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 63
  • 31. HQWUHYLVWD#—#HQWUHYLVWD#FRP#DQGUHZ#UHVFK phqwr# gh# dutxlyrv/# h# jdvwdu# do0 jxp# whpsr# hqwhqghqgr# sru# txh# dv#shvvrdv#dv#xwlol}dp1 UHO=# YrfÊ# dfkd# txh# d# lq0 gÚvwuld# gh# pÚvlfd# h# ilophv# dwd0 fduÁ# rv# xvxÁulrv# gh# S5S/# rx# hohv# uhfxduÃr# h# pxgduÃr# d# hv0 wudwÉjldB DU=# Hohv# frqwlqxduÃr# d# dwd0 fdu# rv# xvxÁulrv# dwÉ# txh# qÃr# vhmd# pdlv# ilqdqfhludphqwh# ylÁyho# sdud# hohv# frqwlqxdu# d# id}Ê0or1# Vxd# Úql0 fd# suhrfxsdÇÃr# É# frp# rv# oxfurv# #####Iljxud#6#0#Ghoxjh#dsuhvhqwdqgr#rv#glyhuvrv#shhuv h/# xpd# yh}# txh# dv# pdujhqv# gh# vhxv# prghorv# gh# qhjÓflrv# dqwl0 txdgrv# glplqxÍuhp# d# qÍyhlv# lqvxvwhqwÁyhlv/# hohv# surwrfrorv#xwlol}dgrv/#pdv#txhp#vdeh#r#txh#r#ix0 pxgduÃr#vxd#hvwudwÉjld1#Qryrv#prghorv#gh#qhjÓ0 wxur# wuduÁB# Wxgr# r# txh# vhl# É# txh# dv# shvvrdv# flrv# txh# xwlol}dp# h# frpsuhhqghp# d# whfqrorjld# vhpsuh#hqfrqwuduÃr#xp#mhlwr#gh#frpsduwlokdu#frl0 dwxdo# hvwÃr# vhqgr# fuldgrv# h# xwlol}dgrv# djrud/# vdv#h/#frp#fhuwh}d/#iduÃr#lvvr#gh#pdqhlud#iÁflo#h# pdv# ohyduÁ# dojxp# whpsr# sdud# txh# hohv# vhmdp# hilflhqwh#=, xvdgrv# gh# xpd# pdqhlud# pdlv# glvvhplqdgd1# ©# r# flfor#gdv#frlvdv1 UHO=# Pdqgh# xpd# phqvdjhp# sdud# qrv0 vrv#ohlwruhv#gd#Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh1 UHO=# Frpr# yrfÊ# ylvoxpeud# r# ixwxur# gr# DU=#ShupdqhÇdp#olyuhv#h#ihol}#frpsduwlokd0 s5sB phqwr#=, DU=# VÓ# whp# d# phokrudu1# Txdqwr# pdlv# dv# shvvrdv# wÊp# dfhvvr# À# Lqwhuqhw/# h# dv# frqh{Õhv# Sdud#pdlv#lqirupdÇÕhv= frp#hod#vh#wruqdp#pdlv#uÁslgdv/#hx#dfkr#txh#r# frpsduwlokdphqwr#gh#gdgrv#dwudyÉv#gr#S5S#frqwl0 Vlwh#rilfldo#Ghoxjh qxduÁ#d#fuhvfhu1#Hx#qÃr#srvvr#uhdophqwh#lpdjl0 kwws=22ghoxjh0wruuhqw1ruj qdu# pxgdqÇdv# lphgldwdv# qd# whfqrorjld# rx# qrv# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 64
  • 32. FDSD — HQWUHYLVWD FRP MRVK EHUQKDUG HQWUHYLVWD FRP MRVK EHUQKDUG/ SURGXWRU GH ILOPHV Dfhuyr shvvrdo Sru Ohdqgur Ohdo Sduhqwh h MrÃr Ihuqdqgr Frvwd MÚqlru Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh= R txh ih} yrfÊ vh wruqdu xp surgxwru gh ilophvB Mrvk Ehuqkdug= Hvvd É xpd shujxqwd gliÍflo gh uhvsrq0 ghu$ D Úqlfd frlvd txh srvvr gl}hu É txh hx dpr flqhpd ghvgh txh frqvljr ph ohpeudu/ dvvlp frpr surjudpdv gh WY1 Hx dvvlvwl ilophv yÁuldv h uhshwlgdv yh}hv vhp fdqvdu1 Hudp frpr yhokrv dpljrv1 Pdv hx dfkr txh r txh ph vh0 sdurx grv rxwurv jdurwrv É txh hx dgrudyd gd phvpd iru0 pd dvvlvwlu dv frlvdv %sru wuÁv gdv whodv% vreuh d duwh gh id}hu ilophv1 Hud wÃr hprflrqdqwh sdud plp txdqwr rv suÓ0 sulrv ilophv/ h hx dfkdyd pxlwr lqvsludgru1 Lqvsludgru r vx0 ilflhqwh sdud dfrpsdqkdu dwÉ krmh1 UHO= Txdlv irudp vxdv prwlydÇÕhv dr fuldu Ol0 rqvkduhB ME= Ehp/ doÉp gr ghvhmr jhudo gh ph wruqdu xp surgxwru gh flqhpd/ hx hvwlyh lqwhuhvvdgr/ sru xp whpsr/ qdv fr0 qh{Õhv shvvrdlv txh dv shvvrdv fuldp frp d pÍgld1 PÚ0 vlfd/ sud vhu pdlv hvshfÍilfr/ dvvlp frpr shuvrqdjhqv gh ilophv h WY1 D qrÇÃr gr %idqgrp% h wxgr/ frpr dv shvvrdv ilfdp lqyhvwlgdv qdtxhodv vlwxdÇÕhv h shvvrdv duwlilfldlv1 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 65
  • 33. FDSD — HQWUHYLVWD FRP MRVK EHUQKDUG Hx yl frqh{Õhv hqwuh hvvhv iruwhv vhqwlphqwrv h r ihqÔphqr gd sludwduld rqolqh1 Vh yrfÊ whp hvvh iru0 wÍvvlpr vhqwlphqwr gh sursulhgdgh sru dojr txh É uhdophqwh shvvrdo sdud yrfÊ/ qÃr lpsruwd frpr yr0 fÊ ydl frqvhjxl0or1 Edl{du d pÚvlfd pdlv srsxodu gr qryr Áoexp gd vxd edqgd idyrulwd/ dtxhod txh wh lqvslurx d gdu d yrowd sru flpd/ rx d txh yrfÊ rxylx frp r dpru gd vxd ylgd/ hwf1 © dÍ txh rv dujxphq0 wrv txh frpsdudp r grzqordg lohjdo gh pÚvlfd dr urxer gh xp fruwdgru gh judpd gh xpd ormd frph0 Çdudp d uxlu sud plp1 QÃr sud gl}hu txh hvwÁ wxgr ehp/ pdv txh É pdlv frpsolfdgr1 HqwÃr hx qxqfd wlqkd ylvwr qlqjxÉp h{sorudu hv0 vdv lghldv1 H hx exvtxhl xpd pdqhlud gh frpelqdu/ mxqwr frp phx ghvhmr gh id}hu/ xpd shtxhqd klvwÓ0 uld shvvrdo d uhvshlwr gh jhqwh gd plqkd lgdgh h gdv uhodÇÕhv txh hodv frqwurhp/ hqwÃr hx ghvfreul txh wlqkd dojr hvshfldo1 UHO= Sru txh hvfrokhx glvwulexlu Olrqvkduh yld vwuhdplq/ gh judÇd dwudyÉv gd LqwhuqhwB Txdlv irudp vxdv lqwhqÇÕhvB ME= Hx hvwdyd id}hqgr hvvh iloph sru +txdvh, qh0 qkxp glqkhlur h vdeld txh/ ghylgr À dvshuh}d hvwlor %or0il% txh hx wlqkd dqwhv/ qÃr luld vhu pxlwr frphufl0 do1 Plqkd phwd qÃr hud id}hu glqkhlur/ hud frqvhjxlu txh r iloph irvvh dvvlvwlgr shod pdlru txdqwlgdgh gh rokrv srvvÍyho/ sruwdqwr/ frorfÁ0or rqolqh gh judÇd sduhfhx d phokru pdqhlud gh id}Ê0or1 Hvshfldophqwh qhvvd idvh/ vhp whu xp qrph uhfrqkhflgr h qhqkx0 pd ud}Ãr sdud vh suhrfxsdu/ É pdlv ydolrvr sdud plp whu 433 shvvrdv dvvlvwlqgr phx iloph gh judÇd/ gr txh 43 shvvrdv sdjdqgr XV'43/331 Mrvk gxudqwh xpd ilopdjhp1 DoÉp glvvr/ kdyld wrgd xpd txhvwÃr vxemhwlyd qr iloph hp vl/ sru idodu gr frpsduwlokdphqwr rqolqh h frp dv fr lqwhuhvvdgr$ Plqkd suhrfxsdÇÃr sulqflsdo vhpsuh irl r shvvrdv txh edl{dp pÚvlfd h ilophv/ vhuld xp srxfr luÔql0 wudedokr= id}hu r iloph txh hx txhuld/ gd pdqhlud txh hx fr vh hx whqwdvvh vhjxudu d glvwulexlÇÃr frp pÃr gh ihuur1 txhuld/ h hx shufruuhuld txdotxhu fdplqkr txh ph shupl0 Sruwdqwr/ d ghflvÃr gh frorfÁ0or rqolqh gh judÇd/ ilfrx xp wlvvh id}Ê0or1 srxfr lpsuhjqdgd hp wrgr r iloph ghvgh r lqÍflr1 UHO= Sru txh yrfÊ hvfrokhx gdu hqirtxh qdv whf0 UHO= Kdyld dojxp ghvfrqwhqwdphqwr sru sduwh qrorjldv gd Lqwhuqhw qr iloph OlrqvkduhB grv sdwurflrqdgruhv gr Olrqvkduh qhvwh prghor ME= Hx qxqfd yl d fxowxud gd lqwhuqhw uhwudwdgd gh irupd gh qhjÓflrB uhdolvwd qd pÍgld srsxodu= d fxowxud gd lqwhuqhw txh hx fr0 ME= QÃr/ hvshfldophqwh frqvlghudqgr txh hx hud r Úql0 qkhfld h txh wrgr pxqgr frqkhfh É dshqdv xpd sduwh1 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 66
  • 34. FDSD — HQWUHYLVWD FRP MRVK EHUQKDUG Hx dfkdyd txh kdyld xpd rsruwxqlgdgh sdud id}Ê0or uhdolv0 Pdv krqhvwdphqwh/ qhvvd idvh/ hvwdprv ghvhpshqkdq0 wlfdphqwh/ gh xp prgr txh hx qxqfd wlqkd ylvwr dqwhv gr sdsÉlv h id}hqgr pÚowlsodv wduhidv sdud frqvhjxlu id}hu qxp iloph1 d frlvd wrgd1 Hud xpd lghld txh wlqkd qd fdehÇd sru pdlv rx phqrv xp dqr/ pdv qxqfd dfkhl txh hvwduld surqwd UHO= Vhx suÓ{lpr iloph/ Wkh Slrqhhu Rqh= %slorw% sdud prqwdu xpd surgxÇÃr uhdo1 Hx dvvxpl txh luld id}hu +wudgxÇÃr olyuh/ R Slrqhlur= Slorwr, mÁ whp wrgrv rv dojxqv srxfrv ilophv pdlv qd olqkd gh Olrqvkduh/ h gh0 uhfxuvrv qhfhvvÁulrv sdud vhu urgdgr1 Txdlv vh0 srlv/ wdoyh} vhu fdsd} gh frphÇdu d shqvdu hp Slrqhhu uÃr rv suÓ{lprv sdvvrvB Rqh1 Eudfh| irl uhdophqwh d shvvrd txh ph frqyhqfhx ME= Slrqhhu Rqh É xp vhuldgr gudpÁwlfr txh irl ghvh0 gh txh vhuÍdprv fdsd}hv gh id}hu r surjudpd djrud/ sru0 qkdgr sdud vh sduhfhu frpr txdotxhu surjudpd vÉulr txh wdqwr/ qÃr whuld dfrqwhflgr vhp hoh1 Hoh/ gh dojxpd irupd/ yrfÊ yÊ qd WY1 QÓv dfdedprv gh id}hu r slorwr h hvwdprv mxqwrx wrgrv hvvhv hohphqwrv/ h xp prqwh gh jhqwh whp surqwrv sdud olehuÁ0or qr YRGR/ d sodwdirupd rqolqh txh yrqwdgh gh wudedokdu hp xp slorwr sru qdgd/ edvhdgr/ hx xwlol}dprv sdud glvwulexlu Olrqvkduh1 Il}hprv r slorwr frp gl}ld/ qd txdolgdgh gr urwhlur dshqdv1 Hx dfkr txh rxwudv fhufd gh XV'9333/33/ pdv sdud id}hu r uhvwr gd whpsrud0 shvvrdv vh hqyroyhudp srutxh yludp srwhqfldo qd surgx0 gd/ hvshudprv frqwdu frp lqyhvwlgruhv rx sdwurflqdgruhv ÇÃr sdud vhu pxlwr hvshfldo1 frusrudwlyrv/ rx xpd frpelqdÇÃr grv grlv1 UHO= D vÉulh %Wkh Slr0 Sdud xp vhuldgr hp fxu0 D sulqflsdo glihuhqÇd qhhu Rqh% whp xp sod0 vr/ suhflvduhprv sdjdu vdoÁulrv gh yhugdgh h lq0 txh vhsdud dv shv0 qr txh hqyroyh xpd fÁsvxod gr whpsr txh yhvwlu hp pdlv xqlgdghv vrdv frp judqghv lghldv gdv surydophqwh shuwhqfld shupdqhqwhv gh surgx0 À XqlÃr VrylÉwlfd h luÁ ÇÃr1 Pdv/ whprv hvsh0 shvvrdv gh vxfhvvr= d dwlwxgh wud}hu frqvhtxhqfldv udqÇd gh txh/ xpd yh} gh id}hu1 txh luÃr dihwdu d wrgrv1 txh dv shvvrdv dvvlvwdp Rqgh vhuÃr judydgdv dr wlsr gh wudedokr txh dv fhqdv gr vhuldgrB H hvwdprv id}hqgr/ dojx0 Mrvk Ehuqkdug vreuh r hohqfr/ wulokd pd frlvd ydl ixqflrqdu vrqrud h wrgd surgx0 sud id}hu r uhvwr gr surjudpd vdlu1 Plqkd srvlÇÃr É d phv0 ÇÃr hqyroylgd frp r surmhwrB pd gh Olrqvkduh= r wudedokr yhp hp sulphlur oxjdu/ qr hq0 ME= QÓv urgdprv r slorwr qrv duuhgruhv gh Qryd run1 wdqwr/ dv frlvdv txh r id}hp vÃr dv txh ydprv shuvhjxlu1 Xpd gdv judqghv ydqwdjhvq gd whfqrorjld djrud É d glv0 srqlelolgdgh gh ihuudphqwdv txh qrv shuplwhp idovlilfdu/ UHO= Frpr dv wduhidv gr surmhwr vÃr glvwulexÍ0 gh pdqhlud pxlwr uhdolvwd/ orfdlv rqgh qxqfd hvwlyhprv gh gdvB Frpr Eudfh| Vplwk frqwulexl frp %Wkh Slr0 yhugdgh1 qhhu Rqh%B Frorfdprv xp dqÚqflr rqolqh surfxudqgr shor hohqfr/ ME= Eudfh| Vplwk/ txh dojxqv ghyhp uhfrqkhfhu gh Ol0 lqirupdqgr txh vhuld xp wudedokr vhp sdjdphqwr/ pdv rqvkduh/ É r fr0surgxwru h{hfxwlyr h r gluhwru sulqflsdo gr txh whuld srwhqfldo gh xp sdjdphqwr uhdo vh r surjudpd vhuldgr1 Hoh gluljlx r slorwr1 Hoh wdpeÉp ih} rv hihlwrv ylvx0 wlyhvvh frqwlqxlgdgh1 Frqvhjxlprv xp hohqfr lqfuÍyho/ dlv h vxshuylvlrqrx d sÓv0surgxÇÃr1 Hx wlqkd xpd sduwlfl0 txh wlqkd yrqwdgh gh wudedokdu gh judÇd srutxh jrvwdudp sdÇÃr qlvvr wdpeÉp/ pdv hx vxephwld d pdlru sduwh ghoh gr urwhlur h ilfdudp hqwxvldvpdgrv frp r txh hvwÁydprv dr mxojdphqwr gh Eudfh|1 id}hqgr h frp d pdqhlud txh hvwÁydprv id}hqgr1 Hvwd0 Hx fulhl r vhuldgr/ frqfhel dv suhplvvdv h dv shuvrqd0 prv wudedokdqgr frp xp frpsrvlwru txh/ sru dfdvr/ É fx0 jhqv h hvfuhyl r urwhlur sdud r slorwr1 Hx hvwrx sdud frph0 qkdgr gr qrvvr surgxwru h{hfxwlyr1 Çdu d hvfuhyhu rv urwhlurv sdud r uhvwdqwh grv hslvÓglrv gd Wlyhprv dshqdv xpd Úqlfd hqwuhylvwd frp hoh rqwhp sulphlud whpsrudgd gr vhuldgr1 sdud dfhuwdu d vxd sduwlflsdÇÃr1 Gh qryr= rxwud shvvrd gr0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 67
  • 35. FDSD — HQWUHYLVWD FRP MRVK EHUQKDUG dqgr vxdv kdelolgdghv gh judÇd srutxh vh hqwxvldvprx gr vhx surgxwr judwxlwdphqwh/ txh dujxphqwrv frp r surjudpd1 xvduldB ME= Ehp/ vh hohv suhflvdvvhp vhu frqyhqflgrv/ hx qÃr UHO= Ghsrlv gr ilp gr hslvÓglr slorwr/ frpr yr0 vhl vh hx whqwduld frqyhqfÊ0orv1 Hx vhl srutxh xpd shv0 fÊ ghvhmd frqwlqxdu frp d surgxÇÃr grv suÓ{l0 vrd vhuld khvlwdqwh hp wulokdu hvvh fdplqkr1 Qxqfd qlq0 prv hslvÓglrvB jxÉp r ih} sdud surydu1 Whp phqrv vwdwxv h h{shulÊqfld ME= KdyhuÃr dojxpdv glihuhqÇdv hqwuh r slorwr h r suÓ{l0 gr txh id}hu %gd pdqhlud uhdo%1 D sulqflsdo ghvydqwdjhp pr hslvÓglr/ hp whuprv gh surgxÇÃr/ hwf1 Pdv hx qÃr gh id}hu r fdplqkr wudglflrqdo/ gh wudedokdu frp hpsuhvdv dfkr txh vhuÁ wÃr guÁvwlfr txh qÃr vh hqfdl{h frp r txh gh pÍgld hvwdehohflgdv/ É txh sdud id}Ê0or yrfÊ suhflvd gh yhlr dqwhv1 Hx dfkr txh É pdlv xpd hyroxÇÃr txh qÃr wlud0 pxlwr glqkhlur1 Xp prqwh gh shvvrdv wdohqwrvdv frp Ówl0 uÁ yrfÊ gd klvwÓuld1 Hx wdpeÉp qÃr dfkr txh lvvr qÃr wh0 pdv lghldv qxqfd wÊp d fkdqfh uhdol}Á0odv h gd pdqhlud qkd suhfhghqwhv1 D pdlruld grv surjudpdv ohyd xp whpsr txh hodv txhuhp1 Hvvd hud d vlwxdÇÃr hp txh hvwÁydprv1 frqvlghuÁyho hqwuh d surgxÇÃr gr slorwr h r sulphlur hslvÓ0 Vh whqwÁvvhprv frorfdu Slrqhhu Rqh qxpd uhgh rx qxp glr gd vÉulh sursuldphqwh glwd1 Pdlv gh xp dqr/ Àv yh}hv1 hvwÚglr/ hoh qxqfd vhuld ihlwr1 Vhuld frorfdgr qxpd sudwh0 ohlud sdud shjdu srhlud1 UHO= D vÉulh Wkh Slrqhhu Rqh vhuÁ glvwulexÍgd sh0 odv uhghv S5S/ glihuhqwh gdv vÉuldv wudglflrqdlv1 UHO= Txdlv vÃr vhxv sodqrv dsÓv d vÉulh Wkh Slr0 Txdlv rv lpsdfwrv hvshudgrv qhvwd lqlfldwlydB qhhu RqhB ME= Qrydphqwh/ d sulqflsdo prwlydÇÃr sdud id}hu ghvvd ME= Krqhvwdphqwh/ hx hvwrx wÃr hqyroylgr frp r surjud0 irupd É vlpsohvphqwh id}hu frp txh r surjudpd vhmd ihl0 pd txh qÃr frqvljr ylvxdol}du pxlwr pdlv orqjh1 Whprv wr1 YrfÊ qÃr suhflvd pdlv gd shuplvvÃr grv jxduglÕhv gr xpd whpsrudgd frp : hslvÓglrv sodqhmdgd/ h shor phqrv frqwhÚgr fxowxudo +rv h{hfxwlyrv grv hvwÚglrv h gdv uhghv pdlv txdwur hvwdÇÕhv gd klvwÓuld txh srghuÍdprv frqwdu gh whohylvÃr/ hwf,1 Pdv qlqjxÉp ih} ghvvd pdqhlud dqwhv1 gdÍ sdud iuhqwh1 Hx dlqgd whqkr dojxpdv lghldv sdud ilophv D lghld É txh r surjudpd vhuÁ ihlwr h glvwulexÍgr/ h d hvsh0 txh hx srghuld whqwdu h prqwdu dr phvpr whpsr txh d udqÇd É d gh txh dv shvvrdv uhvsrqghuÃr d hoh gd phvpd surgxÇÃr gr vhuldgr/ pdv uhdophqwh qÃr vhl frpr lvvr wx0 pdqhlud txh uhvsrqghuldp d txdotxhu vhuldgr gh whohylvÃr gr ixqflrqduld1 gdv uhghv DPF rx KER1 Frp r eÔqxv dglflrqdo gh txh hohv whuÃr xp lpsdfwr pdlv gluhwr qd surgxÇÃr gr surjud0 UHO= Ghl{h dojxpdv sdodyudv sdud rv ohlwruhv gd pd/ xpd yh} txh frqildprv pdlv qd pÍgld vrfldo h qdv gr0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh1 dÇÕhv yroxqwÁuldv gr txh qdv uhghv gh whohylvÃr wudglflr0 ME= Hx lqfhqwlyr txdotxhu xp txh whqkd xpd lghld/ id}hu qdlv1 xvr grv vhxv uhfxuvrv h vdlu sud id}hu gd pdqhlud txh sx0 ghu1 Hvvd É d sulqflsdo glihuhqÇd txh vhsdud dv shvvrdv UHO= Frpr d glvwulexlÇÃr judwxlwd gr iloph Ol0 frp judqghv lghldv gdv shvvrdv gh vxfhvvr= d dwlwxgh gh rqvkduh idyruhfhuÁ r fxvwhlr gr ilophB id}hu1 YrfÊ qÃr suhflvd gd shuplvvÃr gh qlqjxÉp frp rv ME= Hx frqvhjxl dojxp uhwruqr/ pdv qÃr wrgr hoh1 R sulq0 uhfxuvrv dpsodphqwh glvsrqÍyhlv krmh hp gld1 flsdo vxfhvvr gh olehudu ghvvd pdqhlud É txh pxlwdv shv0 H hvshur txh dv shvvrdv dvvlvwdp Slrqhhu Rqh txdqgr vrdv r dvvlvwludp/ pxlwdv shvvrdv uhfrqkhfhp phx qrph hvwlyhu olehudgr/ h r derughp frp d phqwh dehuwd1 © xpd djrud/ hqwÃr/ txdqgr frphÇdprv d whqwdu frqvhjxlu shv0 judqgh h{shulÊqfld/ pdv hvwrx hqwxvldvpdgr frp dv srv0 vrdv lqwhuhvvdgdv qr Slrqhhu Rqh/ hx qÃr dsduhfl vlpsohv0 vlelolgdghv1 Ylvlwh zzz1slrqhhurqh1wy rqgh hvwdprv srv0 phqwh gr qdgd1 Irprv fdsd}hv gh dwlqjlu r fkÃr/ frpr wdqgr ylghr eorjv d uhvshlwr gd surgxÇÃr %sru wuÁv gdv fÂ0 vh hvwlyÉvvhprv fruuhqgr1 phudv%1 Xp deudÇr shvvrdo/ h reuljdgr sru ohu$ UHO= Vh yrfÊ whqwdvvh frqyhqfhu xp surgxwru gh ilophv d vhjxlu r vhx prghor gh qhjÓflr/ olehudq0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 68
  • 36. FDSD#—#S5S=#IHUUDPHQWD#GH#FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR#RX#GH#SLUDWDULDB S5S=#Ihuudphqwd#gh# frpsduwlokdphqwr#rx#gh#sludwduldB Mdnxe#Nuhfkrzlf}#0#v{f1kx Sru#Zdowhu#Dudqkd#Fdsdqhpd SuhÂpexor= Dqwhv# gh# hqiuhqwdu# r# whpd# sursrvwr/# hx# jrvwduld# gh# id}hu# xp# hvfoduhflphqwr# d# uhvshlwr# gr#duwljr#gd#hglÇÃr#dqwhulru#+%Sludwduld=#frpr#hq0 iuhqwÁ0odB%/# Uhylvwd# HvsÍulwr# Olyuh/# qš# 46,/# hp# txh# diluphl# txh# d# sludwduld/# hperud# suÁwlfd# fr0 pxp#h#dfhlwd#hp#qrvvd#vrflhgdgh/#dlqgd#dvvlp# É#fulph/#h#wdo#%dfhlwdÇÃr%#qÃr#shuplwh#uhyrjdu#d# ohjlvodÇÃr#shqdo1 Vhp# vdehu/# r# phx# prghvwr# duwljr# mxuÍglfr# ghvshuwrx# xpd# wuhphqgd# sroÊplfd# qhvvd# txhul0 gd# uhylvwd# whfqroÓjlfd1# Dojxqv# ohlwruhv/# sru# hpdlo/#ph#dfxvdudp#gh#lu#frqwud#d#olqkd#hglwruldo# gd#uhylvwd/#h#dwÉ#phvpr#vhu#frqwuÁulr#dr#vriwzd0 uh#olyuh1 Qd#yhugdgh/#hp#qhqkxp#prphqwr#idohl#do0 jr# frqwuÁulr# dr# vriwzduh# olyuh1#Dshqdv# dsuhvhq0 whl#plqkdv#ud}Õhv#mxuÍglfdv#frqwuÁuldv#À#sludwduld/# txh#sdvvdudp#d#whu/#lqfoxvlyh/#dsrlr#wdqwr#qd#mx0 ulvsuxgÊqfld# gr# VWI4/# txdqwr# qr# shqvdphqwr# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 69
  • 37. FDSD#—#S5S=#IHUUDPHQWD#GH#FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR#RX#GH#SLUDWDULDB grxwulqÁulr#gr#Surihvvru#UrjÉulr#Juhfr51 Pdv# frpr# dv# uhghv# S5S# vhuldp# dqdolvd0 H/#sdud#ghl{Á0orv#frp#d#sxojd#dwuÁv#gd#ruh0 gdv#shor#Gluhlwr#ShqdoB okd#sdud#xp#duwljr#ixwxur=#d#sludwduld/#lqfoxvlyh/#É# lqlpljd#pruwdo#gr#vriwzduh#olyuh1# LL#0#R#S5S#h#r#Gluhlwr#Shqdo= Vdqhdgr#r#ihlwr/#sdvvhprv#À#dqÁolvh#gr#pÉ0 R#idwr#gh#dojxÉp#xwlol}du#r#Iluhir{#sdud#srv0 ulwr1 wdu# frphqwÁulrv# fdoxqlrvrv# hp# eorj# gh# whufhlurv# qÃr#shuplwh#frqfoxlu#txh#r#qdyhjdgru#É#xp#lqv0 wuxphqwr#fuldgr#sdud#d#suÁwlfd#gh#fulphv1#R#txh# L#0#LqwurgxÇÃr= suryrfrx# hvvd# frqgxwd# irl# xp# xvr# dexvlyr/# gl0 R# S5S/# deuhyldÇÃr# gh# shhu0wr0shhu# +srqwr# yhuvr#gd#lgÉld#ruljlqdo#gr#vhx#fuldgru1 d#srqwr/#hp#sruwxjxÊv,/#É#xpd#dutxlwhwxud#gh#glv0 wulexlÇÃr#gh#gdgrv#txh#whp/#frpr#sulqflsdo#fdudf0 R# phvpr# udflrfÍqlr# vh# srgh# wudqvsruwdu# whuÍvwlfd/# d# ghvfhqwudol}dÇÃr/# rqgh# fdgd# srqwr# sdud#rv#dsolfdwlyrv#gh#S5S1#Srgh0vh#dilupdu#txh# uhdol}d#wduhidv#gh#folhqwh#h#gh#vhuylgru/#h#qÃr#kÁ# rv# sulqflsdlv# ghohv/# hvshfldophqwh# rv# yrowdgrv# xp#frpsxwdgru#fhqwudo#txh#frqwuroh#d#dgplqlvwud0 sdud# r# surwrfror# Elwwruuhqw/# qÃr# irudp# frqfhel0 ÇÃr#gr#vlvwhpd1 grv# sdud# d# suÁwlfd# gh# fulphv# frqwud# rv# gluhlwrv# dxwrudlv/# ud}Ãr# shod# txdo# txh# wÊ0orv# lqvwdodgrv# Hvvd# whfqrorjld# jdqkrx# qrwrulhgdgh# txdq0 hp#vhx#frpsxwdgru#qÃr#frqiljxud#fulph1 gr/# hp# 4<<</# r# hvwxgdqwh# qruwh0dphulfdqr# Vkdzq#Idqqlqj#fulrx#d#uhgh#Qdsvwhu/#txh#shupl0 Sru#rxwur#odgr/#vÓ#kdyhuÁ#fulph#vh#r#xvxÁ0 wld# d# wurfd# olyuh# gh# dutxlyrv/# qrwdgdphqwh# pÚvl0 ulr#vh#xwlol}du#gr#surjudpd#sdud#edl{du#h#frpsdu0 fdv# qr# irupdwr# PS6/# id}hqgr# vxujlu# xp# hpedwh# wlokdu#pdwhuldo#surwhjlgr1#H#qhvvh#srqwr#txh#yhmr# qd#pÍgld#d#uhvshlwr#gd#ylrodÇÃr#grv#gluhlwrv#dxwr0 txh#d#sludwduld#sru#S5S#É#pdlv#ohvlyd#txh#d#%wud0 udlv/#ud}Ãr#shod#txdo#d#lgÉld#gr#S5S#ilfrx#dvvrfld0 glflrqdo%1 gd#À#sludwduld1 Shod# sludwduld# frqyhqflrqdo/# d# frqgxwd# gr# xvxÁulr# hud# gh# vlpsohvphqwh# id0 }hu# r# grzqordg# gr# surjudpd1# Glil0 flophqwh# hoh# srghuld# id}hu/# vlpxowdqhdphqwh/# r# grzqordg# h# r# xsordg/# vhmd# srutxh# d# yhorflgdgh# ######R#idwr#gh#dojxÉp#xwlol}du# gd#frqh{Ãr#qÃr#uhfrphqgdyd/#vh0 md##srutxh#rv#dsolfdwlyrv#gd#Ésrfd# r#Iluhir{#sdud#srvwdu# qÃr#shuplwldp1 frphqwÁulrv#fdoxqlrvrv#hp#eorj# Frp# r# S5S/# kÁ# d# srvvlelolgd0 gh#gr#xvxÁulr#edl{du#dutxlyrv#h/#lq0 gh#whufhlurv#qÃr#shuplwh#frqfoxlu# foxvlyh/# iruqhfÊ0orv# sdud# xpd# pdlru# txdqwlgdgh# gh# shvvrdv1# txh#r#qdyhjdgru#É#xp# Judqgh# sduwh# grv# surwrfrorv/# hp# hvshfldo/#r#mÁ#flwdgr#Elwwruuhqw/#shu0 lqvwuxphqwr#fuldgr#sdud#d#suÁwlfd# plwh# txh# r# xvxÁulr# frpsduwlokh# gh#fulphv1 qÃr#vÓ#xp#dutxlyr/#pdv#sduwhv#lq0 frpsohwdv#ghohv/#shgdÇrv/#txh#sr0 ghp# ghsrlv# vhuhp# prqwdgrv# Zdowhu#Fdsdqhpd frpr#xp#txheud0fdehÇd1# Wrgdv# dv# frqgxwdv# ghvfulwdv# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 6:
  • 38. FDSD#—#S5S=#IHUUDPHQWD#GH#FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR#RX#GH#SLUDWDULDB qr# sduÁjudir# dqwhulru# vÃr# uhdol}dgdv# txdvh# txh# Dshvdu#gh#wxgr#lvvr/#yrowr#d#gl}hu=#S5S#qÃr# dxwrpdwlfdphqwh/# h{ljlqgr# d# pÍqlpd# lqwhuyhq0 É#sludwduld/#h#dgplwh#lqwhuhvvdqwhv#dsolfdÇÕhv#fr0 ÇÃr# gr# xvxÁulr# h# dwÉ# srgh# vhu# ihlwd# vhp# txdo0 phufldlv1 txhu# dowhudÇÃr# rx# fxvwrpl}dÇÃr# gh# frqiljxudÇÃr1### LLL#0#R#S5S#h#vxdv#dsolfdÇÕhv= Vh#hvvd#frqgxwd#gh#edl{du#dutxlyrv#sludwdv# ©#yhugdgh/#judqgh#sduwh#gdv#srvvÍyhlv#dsol0 sru#S5S#srgh#dwlqjlu#xp#qÚphur#pdlru#gh#shvvr0 fdÇÕhv# sdud# r# S5S# hvwÃr# yrowdgdv# À# sludwduld/# r# dv/#h#dedufdu#pdlv#dutxlyrv/#hod#whp#pxlwr#pdlv# txh#vh#shufheh#shod#srsxodulgdgh#gh#vlwhv#frpr# srwhqfldolgdgh# ohvlyd# txh# d# glwd# %wudglflrqdo%/# ud0 r#Wkh# Sludwh# Ed|# +r# pdlv# idprvr# h# sroÊplfr,# h# }Ãr#shod#txdo#r#mxl}/#hp#fdvr#gh#frqghqdÇÃr#gh# r#Plqlqryd#+txh#qÃr#shuplwh#pdlv#d#glvwulexlÇÃr# xp#sludwd#gh#S5S/#ghyhuÁ#revhuydu#hvvd#fdudfwh0 gh#pdwhuldo#sludwd,/#txh#dwxdp#frpr#yhugdghlurv# uÍvwlfd# qd# hoderudÇÃr# gd# vxd# vhqwhqÇd/# frqiru0 %fdwÁorjrv%# gh# dutxlyrv/# gluhflrqdqgr# r# xvxÁulr# ph#r#duw1#8</#fdsxw/#gr#FÓgljr#Shqdo1 dr# vhx# grzqordg# mxqwr# frp# rxwurv/# dwudyÉv# gh# uhghv#frpr#r#Elwwruuhqw1 %Duw1# 8<# 0# R# mxl}/# dwhqghqgr# À# fxosdelolgd0 Pdv# É# lpsruwdqwh# txh# vh# gljd/# r# S5S# qÃr# gh/#drv#dqwhfhghqwhv/#À#frqgxwd#vrfldo/#À#shuvr0 srgh# ilfdu# ylqfxodgr# À# lgÉld# gh# sludwduld1# Glyhu0 qdolgdgh# gr# djhqwh/# drv# prwlyrv/# Àv# vdv# frpsdqkldv# shuplwhp# r# frpsduwlokdphqwr# flufxqvwÂqfldv# h# frqvhtÜÊqfldv# gr# fulph/# ehp# gh# vhx# pdwhuldo/# sru/# edvlfdphqwh/# grlv# prwlyrv# frpr# dr# frpsruwdphqwr# gd# yÍwlpd/# hvwdehohfh0 sulqflsdlv= uÁ/#frqiruph#vhmd#qhfhvvÁulr#h#vxilflhqwh#sdud#uh0 41#QÃr#suhflvdp#dufdu#frp#rv#fxvwrv#gh#du0 surydÇÃr#h#suhyhqÇÃr#gr#fulph=% pd}hqdjhp# grv# dutxlyrv/# r# txh# É# vljqlilfdwlyr# hp# fdvrv# gh# ilophv/# ghprv# gh# mrjrv/# xsgdwhv# H# hvvd# ohvlylgdgh# vhuÁ# hqfdl{dgd# qr# lwhp# txh# wudwd# gdv# frqvhtÜÊqfldv# gr# fulph/# pdv# É# suhflvr# txh# vh# idÇd# xp# dohuwd=# r# phur# xvr# gh# S5S# sludwd# qÃr#vljqlilfd#txh#r#djhqwh#fulplqrvr#wh0 ©#yhugdgh/#judqgh#sduwh# uÁ/# dxwrpdwlfdphqwh/# xpd# shqd# pdlru# txh# r# sludwd# %wudglflrqdo%1# R# mxl}# ghyhuÁ# gdv#srvvÍyhlv#dsolfdÇÕhv#sdud#r# dydoldu#gh#dfrugr#frp#r#fdvr#frqfuhwr/# ohydqgr# hp# frqwd/# sulqflsdophqwh/# d# S5S#hvwÃr#yrowdgdv#À#sludwduld/# dqÁolvh# gh# hyhqwxdo# suryd# shulfldo# qr# frpsxwdgru#gr#uÉx#h#gr#suryhgru/#sdud# r#txh#vh#shufheh#shod# yhulilfdu# r# wuÁihjr# gh# gdgrv# h# dutxlyrv# srsxodulgdgh#gh#vlwhv#frpr#r# uhdol}dgr1 ©# yhugdgh# txh# dlqgd# qÃr# vh# whp# Wkh#Sludwh#Ed|#+r#pdlv#idprvr# qrwÍfld# gh# xvxÁulr# txh# whqkd# vlgr# frq0 ghqdgr/# qr# Eudvlo/# shod# suÁwlfd# gh# slud0 h#sroÊplfr,#h#r#Plqlqryd#+txh# wduld# sru# S5S/# pdv# qrv# HXD# surolihudp# qÃr#shplwh#pdlv#d#glvwulexlÇÃr# hvvdv# dÇÕhv# fulplqdlv/# hp# judqgh# sdu0 wh# lqfhqwlydgdv# shor# oree|# gdv# dvvrfld0 gh#pdwhuldo#sludwd,111 ÇÕhv# uhsuhvhqwdwlydv# gdv# lqgÚvwuldv# gh# Zdowhu#Fdsdqhpd flqhpd#h#gh#pÚvlfd1 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 6;
  • 39. FDSD#—#S5S=#IHUUDPHQWD#GH#FRPSDUWLOKDPHQWR#RX#GH#SLUDWDULDB gh#surjudpdv#hwf> Vxvwhqwdyd0vh#txh#d#uhihulgd#frqgxwd#vhuld#vrfldophqwh# dghtxdgd/#kdmd#ylvwd#txh#d#frohwlylgdgh#qÃr#uhfulplqduld# 51# QÃr# suhflvdp# dufdu# frp# rv# fxvwrv# gh# r#yhqghgru#gh#FG*v#h#GYG*v#uhsurgx}lgrv#vhp#d# wudqvihuÊqfld# gh# gdgrv/# hvshfldophqwh# vdehqgr# dxwrul}dÇÃr#gr#wlwxodu#gr#gluhlwr#dxwrudo/#pdv/#dr#frqwuÁulr/# txh# dv# hpsuhvdv# gh# dupd}hqdphqwr# olplwdp# r# hvwlpxoduld#d#vxd#suÁwlfd#hp#yluwxgh#grv#dowrv#suhÇrv# wuÁihjr#gh#gdgrv#d#xp#qÚphur#phqvdo1 ghvvhv#surgxwrv/#lqvxvfhwÍyhlv#gh#vhuhp#dgtxlulgrv#sru# judqgh#sduwh#gd#srsxodÇÃr1#Dvvhyhurx0vh#txh#r#idwr#gh#d# vrflhgdgh#wrohudu#d#suÁwlfd#gr#gholwr#hp#txhvwÃr#qÃr# lpsolfduld#gl}hu#txh#r#frpsruwdphqwr#gr#sdflhqwh#srghuld# Yhmr/#dtxl/#xpd#qÍwlgd#frqiljxudÇÃr#gr#ihqÔ0 vhu#frqvlghudgr#oÍflwr1#Vdolhqwrx0vh/#dghpdlv/#txh#d# phqr# gr# furzgvrxuflqj/# hp# txh# vh# whufhlul}d/# ylrodÇÃr#gh#gluhlwr#dxwrudo#h#d#frphufldol}dÇÃr#gh# judwxlwdphqwh/# xpd# ghwhuplqdgd# wduhid2ixqÇÃr# surgxwrv#%sludwdv%#vhpsuh#irud#remhwr#gh#ilvfdol}dÇÃr#h# drv# xvxÁulrv# gd# Lqwhuqhw/# d# glwd# pxowlgÃr# uhsuhvvÃr1#Diluprx0vh#txh#d#frqgxwd#ghvfulwd#qrv#dxwrv# fdxvduld#hqruphv#suhmxÍ}rv#dr#Ilvfr#shod#exuod#gr# +furzg,1# sdjdphqwr#gh#lpsrvwrv/#À#lqgÚvwuld#irqrjuÁilfd#h#drv# VhuÃr#rv#wdlv#xvxÁulrv#txh/#gh#irupd#glvwul0 frphufldqwhv#uhjxoduphqwh#hvwdehohflgrv1#Uhmhlwrx0vh/# exÍgd/#frpsduwlokduÃr#rv#fxvwrv#h#rv#Ôqxv#gr#du0 sru#ilp/#r#shglgr#irupxodgr#qd#wulexqd#gh#txh#irvvh/# hqwÃr/#dsolfdgr#qd#hvsÉflh#r#sulqfÍslr#gd#lqvljqlilfÂqfld#0# pd}hqdphqwr# h# gd# wudqvihuÊqfld# grv# dutxlyrv/# mÁ#txh#r#sdflhqwh#irud#vxusuhhqglgr#qd#srvvh#gh#4;3#FG*v# idflolwdqgr#d#vxd#glvvhplqdÇÃr1 %sludwdv%#_ #dr#ixqgdphqwr#gh#txh#r#mxÍ}r#vhqwhqfldqwh# wdpeÉp#ghqhjdud#r#sohlwr#whqgr#hp#frqwd#d#uhlqflgÊqfld# Sruwdqwr/# yÊ0vh# txh# r# S5S# wdpeÉp# srgh# gr#sdflhqwh#hp#uhodÇÃr#dr#phvpr#gholwr1#KF#<;;<;2VS/# vh# prvwudu# frpr# xpd# lqwhuhvvdqwh# hvwudwÉjld# uho1#Plq1#Ulfdugr#Ohzdqgrzvnl/#5317153431#+KF0<;;<;,%# hfrqÔplfd/#hvshfldophqwh#hp#sdÍvhv#hp#ghvhq0 +julirv#qrvvrv,1#GlvsrqÍyho#hp#?kwws=22zzz1vwi1mxv1euA1# yroylphqwr/# hp# txh# rv# fxvwrv# grv# lwhqv# dflpd# Dfhvvr#hp#5;1deu153431 hohqfdgrv#dlqgd#vÃr#dowrv1 51##Hx#shujxqwhl/#yld#Wzlwwhu/#vh#hud#srvvÍyho#dsolfdu#r# sulqfÍslr#gd#dghtxdÇÃr#vrfldo#À#sludwduld1#D#uhvsrvwd#gr# Surihvvru#Urjhulr#Juhfr#qÃr#srghuld#vhu#pdlv#glyhuwlgd=# FrqfoxvÃr= %Dfkr#xp#devxugr1#Vh#iru#dvvlp/#rv#sroÍwlfrv#srghuldp# R# S5S# qÃr# É# edqglgr1# DolÁv/# hoh# srgh# vhu# dohjdu#dghtxdÇÃr#vrfldo#sdud#d#fruuxsÇÃr#txh#hvwÃr# xp#lpsruwdqwh#doldgr#sdud#dv#hpsuhvdv#h#sdud#d# dfrvwxpdgrv%1#GlvsrqÍyho#hp# glyxojdÇÃr#gh#frqwhÚgr1#D#pdogdgh#qÃr#hvwÁ#qd# ?kwws=22wzlwwhu1frp2urjhulrjuhfr2vwdwxv246535;4;458A1# whfqrorjld/#pdv#qr#xvr#txh#id}hp#ghod1 Dfhvvr#hp#41pdl153431 UhihuÊqfldv= 41##GhflvÃr#Sxeolfdgd#qr#Lqirupdwlyr#8;6#gr#VWI=# %%Sludwduld%#h#SulqfÍslr#gd#DghtxdÇÃr#Vrfldo D#Wxupd#lqghihulx#kdehdv#frusxv#hp#txh#d#Ghihqvruld# SÚeolfd#gr#Hvwdgr#gh#VÃr#Sdxor#uhtxhuld/#frp#edvh#qr# sulqfÍslr#gd#dghtxdÇÃr#vrfldo/#d#ghfodudÇÃr#gh# dwlslflgdgh#gd#frqgxwd#lpsxwdgd#d#frqghqdgr#frpr# lqfxuvr#qdv#shqdv#gr#duw1#4;7/#ˆ#5š/#gr#FS#+%Duw1#4;71# Ylrodu#gluhlwrv#gh#dxwru#h#rv#txh#okh#vÃr#frqh{rv=#l #ˆ#5š# Qd#phvpd#shqd#gr#ˆ#4š#lqfruuh#txhp/#frp#r#lqwxlwr#gh# oxfur#gluhwr#rx#lqgluhwr/#glvwulexl/#yhqgh/#h{sÕh#À#yhqgd/# doxjd/#lqwurgx}#qr#SdÍv/#dgtxluh/#rfxowd/#whp#hp#ghsÓvlwr/# ZDOWHU#FDSDQHPD#É#surihvvru#gd# ruljlqdo#rx#fÓsld#gh#reud#lqwhohfwxdo#rx#irqrjudpd# Hvfrod#gd#Pdjlvwudwxud#gr#Hvwdgr#gr#Ulr#gh# Mdqhlur#^ #HPHUM#+Eudvlo,1#Irupdgr#shod# uhsurgx}lgr#frp#ylrodÇÃr#gr#gluhlwr#gh#dxwru/#gr#gluhlwr#gh# Xqlyhuvlgdgh#Vdqwd#ºuvxod#0#XVX1#Dgyrjdgr# duwlvwd#lqwÉusuhwh#rx#h{hfxwdqwh#rx#gr#gluhlwr#gr#surgxwru# qr#Hvwdgr#gr#Ulr#gh#Mdqhlur1#Hpdlo=# gh#irqrjudpd/#rx/#dlqgd/#doxjd#ruljlqdo#rx#fÓsld#gh#reud# zdowhufdsdqhpdCjorer1frp#h#vlwh=# lqwhohfwxdo#rx#irqrjudpd/#vhp#d#h{suhvvd#dxwrul}dÇÃr# zzz1zdowhufdsdqhpd1frp1eu grv#wlwxoduhv#grv#gluhlwrv#rx#gh#txhp#rv#uhsuhvhqwh1%,1# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 6<
  • 40. FDSD#—#OXWD#GH#JDWR#H#UDWR#QDV#UHGHV#S5S Oxwd#gh#Jdwr#h#Udwr#qdv# uhghv#S5S Sru#Mrpdu#Vloyd Vdelqh#Vlprq#0#v{f1kx H# oÁ# vh# ydl# pdlv# gh# xpd# ihvvr# txh# qÃr# lpdjlqdyd# txh# gÉfdgd#ghvgh#txh#rxyl#idodu#sh0 luÍdprv#wrgrv#shughu#wdqwr#whp0 od# sulphlud# yh}# hp# uhghv# S5S/# sr# h# wdqwr# glqkhlur# eulqfdqgr# h# r# sureohpd# frqwlqxd# h{dwd0 gh# jdwr# h# udwr# ghvwh# mhlwr/# h# phqwh# r# phvpr=# xp# juxsr# gh# txdqgr# rokdprv# shod# iuhqwh# h# shvvrdv# txhuhqgr# frpsduwl0 yhprv# dv# srwhqfldolgdghv# gdv# okdu# frqwhÚgr# gljlwdo# oxwdqgr# fkdpdgdv# %dsolfdÇÕhv# qd# qx0 frqwud# xp# juxsr# gh# shvvrdv# yhp%/# yhmr# txh# hvwh# sureohpd# txh#qÃr#txhuhp#hvwh#frpsduwl0 whqgh# d# vh# wruqdu# pxlwr/# pdv# okdphqwr# 0# d# hwhuqd# oxwd# hqwuh# pxlwr# pdlv# frpsoh{r# dlqgd# jdwr#h#udwr$ qrv#suÓ{lprv#dqrv1 Vhpsuh# dfkhl# qdwxudo# hv0 Hqwhqgr# txh# d# lqgÚvwuld# wh# wlsr# gh# glvfxvvÃr/# pdv# frq0 gr# frs|uljkw# ydl# fdgd# yh}# pdlv# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 73
  • 41. FDSD#—#OXWD#GH#JDWR#H#UDWR#QDV#UHGHV#S5S jdvwdu#r#txh#iru#qhfhvvÁulr#sd0 wd# vlpsohv# +h# fxlgdgr# dr# Txhp# vdeh# qd# hvfrod/# rx# ud# surwhjhu# vxd# jdolqkd# grv# uhvsrqghu/#srlv#yrfÊ#fhuwdphq0 qd# idfxogdgh/# rqgh# vhpsuh# vh# ryrv# gh# rxwur# +r# txh# ph# ohp0 wh# ydl# ghqxqfldu# d# lgdgh,=# Do0 hqfrqwudyd# dtxhod# ormlqkd# gh# eud# r# %p|# suhflrxv%# gr# Vhqkru# jxÉp# dÍ# vh# ohpeud# gdv# ilwdv# {hur{# sdud# vh# frsldu# dojxpdv# grv# DqÉlv,/# h# wdpeÉp# qÃr# wh0 N:B sÁjlqdv# gh# xp# olyur111# wÁ# erp# qkr#gÚylgdv#gh#txh#vhpsuh#hq0 Hud#frpr#xp#%ulwr#gh#sdv0 txh# lvvr# dfderx# dwÉ# txh# fhgr# frqwuduhprv# dojxpd# irupd# gh# vdjhp%=#frpsudu#xpd#ilwd#N:#h# ghpdlv# h# qr# ilqdo# grv# dqrv# <3# frqwlqxdu# wurfdqgr# rv# dutxlyrv# sdvvdu# krudv# h# krudv# qd# iuhqwh# txdqgr# hx# ph# iruphl/# mÁ# hud# hohwuÔqlfrv# txh# txhuhprv# wur0 gr#vhx#dsduhokr#gh#vrp#+yhokr# pdlv# iÁflo# frpsudu# gurjdv# hp# fdu# h# frp# lvvr# ydprv# mrjdqgr# lvvr/# khlp,/# id}hqgr# vxdv# suÓ0 txdotxhu# ormlqkd# shuwr# gh# xpd# ulrv# gh# glqkhlur# qr# ol{r111# grv# suldv# frpslodÇÕhv/# prqwdqgr# idfxogdgh# gr# txh# frqvhjxlu# grlv#odgrv$ d#vhtxÊqfld#gh#pÚvlfd#gr#mhlwr# txh#wh#wludvvhp#fÓsld#gh#43#sÁ0 Dfuhglwr# txh# qdgd# gh0 txh# yrfÊ# jrvwdyd# h# fodur/# txd0 jlqdv# gh# xp# olyur# txdotxhu111# h# prqvwud# pdlv# d# lqdghtxdÇÃr# vh#vhpsuh#hvwdv#ilwdv#judydgdv# rokd# txh# qhvvd# Ésrfd# qrvvr# gr#prghor#dwxdo#xwlol}dgr#qd#lq0 frp#wdqwr#wudedokr#hudp#gdgdv# dfhvvr# d# olyurv# lpsruwdgrv# dlq0 gÚvwuld# gr# txh# hvwd# euljd# txh# d# dojxÉp# gh# suhvhqwh111# txdo# d# gd#qÃr#hud#dojr#dvvlp#wÃr#wudq0 sduhfh# qxqfd# whu# ilp1# Ilfr# dlq0 glihuhqÇd# glvvr# h# gr# frpsduwl0 txlor#frpr#É#krmh1 gd# pdlv# lpsuhvvlrqdgr# hp# yhu# okdphqwr# gh# pÚvlfdv# ihlwdv# R#txh#ph#ghl{d#pdlv#lqwul0 txh# ghsrlv# gh# wdqwr# whpsr/# rv# qdv#uhghv#S5S#krmh#hp#gldB#Vh0 jdgr#dlqgd#É#shqvdu#txh#rv#vh0 %jÊqlrv# grv# qhjÓflrv%# ghvwdv# uÁ# txh# sduwh# gr# glqkhlur# jhud0 qkruhv# txh# vÃr# krmh# jhvwruhv# hpsuhvdv#qÃr#frqvhjxludp#dlq0 gr# qr# pxqgr# wrgr# shod# yhqgd# h# dwÉ# sursulhwÁulrv# gh# hpsuh0 gd#hqfrqwudu#xp#prghor#gh#qh0 gh# ilwdv# N:# hud# xvdgr# sdud# %uh0 vdv# gd# lqgÚvwuld# gr# frs|uljkw# jÓflrv# txh# lqfoxd# r# S5S# frpr# frpshqvdu%#d#lqgÚvwuld#irqrjuÁ0 surydyhophqwh# frqvhjxludp# fdqdo# gh# glvwulexlÇÃr# grv# vhxv# ilfdB vhxv# glsorpdv# d# fxvwd# gh# pxl0 surgxwrv1# Pdlv# gr# txh# lvvr/# H# rv# yÍghrv# fdvvhwhB# wr#{hur{#gh#olyur/#txh#fhuwdphq0 frpedwhu#dv#uhghv#S5S#sdud#lp0 Txhp# dÍ# qxqfd# ilfrx# ihol}# dr# wh# hudp# olgrv# dr# vrp# %gdtxhod# shglu#r#frpsduwlokdphqwr#É#pd0 frqvhjxlu# xp# vhjxqgr# yÍghr# ilwd%# frp# rv# vxfhvvrv# gr# pr0 wdu# r# phqvdjhlur# h# qÃr# d# fdvvhwh# hpsuhvwdgr# frp# xp# phqwr# txh# jdqkdudp# gh# do0 phqvdjhp1 dpljr# sdud# frsldu# %dtxhoh%# ilo0 jxÉp$ Pdv# vhuÁ# txh# d# lqgÚvwuld# phB# QÃr# hud# frpsduwlokdphq0 ©# hqjudÇdgr# yhu# txh# qd# hp# jhudo# vhpsuh# irl# dvvlp# wÃr# wr#gr#phvpr#mhlwrB yhugdgh#d#Lqwhuqhw#ih}#frp#txh# udglfdo# frqwud# r# frpsduwlokd0 phqwrB# QÃr# vrx# wÃr# yhokr# dv0 vlp/# pdv# ph# ohpeur# gh# xpd# Ésrfd# hp# txh# r# phlr# gr# frp0 sduwlokdphqwr# hud# ehp# oxfudwl0 #####111frpedwhu#dv#uhghv#S5S# yr# h# sru# lvvr# phvpr# judqgh# sdud#lpshglu#r#frpsduwlokdphqwr#É# sduwh#gd#lqgÚvwuld#txh#krmh#jdv0 wd# plokÕhv# gh# gÓoduhv# frped0 pdwdu#r#phqvdjhlur#h#qÃr#d# whqgr# dv# uhghv# S5S# dwÉ# txh# qÃr# hvshuqhdyd# pxlwr111# pxl0 phqvdjhp1 wrv#gh#yrfÊv#ylyhudp#hvvd#Ésr0 fd# wdpeÉp/# hqwÃr# ydprv# Mrpdu#Vloyd uhfrugdu# xp# srxfr111# dolÁv/# yd0 prv#frphÇdu#frp#xpd#shujxq0 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 74
  • 42. FDSD#—#OXWD#GH#JDWR#H#UDWR#QDV#UHGHV#S5S Çd# hvwuxwxudqwh# iruwh# qd# vrflh0 gdgh/# pdv# txdqgr# yhprv# hvwh# wlsr# gh# frlvd# vhqgr# fdgd# yh}# ###########R#txh#ph#ghl{d#pdlv# pdlv# wudqvplwlgr# vhp# d# lqwhuih0 uÊqfld#grv#sdlv/#ilfd#iÁflo#hqwhq0 lqwuljdgr#dlqgd#É#shqvdu#txh#rv# ghu# d# udslgh}# frp# txh# dv# pxgdqÇdv#hvwÃr#rfruuhqgr1 vhqkruhv#h#dwÉ#sursulhwÁulrv#gh# Sdud#whu#xpd#lghld#gr#txh# hvwrx# idodqgr/# vxjlur# d# yrfÊ# hpsuhvdv#gd#lqgÚvwuld#gr#frs|uljkw# txh# dvvlvwd# sru# 63# plqxwrv# xp# surydyhophqwh#frqvhjxludp#vhxv# fdqdo# ghvvhv# ghglfdgrv# d# ful0 dqÇdv# h# dgrohvfhqwhv111# fdgd# glsorpdv#d#fxvwd#gh#pxlwr#{hur{# yh}# pdlv# rv# surjudpdv# wudqv0 plwlgrv# sru# hohv# hpsxuudp# dv# gh#olyur111 fuldqÇdv# d# frpsohphqwdu# r# txh# hvwÁ# vhqgr# dsuhvhqwdgr# Mrpdu#Vloyd dol# frp# dojxp# frqwhÚgr# glvsr0 qÍyho# qd# Lqwhuqhw111# É# xpd# px0 gdqÇd#qdwxudo111 dv# eduuhludv# gh# dfhvvr# À# lqiru0 lqÍflr#gr#vÉfxor#sdvvdgrB Frpr# mÁ# hvfuhyl# hp# xp# pdÇÃr# irvvhp# sudwlfdphqwh# duwljr#dqwhulru/#h{shulphqwh#uhv0 Vh# dojxÉp# dÍ# dlqgd# dfkd# srqghu# dr# vhx# ilokr# xp# %qÃr# ghuuxedgdv/# h# txh# lvvr# dr# lq0 txh# hvwh# prghor# xowudsdvvdgr# yÉv#gh#vhu#ylvwr#frpr#xpd#gÁgl0 vhl%# h# furqrphwuh# r# whpsr# txh# dlqgd# whp# ylgd# sru# pdlv# dojxp# hoh# ohyd# sdud# lu# exvfdu# d# uhv0 yd# sru# wrgd# d# kxpdqlgdgh# whpsr/# edvwd# sdvvdu# dojxpdv# dfded# vhqgr# ylvwd# frpr# sulqfl0 srvwd# sdud# vhx# txhvwlrqdphq0 krudv# frqyhuvdqgr# frp# xpd# wr#qr#Jrrjoh$ sdo#dphdÇd#h#irqwh#gh#frqiolwrv# fuldqÇd# +txhp# whp# ilokrv# vdeh# qr# pxqgr# wrgr1# VhuÁ# txh# xp# ehp#gr#txh#hvwrx#idodqgr,1 Hp# uhvxpr/# vlqwr# pxlwr# gld#yhuhprv#xpd#jxhuud#pxqgl0 dr# yhu# txh# dr# lqyÉv# gh# jdvwdu# do#gr#S5SB#MÁ#lpdjlqdudp#d#fh0 R# idwr# É# txh# d# vrflhgdgh# ulrv# gh# glqkhlur# shvtxlvdqgr# qdB hp#txh#ylyhprv#dlqgd#É#srxfr# txdotxhu# frlvd# pdlv# surgxwlyd# hyroxÍgd# shuwr# gd# vrflhgdgh# sdud#d#kxpdqlgdgh#+frpr#d#fx0 R#idwr#frqfuhwr#É#txh#qrv0 grv# fkdpdgrv# %qdwlyrv# gljl0 vd# vrflhgdgh# hyroxlx# pxlwr# wdlv%/#h#sdud#hvwhv= ud# sdud# d# PdoÁuld,/# frqwlqxd0 pdlv# udslgdphqwh# gr# txh# hyr0 prv# jdvwdqgr# plokÕhv# qr# oxÍudp# dv# fdehÇdv# grv# krphqv# Frpsduwlokdphqwr# É# d# ed0 pxqgr# wrgr# sdud# dolphqwdu# d# gh# qhjÓflr/# txh# dlqgd# frqwlqx0 vh#gdv#lwhudÇÕhv#vrfldlv hwhuqd#euljd#gh#jdwr#h#udwr#grv# dp#xwlol}dqgr#prghorv#gh#qhjÓ0 txh# txhuhp# frqwurodu# r# dfhvvr# Dfhvvr# À# lqirupdÇÃr# flrv# h# prghorv# gh# jhvwÃr# +txdotxhu# xpd,# gh# txdotxhu# ox0 À# lqirupdÇÃr# frp# rv# txh# txh0 hpsuhvduldo# gr# lqÍflr# gr# vÉfxor# jdu#h#d#txdotxhu#krud#É#suhplv0 uhp# frpsduwlokdu# wxgr1# Slru# sdvvdgr$ txh#lvvr#É#yhu#txh#dr#vh#whqwdu# vd#eÁvlfd#gh#ylgd frqwurodu# devxugdphqwh# dv# uh0 Txhu# xp# h{hpsor# frqfuh0 Vh# hvwh# wlsr# gh# frpsruwd0 ghv# S5S/# qÃr# dshqdv# rv# frq0 wrB# YrfÊ# vdeld# txh# d# hvwuxwxud# phqwr#irvvh#dojr#txh#É#hqvlqd0 whÚgrv# surwhjlgrv# sru# klhuÁutxlfd# txh# whprv# krmh# gr# %gh# sdl# sdud# ilokr%/# dfuhglwr# frs|uljkw# vÃr# eortxhdgrv/# pdv# qdv# hpsuhvdv# irl# qd# yhugdgh# txh# ohyduÍdprv# dlqgd# dojxpdv# wdpeÉp# rv# frqwhÚgrv# txh# vÃr# frsldgd# gr# prghor# plolwdu/# qr# gÉfdgdv# sdud# whu# xpd# pxgdq0 ghvhqyroylgrv# gh# irupd# olyuh# h# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 75
  • 43. FDSD#—#OXWD#GH#JDWR#H#UDWR#QDV#UHGHV#S5S MRPDU#VLOYD#É#hq0 jhqkhlur#hohwuÔqlfr#h# Gluhwru#Jhudo#gd#RGI# Dooldqfh#Odwlq#Dphul0 fd1#©#wdpeÉp#frru0 ########D#plqkd#hvshudqÇd#É# ghqdgru#gr#juxsr#gh# wudedokr#qd#DEQW# yhu#d#jhudÇÃr#qdwlyd#qd#uhgh# uhvsrqvÁyho#shod# dgrÇÃr#gr#RGI#fr0 pr#qrupd#eudvlohlud# fuhvfhqgr#gr#mhlwr#txh#vÃr#sdud# h#phpeur#gr#RDVLV# RGI#WF/#r#frplwÊ#lq0 whuqdflrqdo#txh#gh0 txh#ilqdophqwh#qryrv#prghorv#gh# vhqyroyh#r#sdguÃr# RGI#+Rshq#Grfx0 qhjÓflrv#srvvdp#vxujlu#h#dfdedu# phqw#Irupdw,1 gh#yh}#sru#wrgdv#frp#hvwd#euljd# lqÚwlo1 Mrpdu#Vloyd dehuwd# dfdedp# vhqgr# wudwdgrv# ÇÃr#grv#qrvvrv#ilokrv#iduÃr#d#uh0 gd#phvpd#pdqhlud1 yroxÇÃr# txh# wdqwr# vrqkdprv111# D# plqkd# hvshudqÇd# É# yhu# h#txh#sdud#hohv#qÃr#yhl#vhu#uh0 d# jhudÇÃr# qdwlyd# qd# uhgh# fuhv0 yroxÇÃr# dojxpd/# vÓ# sduwh# gd# fhqgr# gr# mhlwr# txh# vÃr# sdud# vxd#suÓsuld#hyroxÇÃr111 txh# ilqdophqwh# qryrv# prghorv# Txhp#ylyhu/#yhuÁ$ gh# qhjÓflrv# srvvdp# vxujlu# h# SV1=# Jdwrv# vÃr# jdwrv/# ud0 dfdedu# gh# xpd# yh}# sru# wrgdv# wrv# vÃr# udwrv# h# yÃr# jxhuuhdu# frp#hvwd#euljd#lqÚwlo1 dwÉ#r#ilp#grv#whpsrv/#srlv#hvwh# Sru# lvvr# txh# whqkr# edwd0 É#vhx#lqvwlqwr1#QÓv#vhuhv#kxpd0 okdqgr# wdqwr# shod# olehugdgh# qd# qrv/# hp# whvh/# whprv# glvfhuql0 uhgh1# Dfuhglwr# txh# wxgr# r# txh# phqwr# sdud# qÃr# fdlu# hp# wdo# suhflvdprv#É#jdudqwlu#txh#d#uh0 uhfxuvlylgdgh#hwhuqd#=S gh# frqwlqxh# dehuwd# frpr# É# kr0 mh/# srlv# vh# hod# frqwlqxdu# dvvlp/# qÃr# whqkr# gÚylgdv# txh# d# jhud0 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 76
  • 44. RSHQ GRFXPHQW — RGI 8 DQRV R RGI id} 8 Dqrv= Xp rokdu sdud wuÁv/ qd mruqdgd hp gluhÇÃr d xp sdguÃr dehuwr gh irupdwr gh grfxphqwr Sru Gdylg OhGxf 4r1 gh Pdlr gh 5343 pdufd r txlqwr dqlyhuvÁulr gd dsur0 ud gh gdgrv1 Qd hud suÉ0RGI/ dv dsolfdÇÕhv gh surgxwlyl0 ydÇÃr gr Irupdwr Dehuwr gh Grfxphqwrv +d hvshflilfdÇÃr gdgh gh hvfulwÓulr hvwdydp sudwlfdphqwh sdudgdv1 R RGI 413, frpr xp SdguÃr RDVLV1 Qr hqwdqwr/ d klvwÓuld %1grf% vxujlx frpr r irupdwr sdguÃr gh idwr/ sruÉp sursul0 frpsohwd gr RGI yhp gh pxlwr dqwhv ghvvh shuÍrgr gh wÁulr/ pdv vÓ ixqflrqdyd ehp frp dv dsolfdÇÕhv gh xp flqfr dqrv1 Uhfrqkhflgr frpr xpd sdguÃr gd lqgÚvwuld/ Úqlfr iruqhfhgru h qr vlvwhpd rshudflrqdo ghvvh Úqlfr hvvd gdwd pdufd r lqÍflr h{wud rilfldo gh xpd fdpsdqkd sh0 iruqhfhgru1 Qdtxhod Ésrfd/ dv shvvrdv/ h gh pdqhlud od olehugdgh gh grfxphqwrv/ txh pxlwdv shvvrdv surydyho0 pdlv lpsruwdqwh/ rv jryhuqrv/ qÃr wlqkdp pxlwr frqwuroh phqwh qÃr dfuhglwdydp txh gxuduld wdqwr/ rx txh irvvh vreuh vhxv suÓsulrv grfxphqwrv h kdyldp pxlwr srxfdv wÃr vljqlilfdwlyd1 R RGI irl fuldgr vreuh sulqfÍslrv rqgh d rsÇÕhv gh hvfrokd gh dsolfdÇÕhv1 lqwhurshudelolgdgh h d lqrydÇÃr hudp sulprugldlv/ h txh hv0 vhv vÃr edvhdgrv hp sdguÕhv dehuwrv1 QÃr sru dfdvr/ d Hqwuhwdqwr/ qrv Úowlprv flqfr dqrv/ r RGI qrv ohyrx gl0 fuldÇÃr gr RGI frlqflglx frp r fuhvfhqwh vxsruwh gh du0 uhwdphqwh sdud r dpelhqwh dwxdo/ rqgh rv jryhuqrv dr uh0 txlwhwxudv WLF/ dv txdlv fuhvfhudp gr prghor gd Zhe/ rq0 gru gr pxqgr/ fdgd yh} pdlv hqwhqghp h dsuhfldp r yd0 gh d sdgurql}dÇÃr gr KWPO/ xp sdguÃr dehuwr h olyuh gh oru h d xwlol}dgh grv irupdwrv dehuwrv/ h fdgd yh} pdlv ur|dowlhv/ txh shuplwlx txh d Zhe vh wruqdvvh xpd sodwdiru0 jryhuqrv wÊp ihlwr gdv vroxÇÕhv edvhdgdv hp sdguÕhv pd dehuwd/ r txh srvvlelolwrx d lqrydÇÃr dflpd gh wxgr1 D dehuwrv xpd fdudfwhuÍvwlfd hvvhqfldo gh vxdv hvwudwÉjldv fkdyh hud d lqwhurshudelolgdgh/ rx d fdsdflgdgh gh yÁuldv gh jryhuqdqÇd gljlwdo h gh dutxlwhwxudv dehuwdv gh WLF1 hqwlgdghv gh frpxqlfdu0vh hohwurqlfdphqwh/ vhp d qhfhv0 Hp frqvhtxÊqfld glvvr/ r RGI É krmh sduwh lqwhjudqwh gr vlgdgh gh urgduhp d phvpd dsolfdÇÃr gh vriwzduh/ rx vlv0 prylphqwr shod dehuwxud joredo1 Flqfr dqrv/ ylqwh h vhwh whpd rshudflrqdo1 Ljxdophqwh fuÍwlfd sdud r ghvhqyroylphq0 jryhuqrv h xpd pluÍdgh gh dsolfdÇÕhv gh srlv/ r RGI hv0 wr gr RGI irl d lqwurgxÇÃr gr RshqRiilfh1ruj/ d vxÍwh gh wÁ ehp hvwdehohflgr/ hperud vhmd xp irupdwr hp ghvhq0 hvfulwÓulr hp fÓgljr dehuwr/ txh sulphlur lpsohphqwrx r yroylphqwr frqwÍqxr/ frpr txdotxhu irupdwr gljqr gh qr0 irupdwr/ h r vxujlphqwr gr [PO frpr xp sdguÃr ixqgd0 wd1 QÃr dshqdv lvvr/ r RGI vxshurx dv phokruhv phqwdo odujdphqwh vxsruwdgr/ sdud d ghvfulÇÃr gd hvwuxwx0 h{shfwdwlydv gh pxlwrv grv dsrldgruhv lqlfldlv/ srghqgr0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 77 77
  • 45. RSHQ GRFXPHQW — RGI 8 DQRV hp sdguÕhv dehuwrv xpd fdudfwhuÍvwlfd hvvhqfldo gh vxdv hvwudwÉjldv gh jryhuqdqÇd gljlwdo1 Hp frqvhtxÊqfld glvvr/ r RGI É krmh sduwh lqwhjudqwh gr prylphqwr shod dehuwxud R RGI É krmh sduwh joredo1 Dwxdophqwh/ ylqwh h vhwh jryhuqrv +qdflrqdlv h uh0 lqwhjudqwh gr prylphqwr jlrqdlv, dgrwdudp sroÍwlfdv gh sdguÕhv dehuwrv suÓ0RGI1 Hvvdv dgrÇÕhv rfruuhudp dwudyÉv gh ohlv/ ghflvÕhv h{hfx0 shod dehuwxud joredo1 Dwxdo0 wlydv/ lqwhurshudelolgdgh gh prghorv/ rx lqlfldwlydv sroÍwl0 fdv txh ghpdqgdydp rx uhfrphqgdydp r xvr gr RGI phqwh/ ylqwh h vhwh jryhu0 hqwuh dv glyhuvdv uhsduwlÇÕhv gr jryhuqr h hp vxdv lqwhud0 qrv dgrwdudp sroÍwlfdv gh ÇÕhv frp r sÚeolfr1 sdguÕhv dehuwrv1 Vxsruwh dr RGI qdv dsolfdÇÕhv 0 R RGI É odujdphqwh lpsohphqwdgr h glvsrqlelol}dgr qd pdlruld gdv sodwdiru0 pdv/ lqfoxlqgr rv hglwruhv gh ghvnwrs wudglflrqdlv/ dvvlp Gdylg OhGxf frpr dsolfdÇÕhv sdud Zhe h dsolfdÇÕhv pÓyhlv1 Krmh hp gld/ wrgdv dv vxÍwhv gh hvfulwÓulr vxsruwdp r RGI/ dvvlp frpr xp fuhvfhqwh qÚphur gh glvsrvlwlyrv pÓyhlv1 R vxu0 vh gl}hu vhp txhvwlrqdphqwrv txh r RGI dowhurx shupd0 jlphqwr gr RGI h d ghpdqgd shorv sdguÕhv dehuwrv frlq0 qhqwhphqwh d hyroxÇÃr grv irupdwrv gh grfxphqwrv sdud flgludp/ qÃr sru dfdvr/ qr qrvvr srqwr gh ylvwd/ frp d phokru1 Reyldphqwh/ rv suÓ{lprv flqfr dqrv vhuÃr ljxdo0 surolihudÇÃr gh qrydv dsolfdÇÕhv gh surgxwlylgdgh gh hv0 phqwh lpsruwdqwhv/ wdoyh} dlqgd pdlv/ À phglgd hp txh fulwÓulr/ r txh qÃr vh yld ghvgh d lqwurgxÇÃr grv sulphlurv pdlv jryhuqrv frqwlqxdp d lpsohphqwdu vhxv prghorv gh SFv qrv dqrv 4<;31 wudedokr dehuwrv1 Hperud qÃr srvvdprv rokdu sdud xpd erod gh fulvwdo sdud suhyhu rv suÓ{lprv flqfr dqrv/ r txh R juÁilfr d vhjxlu prvwud rv pdufrv grv sulphlurv flqfr vh vhjxh É xp uhvxpr gdv uhdol}dÇÕhv gr RGI/ lqfoxlqgr dqrv gr RGI frpr sdguÃr uhfrqkhflgr shod lqgÚvwuld hp xpd olqkd gr whpsr ghvvhv pdufrv qrv Úowlprv flqfr wuÊv fdwhjruldv fkdyh1 D %Sdgurql}dÇÃr% É uhodwlyd Àv gdwdv dqrv1 SdudeÉqv h ihol} dqlyhuvÁulr/ RGI= gh dsurydÇÃr h sxeolfdÇÃr qr RDVLV h qd LVR2LHF1 %Sur0 gxwrv% É xpd dprvwud uhsuhvhqwdwlyd +qÃr jhudo, gr vxsru0 Sdgurql}dÇÃr 0 DsÓv d dsurydÇÃr lqlfldo gr RGI 413 qr wh gr sdguÃr hp surgxwrv hvshfÍilfrv/ rqgh dv gdwdv sr0 RDVLV hp 4r1 Gh Pdlr gh 5338/ r RGI irl vxephwlgr À ghp vhu yhulilfdgdv1 %DgrÇÃr% É uhodwlyd À sxeolfdÇÃr rx dsurydÇÃr gd MF4 gd LVR2LHF/ rqgh irl dsurydgr sru xqd0 dqÚqflr gh sroÍwlfdv suÓ0RGI shorv jryhuqrv1 qlplgdgh frpr SdguÃr Lqwhuqdflrqdo hp Pdlr gh 53391 R pÊv gh Ihyhuhlur gh 533: ylx d dsurydÇÃr gr RDVLV RGI 414/ txh wud}ld yÁuldv phokruldv gh dfhvvlelolgdgh1 R RGI 415/ frp phwdgdgrv gd zhe gh vhpÂqwlfd UGI/ xpd olq0 jxdjhp gh iÓupxodv sdud sodqlokdv gh fÁofxor ghwdokdgd/ h Gdylg OhGxf É gluhwru gh jhvwÃr rxwudv fdudfwhuÍvwlfdv hvwÃr hvshudqgr sdud vhuhp dsuryd0 gd RGI Dooldqfh1 Gdylg irl xp grv gdv shod RDVLV qr ilqdo gh 53431 slrqhlurv gr RGI sru pxlwrv dqrv/ vhqgr hvvhqfldo qr odqÇd0 DgrÇÕhv jryhuqdphqwdlv 0 r RGI vh wruqrx odujdphq0 phqwr gd DoldqÇd hp 5339 txdqgr wh uhfrqkhflgr h fdgd yh} pdlv dfhlwr shodv dxwrulgdghv irl irupdgd frpr xp juxsr lqlfldo gr vhwru sÚeolfr txh/ fdgd yh} pdlv/ frpsuhhqghp h dsuh0 gh 69 rujdql}dÇÕhv sduwlflsdqwhv1 fldp r ydoru h d xwlolgdgh grv irupdwrv dehuwrv/ dr phvpr Krmh/ rv iloldgrv À DoldqÇd frqwdp whpsr hp txh rv jryhuqrv id}hp gdv vroxÇÕhv edvhdgdv pdlv gh 9831 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 78 78
  • 46. RSHQ GRFXPHQW — RGI 8 DQRV
  • 47. JHVW£R — JHVW£R HPSUHVDULDO FRP RSHQEUDYR JHVW£R HPSUHVDULDO FRP kwws=22zzz1rshqeudyr1frp Sru Pljxho Nruhq R*Eulhq gh Odf| Sudwlfdphqwh wrgd hpsuhvd frqvlghud krmh vhx vlvwhpd HUS +Hqwhusulvh Uhvrxufh Sodqqlqj, rx gh JhvwÃr frpr fuÍwlfr sdud d rshudÇÃr gd hpsuhvd/ vxd klvwruld frphufl0 do/ surgxwlyd h d frqwlqxlgdgh gdv rshudÇÕhv1 Rv vlvwhpdv HUS h{lvwhp qr phufdgr id} pxlwrv dqrv/ frp qrphv gl0 ihuhqwhv qr sdvvdgr/ sruÉp frp ixqflrqdolgdgh vhph0 okdqwh1 Hp Ésrfdv dqwhulruhv dv vroxÇÕhv sdud hpsuhvdv shtxhqdv hudp uhgx}lgrv hp ixqflrqdolgdgh h fdsdflgd0 gh h vrphqwh dv judqghv frusrudÇÕhv srgldp whu vlvwh0 pdv deudqjhqwhv h lqwhjudgrv1 D glixvÃr h srsxodul}dÇÃr dwxdo gh vlvwhpdv HUS É gd0 gd hp sduwh shor %exj gr ploÊqlr% sru xp odgr h shodv fuhvfhqwhv h{ljÊqfldv gh dxglwruld h ilvfdlv grv jryhuqrv1 QÃr srghprv ghvsuh}du r idwr txh dv hpsuhvdv krmh gh0 yhp vhu rshudgdv fdgd yh} frp phqrv shvvrdv rx shor phqrv txh dv phvpdv shvvrdv srvvdp id}hu pdlv qhjÓ0 flrv/ rx vhmd txh d jhvwÃr ghyh vhu pdlv hilflhqwh1 R exj gr ploÊqlr ih} frp txh dv hpsuhvdv ilfdvvhp suhrfxsd0 gdv qr ilqdo grv dqrv <3 txdqgr dv gdwdv h{suhvvdgdv frp grlv gÍjlwrv yluduldp gh << d 33/ fdxvdqgr srwhqfldo0 phqwh wrgr wlsr gh huurv qrv vlvwhpdv1 D suhvvÃr gdv hp0 suhvdv h d judqgh rsruwxqlgdgh gh qhjÓflr ih} frp txh d pdlruld grv ideulfdqwhv ghvwhv vlvwhpdv uhylvdudp vxdv vroxÇÕhv h dsuryhlwdudp sdud phokrudu vxevwdqfldophqwh rv surgxwrv1 Rv txh qÃr il}hudp lvvr/ krmh vÃr ydjdv ohp0 eudqÇdv1 Dr phvpr whpsr/ xp grv frpshwlgruhv grv sur0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 7:
  • 48. JHVW£R — JHVW£R HPSUHVDULDO FRP RSHQEUDYR Txh id} frp txh hvwhv vlvwhpdv vhmdp wÃr srsxoduhv h lpsruwdqwhvB Hylghqwhphqwh dv ud}Õhv h{srvwdv dflpd pdv wdpeÉp r idwr txh hvwh wlsr gh vlvwhpd whp sru plv0 vÃr dxwrpdwl}du wrgd d jhvwÃr gd hpsuhvd/ ghvgh d sur0 gxÇÃr/ yhqgdv/ frpsudv/ uhfxuvrv kxpdqrv/ surfhvvrv/ surmhwrv/ hwf1 Txdqwr pdlru r sruwh gr vlvwhpd/ pdlru d deudqjÊqfld gd vroxÇÃr h frqvhtÜhqwhphqwh/ pdlru d frpsoh{lgdgh gd lpsohphqwdÇÃr/ gr vlvwhpd h r fxvwr1 Qd Ésrfd gr exj gr ploÊqlr hvwh wlsr gh vlvwhpdv hudp grplqdgrv sru hpsuhvdv frphufldlv txh yhqgldp vriwzd0 uh ihfkdgr h olfhqfldgr/ jhudophqwh d ydoruhv dowrv1 D fulvh hfrqÔplfd fdxvdgd shor hvwrxur gd %erokd gd lqwhuqhw% qd phvpd Ésrfd/ doldgr d srsxodulgdgh gh vroxÇÕhv olfhqfld0 gdv hp vriwzduh olyuh h glixvÃr gh xvr gd lqwhuqhw/ idflolwrx d glvsrqlelolgdgh h lqwhuhvvh hp vlvwhpdv HUS olfhqfldgrv Ixqflrqdolgdghv frpxqv hp xp HUS hp vriwzduh olyuh1 Krmh h{lvwh xpd txdqwlgdgh pxlwr judq0 gxwrv HUS frphufldlv/ r ghvhqyroylphqwr lqwhuqr shod WL gh ghvwdv vroxÇÕhv h dojxpdv ghodv vrphqwh srghp vhu gd hpsuhvd/ irl uhprylgr srlv d pdlruld gdv hpsuhvdv suh0 fkdpdgdv gh %HUS% sru fxpsulu irupdophqwh gh jhuhqfldu ihuld xvdu vxd fdsdflgdgh gh WL sdud rxwurv dvvxqwrv uhod0 shorv phqrv grlv pÓgxorv1 Pxlwrv ghohv irudp dedqgrqd0 flrqdgrv d qÃr sdud dwxdol}du vlvwhpdv ohjdgrv/ dojxqv gh0 grv h rxwurv vhuÃr dedqgrqdgrv qr ixwxur1 D hvfrokd gh vhqyroylgrv id} dqrv/ vhp grfxphqwdÇÃr h dwÉ vhp xp vlvwhpd hp vriwzduh olyuh/ glqÂplfr/ hvwÁyho pdv dr irqwhv1 Dv h{ljÊqfldv gh dxglwruld h ilvfdlv grv jryhuqrv id0 phvpr whpsr hp hyroxÇÃr sodqhmdgd frp xp %urdg pds% }hp frp txh d rshudÇÃr gr qhjÓflr vhp xp dsrlr hilflhq0 É pxlwr lpsruwdqwh1 Pljudu gh xp vlvwhpd HUS d rxwur qÃr wh lqirupÁwlfr vhmd glilfxowrvr/ idyruhfhqgr r lqwhuhvvh hp É xp hpsuhhqglphqwr wulyldo h ghyh vhu hylwdgr1 hpsuhvdv shtxhqdv h pÉgldv sru vroxÇÕhv HUS1 Edvwd Dydoldqgr dv vroxÇÕhv HUS hp vriwzduh olyuh txh sr0 shqvdu hp lpsuhvvrud ilvfdo h qrwd ilvfdo hohwuÔqlfd sdud ghp vhu frqvlghudgdv vxilflhqwhphqwh frpsohwdv/ urexv0 yhu frpr rv vlvwhpdv idflolwdp d rshudÇÃr1 Ilqdophqwh yd0 wdv/ ioh{Íyhlv h hvfdoÁyhlv h{lvwhp srxfdv dowhuqdwlydv1 Gh0 oh d shqd phqflrqdu txh d fdsdflgdgh hp dxphqwr grv vhqyroyhu h pdqwhu xp vlvwhpd ghvwh wlsr uhtxhu xp frpsxwdgruhv d suhÇrv phqruhv idflolwrx r xvr grv vlvwh0 hviruÇr frqvlghuÁyho h qrupdophqwh ghglfdÇÃr ixoo wlph dr pdv HUS txh wudglflrqdophqwh vÃr uhodwlydphqwh judqghv dvvxqwr/ dwÉ sdud pdqwhu r vlvwhpd dwxdol}dgr frp dv px0 h shvdgrv1 gdqÇdv gh whfqrorjld h ohjlvodÇÃr1 Sru hvwh prwlyr hodv Whodv gd lqwhuidfh gr RshqEudyr= ghilqlÇÃr gh wduhidv hp idvhv gh surmhwrv +hvt1, h ghilqlÇÃr gr fdehÇdokr gh xp shglgr frp d prhgd Hxur +glu1, Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 7;
  • 49. JHVW£R — JHVW£R HPSUHVDULDO FRP RSHQEUDYR whp dsrlr gh hpsuhvdv frphufldlv txh dsolfdp glihuhqwhv oÓjlfd gh qhjÓflr gr dsolfdwlyr/ d oÓjlfd gh dsuhvhqwdÇÃr prghorv gh qhjÓflr sdud ilqdqfldu r ghvhqyroylphqwr1 Vlj0 h r prghor grv gdgrv1 Rv prghorv gh edqfrv gh gdgrv qlilfd txh hvwhv vlvwhpdv whp xpd yhuvÃr frpsohwdphqwh dsrldgrv vÃr Rudfoh h Srvwjuhv1 © xp vlvwhpd txh ghyh olyuh h rxwud %hqwhusulvh% frp pdlv ixqÇÕhv/ sruÉp txh sr0 vhu xvdgr shor qdyhjdgru zhe1 Dwxdophqwh d lqwhuidfh gh gh vhu xvdgd vrphqwh vh olfhqfldgd gr ideulfdqwh qd iru0 xvr dsuhvhqwd dojxpdv fdudfwhuÍvwlfdv DMD[ h dsuhvhqwd pd gh xp vxsruwh gh frqwudwr1 Xpd glvfxvvÃr shor LHHH xpd h{shulÊqfld gh xvr djudgÁyho sdud r xvxÁulr1 Sdud +Lqvwlwxwh ri Hohfwulfdo dqg Hohfwurqlfv Hqjlqhhuv, vreuh do0 pdlru sudwlflgdgh/ r dsolfdwlyr hvwÁ surmhwdgr sdud srghu jxpdv dowhuqdwlydv srgh vhu rewlgd ghvwh hqghuhÇr= vhu rshudgr shor whfodgr/ plqlpl}dqgr r xvr gr prxvh1 R kwws=22zzz1nrqvxowh{1frp1eu2vroxfrhv0olyuhv2dutxlyrv2lhhh0 RshqEudyr É frqvwuxlgr frp whfqrorjld PGG +Prgho Gul0 hus0frpsduhg1sgi1 yhq Ghyhorsphqw,/ jhudqgr fÓgljr dxwrpdwlfdphqwh d D lpsohphqwdÇÃr gh xp vlvwhpd HUS É xp surmhwr gh sduwlu gh ghilqlÇÕhv qr prghor gh gdgrv1 Xp dsolfdwlyr frqvxowruld vljqlilfdwlyr h ghprud qd pÉgld yÁulrv phvhv1 ZDG +Zl}dug iru Dssolfdwlrq Ghvljq, jhud dxwrpdwlfdphq0 D htxlsh gr folhqwh ghyh vhu sduwh gd htxlsh gh lpsohphq0 wh dv fodvvhv frp dfhvvr d gdgrv txh vÃr frpslodgdv1 wdÇÃr/ sdud txh r vlvwhpd HUS dwhqgd ehp dv qhfhvvlgd0 D hvwuxwxud gh vhjxudqÇd gr RshqEudyr frqvlghud txh ghv rshudflrqdlv gd hpsuhvd1 Sru lvvr É lpsruwdqwh sdud rv xvxÁulrv srghp vhu dvvrfldgrv d urohv/ rujdql}dÇÕhv/ dv hpsuhvdv eudvlohludv srghu frqwdu frp frqvxowruld hvsh0 hpsuhvdv h dupd}Éqv1 Ghqwur gh fdgd uroh hohv srghp whu fldol}dgd qr Eudvlo1 glvsrqÍyhlv phqxv ixqflrqdlv glihuhqwhv1 R xvxÁulr wdp0 eÉp srgh hvfrokhu r lglrpd gr dsolfdwlyr/ hqwuh rv txdlv R Vlvwhpd RshqEudyr hvwÁ r sruwxjxÊv gr Eudvlo1 R suhfxuvru gd idpÍold gh vlvwhpdv HUS hp vriwzduh ol0 R phfdqlvpr gh fxvwrpl}dÇÃr h sdudphwul}dÇÃr gr yuh Frpslhuh/ DGhpslhuh h RshqEudyr irl r vlvwhpd Frp0 vlvwhpd shuplwh jhudu qryrv hohphqwrv wdlv frpr= slhuh1 Hoh frphÇrx frpr vlvwhpd hp dutxlwhwxud folhq0 ksurfhvvrv dxwrpÁwlfrv/ wh2vhuylgru frp r edqfr gh gdgrv Rudfoh1 D sduwlu ghoh k %fdoo rxwv% +oÓjlfd txh urgd txdqgr r fdpsr dvvrfldgr qdvfh r DGhpslhuh sdud srghu wudedokdu frp r edqfr qd whod pxgd gh ydoru h txh srgh vhu xvdgr sdud wrgr Srvwjuhv1 R ghvhqyroylphqwr gr Rshq Eudyr frphÇrx hp 5334 Dutxlwhwxud gr RshqEudyr pdv hp 5338 whyh xp dxjh frp d irupdÇÃr gd hpsuhvd Rshq0 Eudyr hp Sdpsorqd/ Hvsdqkd frp d plvvÃr gh hyroxlu/ gdu vx0 sruwh h suhvwdu vhuylÇrv gh frq0 vxowruld d hvwh vlvwhpd HUS ol0 fhqfldgr hp vriwzduh olyuh1 Rv ghvhqyroyhgruhv ruljlqdlv h d htxlsh RshqEudyr wrpdudp fr0 pr srqwr gh sduwlgd r Frpslhuh/ hp sduwlfxodu vhx prghor gh gd0 grv d dojxpdv fodvvhv gh edvh1 Krmh hvwhv 6 surgxwrv vÃr vhph0 okdqwhv pdv hyroxhp sru fdpl0 qkrv glihuhqwhv1 RshqEudyr É xp vlvwhpd gh0 vhqyroylgr hp Mdyd xvdqgr d du0 txlwhwxud PYF +Prgho Ylhz Frq0 wuroohu, txh vhsdud dv ixqÇÕhv gd Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 7<
  • 50. JHVW£R — JHVW£R HPSUHVDULDO FRP RSHQEUDYR frqkhflgd JSO +Jhqhudo Sxeolf Ol0 fhqvh,1 R RshqEudyr hvwÁ irupdgr sru xp vhuylgru/ dsolfdwlyr zhe h xp pÓgxor sdud SGY +Srqwr gh Yhqgd, txh srgh vhu xvdgr lvrodgr rx lqwh0 judgr dr vhuylgru RshqEudyr sru zhe vhuylfhv1 R pÓgxor SGY É xp dsolfdwlyr hp Mdyd txh urgd qr SF h qÃr É rshudgr shor qdyhjdgru1 Rxwudv lqwhjudÇÕhv sdudphwul}Áyhlv gr RshqEudyr vÃr frp r Vxjdu0 FUP h r vlvwhpd gh EL/ Shqwdkr1 Dv suhvwdÇÕhv qdwlydv gh EL h FUP gr RshqEudyr srghp vhu vxil0 flhqwhv sdud dojxqv xvrv/ pdv d lq0 whjudÇÃr frp VxjduFUP h Shqwdkr sursruflrqdp rxwud glphqvÃr d hv0 PÓgxorv ixqflrqdlv wdv ixqflrqdolgdghv1 Fodur txh r vlv0 whpd srgh vhu lqwhjudgr wdpeÉp d wlsr gh oÓjlfd gh qhjÓflr rx dsuhvhqwdÇÃr/ lqfoxlqgr yd0 rxwurv vlvwhpdv FUP h EL1 olgdgruhv gh gdgrv hvshfldlv,/ Qr gldjudpd ixqflrqdo +yhmd juÁilfr, ydoh d shqd ghvwd0 kghilqlÇÃr gh qrydv froxqdv/ fdu txh r vlvwhpd lqfoxl jhvwÃr gd surgxÇÃr h jhvwÃr gh kghilqlÇÃr gh qrydv wdehodv/ surmhwrv1 D jhvwÃr gh surmhwrv qÃr frqvlghud d surjudpd0 kdohuwdv/ ÇÃr gdv dwlylgdghv qr furqrjudpd srlv hvwÁ ghvhqkdgr kzruniorz/ sdud dwhqghu ixqgdphqwdophqwh d qhfhvvlgdgh gh fxvwrv kqryrv erwÔhv/ gh surmhwrv1 SruÉp qdgd lpshgh txh qxpd qhfhvvlgdgh kqryrv phqxv h sdud xpd lpsohphqwdÇÃr vhmd lqwhjudgr xp dsolfdwlyr txh kuhodwÓulrv1 jhuhqflduld r furqrjudpd1 D hvwuxwxud grv surmhwrv frqvl0 Qd yhuvÃr pdlv uhfhqwh gd idpÍold 5181{ irl lqfrusrudgr ghud surmhwrv/ idvhv h wduhidv1 xp phfdqlvpr txh shuplwh jhudu pÓgxorv gh h{whqvÕhv Dv h{ljÊqfldv gd ohjlvodÇÃr eudvlohlud vÃr pxlwdv/ pdv d dr qÚfohr gr RshqEudyr1 Lvvr sru xpd odgr idflolwd r wuded0 dutxlwhwxud shuplwh dr RshqEudyr dwhqghu d wrgdv txh okr gh lpsohphqwdÇÃr/ srlv dv fxvwrpl}dÇÕhv srghp vhu dsduhfhudp dwÉ r prphqwr1 Hvwd É xpd fdudfwhuÍvwlfd gh ghvhqyroylgdv hp rxwur dpelhqwh h dsolfdgdv qr vlvwhpd vlvwhpdv HUS frpsohwrv ghvhqyroylgrv frp irfr lqwhuqd0 hp surgxÇÃr1 Sru rxwur odgr shuplwh txh r RshqEudyr flrqdo1 D jhudÇÃr gh qryrv fdpsrv sdud rv folhqwhv frpr srvvd vhu dwxdol}dgr vhp judqghv sureohpdv srlv ghyhuld sru h{hpsor FQSM h LH +LqvfulÇÃr Hvwdgxdo, vÃr dwhqglgrv vhu wurfdgr r qÚfohr shor qryr h dsolfdgrv qrydphqwh rv sdudphwul}dqgr qrydv froxqdv1 Qr fdvr txh rv vlvwhpd pÓgxorv fxvwrpl}dgrv1 vhmd xvdgr qxpd hpsuhvd pxowl0qdflrqdo/ hvwhv fdpsrv D whfqrorjld xvdgd É qreuh1 Hp 533< d uhylvwd Lq0 srghp vhu prvwudgrv vhohwlydphqwh sru sdudphwul}dÇÃr/ iruzruog frqihulx d suhpldÇÃr ERVVLH dr RshqEudyr1 D wrpdqgr sru h{hpsor d lghqwlilfdÇÃr gd iloldo rqgh r xvxÁ0 pdwÉuld vreuh d suhpldÇÃr srgh vhu olgd qhvwh hqghuhÇr= ulr hvwÁ lghqwlilfdgr frpr frqglÇÃr1 Srghprv wrpdu xp kwws=22zzz1lqirzruog1frp2g2rshq0vrxufh2ehvw0rshq0vrxufh0 h{hpsor gd ohjlvodÇÃr dujhqwlqd d uhvshlwr gh lpsrvwrv vriwzduh0dzdugv0533<095;Bsdjh@3/81 sdud whu xpd lgÉld vreuh d frpsoh{lgdgh txh srgh vhu R vlvwhpd É olfhqfldgr vre d Rshq Eudyr Sxeolf Olfhqvh dwhqglgd frp edl{r hviruÇr1 Txdqgr xpd hpsuhvd hplwh +RSO, txh whp fhuwdv uhvwulÇÕhv d uhvshlwr gd wudglflrqdo h xpd qrwd ilvfdo sdud xp folhqwh/ ghyh lqfoxlu xp lpsrvwr/ Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 83
  • 51. JHVW£R — JHVW£R HPSUHVDULDO FRP RSHQEUDYR Lqwhuidfh juÁilfd gr RshqEudyr ylvxdol}dgd shor qdyhjdgru Iluhir{1 ghvwdfdgr qd qrwd ilvfdo/ srlv hvwh lpsrvwr whp r frqfhlwr ylgr d lvvr xpd hpsuhvd shtxhqd qÃr whuÁ d srvvlelolgdgh gh xpd uhwhqÇÃr/ txh whp xpd wd{d ydulÁyho/ ghshqghqgr gh id}hu xpd lpsohphqwdÇÃr sru qÃr srghu diurqwdu xp gr FQSM gr folhqwh h gr fdohqgÁulr1 Rx vhmd/ txh hvwh lp0 surmhwr ghvwh wlsr1 Sdud xpd hpsuhvd judqgh surydyho0 srvwr srgh yduldu wrgrv rv phvhv1 Hvwd qhfhvvlgdgh irl phqwh vhmdp qhfhvvÁuldv pdlv fxvwrpl}dÇÕhv txh qxp dwhqglgd frp xp pÓgxor %fdoo rxw% txh shvtxlvd d wd{d d vlvwhpd frusrudwlyr frphufldo1 Ghylgr dr dowr fxvwr gh xvdu sru zhe vhuylfhv qr vhuylgru gd DjÊqfld gh Lpsrvwrv xpd vroxÇÃr HUS frusrudwlyd gh judqgh sruwh/lqfoxlqgr ol0 gh Exhqrv Dluhv +DUED,1 D qhfhvvlgdgh qr Eudvlo gh jhud0 fhqÇdv h frqvxowruld/ r lpsdfwr gr ydoru gdv olfhqÇdv É ÇÃr gh qrwd ilvfdo hohwuÔqlfd É dwhqglgd gd phvpd irupd/ phqru h sruwdqwr surydyhophqwh vhuÁ hvfroklgr dojxp vlv0 dsolfdqgr xp pÓgxor hvshfÍilfr1 whpd frphufldo frpr sru h{hpsor VDS/ Rudfoh/ hwf1 R RshqEudyr hvwÁ suhsdudgr sdud wudedokdu qxpd hvwux0 R RshqEudyr hvwÁ glvsrqÍyho qd yhuvÃr %frppxqlw|% h wxud txh srgh whu yÁuldv hpsuhvdv +fkdpdgdv hp Rshq0 qdv yhuvÕhv %Txlfn Vwduw%/ %VPE% h %Hqwhusulvh%1 Vrphqwh Eudyr gh %rujdql}dÇÕhv%,/ txh srghp vhu glylglgdv hp ilol0 d yhuvÃr frppxqlw| É lvhqwd gh fxvwr gh olfhqfldphqwr1 dlv/ uhjlÕhv h rxwudv hqwlgdghv qd hvwuxwxud1 Srgh vhu ghilqlgd d hvwuxwxud klhuÁutxlfd txh uhiolwd d uhdo vlwxdÇÃr/ sru h{hpsor xpd rujdql}dÇÃr qr Eudvlo frp iloldlv qr Ulr PLJXHO NRUHQ R*EULHP GH h VÃr Sdxor h rxwud rujdql}dÇÃr qr Fkloh h frp iloldlv hp ODF É hqjhqkhlur txÍplfr irupd0 Vdqwldjr h Ydosdudlvr1 Dv lqirupdÇÕhv vÃr vxpdul}dgdv gr hp 4<:9/ whp h{shulÊqfld hp qrv qÍyhlv vxshulruhv1 Fdgd xpd ghvwdv iloldlv srgh whu jhuhqfldphqwr gh surmhwrv qd Hxur0 xpd sdudphwul}dÇÃr glihuhqwh/ r txh É hvshfldophqwh lp0 sd/ DpÉulfd Odwlqd h Hvwdgrv Xql0 sruwdqwh qr fdvr grv lpsrvwrv1 R vlvwhpd wudedokd frp grv1 Gluhwru gd Nrqvxowh{ LqirupÁwl0 pÚowlsodv prhgdv r txh idflolwd d rshudÇÃr h shuplwh d vx0 fd ghvgh 4<;</ uhsuhvhqwdqwh gd pdul}dÇÃr grv ydoruhv1 hpsuhvd Duwhplv Lqwhuqdwlrqdo Vrox0 wlrqv Frusrudwlrq +zzz1dlvf1frp,/ FrqfoxvÃr Dgydqfhg Pdqdjhphqw Vroxwlrqv Gdgd d ioh{lelolgdgh/ r RshqEudyr srgh vhu xvdgr sru +zzz1dpvxvd1frp, h Vriwzduh Sur0 txdotxhu hpsuhvd1 SruÉp vhx srqwr iruwh É r dwhqglphqwr gxfwlylw| Uhvhdufk +zzz1vsu1frp,1 gh hpsuhvdv gh pÉglr sruwh1 Hoh É xp vlvwhpd pxlwr frp0 sohwr h sruwdqwr wdpeÉp frpsoh{r qd sdudphwul}dÇÃr1 Gh0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 84
  • 52. HQWUHYLVWD#—#HQWUHYLVWD#FRP#FDUORV#HGXDUGR#GR#YDO Hqwuhylvwd#frp# Fduorv#Hgxdugr#gr# Ydo/#dxwru#gr#olyur# Xexqwx##0#Jxld# sdud#Lqlfldqwhv Sru#MrÃr#Ihuqdqgr#Frvwd#MÚqlru Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh=#Txhp#É#NdgxB#Id0 FHY=# Plqkd# lqfxuvÃr# qr# pxqgr# gljlwdo# fr0 oh# xp# srxfr# vreuh# yrfÊ# h# r# txh# id}# qr# vhx# phÇrx# hp# 5334/# txdqgr# xvdyd# phx# Vhjd# Guh0 whpsr#olyuh1 dpfdvw# sdud# qdyhjdu# shod# lqwhuqhw# h# eulqfdu# gh# Fduorv#Hgxdugr#gr#Ydo=#Ndgx#É#Fduorv#Hgx0 fuldu#vlwhv#vreuh#Guhdpfdvw#frp#r#hoh1#Hud#glyhu0 dugr# Fdupr# gr# Ydo1# Xp# svhxgr0qhug# gh# 59# wlgr1# Hp# 5336# jdqkhl# xp# frpsxwdgru# h# hqwÃr# dqrv/#fdsl{ded/#dilfflrqdgr#sru#lqirupÁwlfd/#vÉul0 frphfhl#d#ghvprqwÁ0or#sdud#ghvfreulu#frpr#ixq0 hv#gh#WY/#olyurv/#vxshu0khuÓlv#h#vruyhwh1 flrqdyd1# Prqwhl# phx# suÓsulr# frpsxwdgru# xpdv# gxdv# yh}hv# dqwhv# gh# id}hu# xp# fxuvr# gh# prqwd0 Wudedokd#hp#xpd#olyuduld#qxp#vkrsslqj#gh# jhp# h# pdqxwhqÇÃr1# Fkhjxhl# dr# Xexqwx# ghsrlv# YlwÓuld# h# dlqgd# whp# whpsr# sdud# eorjdu# qr# Rujx0 txh# qÃr# hqfrqwudyd# qhqkxp# Olqx{# pdlv# iÁflo# okr#Jhhn1 txh#r#Nxuxplq/#vh#ph#ohpeur#ehp#irl#hp#533:1 UHO=#Txdqgr#frphÇrx#d#xvdu#frpsxwd0 UHO=#Sru#txh#Xexqwx#h#qÃr#rxwud#glvwul0 gruhvB# Txdlv# vlvwhpdv# xvrx# h# frpr# fkhjrx# exlÇÃr#frpr#Ihgrud#rx#PdqgulydB dr#XexqwxB Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 85
  • 53. HQWUHYLVWD#—#HQWUHYLVWD#FRP#FDUORV#HGXDUGR#GR#YDO FHY=# QÃr# h{dwdphqwh# xp# srutxÊ1# Jrvwr# UHO=# Txdo# vxd# rslqlÃr# txdqwr# d# irupd# gr# Xexqwx# srutxh# hoh# É# irfdgr# qr# xvxÁulr# ilqdo/# frp# txh# r# Xexqwx# É# glvsrqlelol}dgr# drv# whp# Ówlprv# uhsrvlwÓulrv/# hvvhqfldophqwh# É# xp# xvxÁulrv1# Dojxqv# gl}hp# txh# r# Xexqwx# iruqh0 Gheldq#h#r#yhmr#frpr#xpd#surplvvrud#glvwur#iuhq0 fh# d# vhxv# xvxÁulrv# pxlwrv# dsolfdwlyrv# gh# fÓ0 wh#dr#grpÍqlr#gr#Zlqgrzv1 gljr# ihfkdgr# dwudyÉv# gh# vhx# Fhqwur# gh# Surjudpdv/# sru# h{hpsor1# Txdo# vxd# rslqlÃr# vreuh#lvvrB UHO=# Qd# vxd# rslqlÃr/# r# txh# xp# xvxÁulr# gh#Xexqwx#hvshud#gr#vlvwhpdB FHY=# QÃr# yhmr# sureohpdv# frp# dsolfdwlyrv# gh#fÓgljr#ihfkdgr#ghvgh#txh#hoh#dwhqgd#dr#txh# FHY=# Qd# plqkd# kxplogh# rslqlÃr/# r# xvxÁulr# vh#sursÕh1#Vh#dojxÉp#txhu#prglilfdu#xp#dsolfdwl0 gr# Xexqwx# hvfrokh# r# Xexqwx# srutxh# hoh# É# vlp0 yr#gh#fÓgljr#dehuwr#rx#txhu#xp#txh#vhmd#vÓ#gh# sohv#h#srqwr1#Ohpeur0ph#gh#xpd#yh}#whu#lqvwdod0 fÓgljr# dehuwr/# h{lvwhp# rxwudv# rsÇÕhv1# Qhvwd# gr# r# Ihgrud# h# qÃr# frqvhjxl# lqvwdodu# xp# sdfrwh# lghld# gh# txh# qÃr# vh# ghyh# frorfdu# vriwzduhv# gh# srutxh# idowdydp# ghshqgÊqfldv1# Wluhl# r# Ihgrud/# fÓgljr#ihfkdgr#qrv#uhsrvlwÓulrv#grv#vlvwhpdv#Ol0 lqvwdohl# r# Xexqwx# h# frqvhjxl# r# txh# hx# txhuld1# ©# qx{/#txhp#shugh#É#r#xvxÁulr1 lvvr# txh# r# xvxÁulr# gr# Xexqwx# hvshud=# Txh# vlp0 sohvphqwh#ixqflrqh1 UHO=# Txdo# irl# vxd# prwlydÇÃr# dr# fuldu# xp#olyur#vreuh#XexqwxB#R#txh#hvshud#rx#hv0 shudyd#dofdqÇduB FHY=# Sru# grlv# gldv# vhjxlgrv# krxyhudp# wuÊv# folhqwhv# hp# exvfd# gh# olyurv# vreuh# Xexqwx# qd# ormd# txh# hx# wudedokr1# Hohv# txhuldp# dsuhqghu# d# frorfdu# xp# GYG# sud# wrfdu# h# qÃr# frqvhjxldp1# Hx# idohl# frp# xp# frohjd# gh# wudedokr# txh# idowdyd# lvvr# qr# phufdgr/# hoh# vh# ylurx# h# glvvh=# Hvfuhyh# xp# olyur# vreuh# lvvr$# Surqwr$# Irl# r# vwduw/# srlv# hx# xql# ghqwur# gh# xpd# vÓ# reud# glyhuvdv# frlvdv# txh# dv# shvvrdv# surfxudp# qr# Jrrjoh# h# hqfrqwudp# gh# irupd# glvshuvd# rx# vhp# xp# sdguÃr# gh# lqiru0 pdÇÃr1#R#txh#hx#hvshur#dofdqÇduB#Xpd#hglwrud# txh#vh#lqwhuhvvh#shod#vhjxqgd#hglÇÃr/#txh#ydl#il0 fdu#pxlwr#phokru#h#pdlv#frpsohwd1 UHO=# YrfÊ# dfkd# txh# rv# ohlwruhv# dsuryd0 udp#d#reudB#Txdo#r#ihhgedfn#txh#whp#uhfhel0 grB FHY=# QÃr# jrvwr# gh# hqfkhu# r# shlwr# h# idodu# txh#dfhuwhl/#srlv#h{lvwhp#huurv#jurwhvfrv#gh#sru0 wxjxÊv# h# dojxpdv# lqirupdÇÕhv# idowdqwhv# qd# sul0 phlud#hglÇÃr/#pdv#dfkr#txh#dwlqjl#phx#remhwlyr1# Hlv#dtxl#r#frphqwÁulr#gh#xp#ohlwru#qr#phx#eorj= Iljxud#4#0#Fdsd#gr#olyur/#txh#whyh#d#dsrlr#gd#Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh 0# Edl{hl# h# mÁ# ol# dojxpdv# sÁjlqdv1# Pxlwr# erp/# ydl# ph# dmxgdu# edvwdqwh# djrud# txh# pljuhl# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 86
  • 54. HQWUHYLVWD#—#HQWUHYLVWD#FRP#FDUORV#HGXDUGR#GR#YDO gr#Zlqgrzv#+-sxnh-,#sur#Xexqwx#_r21 qrÇÃr# jhudo# gr# vlvwhpd# frqvhjxlx# hqfrqwudu# qr# Ilfr#vxshu#ihol}#hp#vdehu#txh#mÁ#il}#dojr#gh# Jxld/#h#lvvr#É#edvwdqwh#srvlwlyr1#Sdud#r#Xexqwx/# Úwlo#sud#pxlwd#jhqwh1 sdud#r#Olqx{/#sdud#r#Jxld#h#sdud#plp1 UHO=#R#irfr#gh#vhx#olyur#odqÇdgr#uhfhq0 UHO=# R# txh# rv# ohlwruhv# srghp# hvshudu# whphqwh# whp# xp# sÚeolfr# edvwdqwh# gluhflrqd0 sdud#d#vhjxqgd#hglÇÃrB#Txdlv#vhuÃr#dv#sulq0 gr/# rv# ohljrv1# Suhwhqwh/# qd# vhjxqgd# hglÇÃr# flsdlv#qrylgdghv#rx#pxgdqÇdvB gdu#xp#irfr#glihuhqwh#rx#frqwlqxduÁ#dsrqwdq0 FHY=# Rv# ohlwruhv# yÃr# hqfrqwudu# xp# Jxld# gr#sdud#rv#qrydwrv#qr#vlvwhpd#gr#slqjxlpB$ pdlv# frpsohwr/# pdlv# %frqhfwdgr%# h# pdlv# %erql0 FHY=# Shor# phx# qÍyho# gh# frqkhflphqwr/# wr%1# Ydl# uhdophqwh# hqvlqdu# d# frpr# lpsuhvvlrqdu# yrx# frqwlqxdu# dx{loldqgr# dtxhohv# txh# suhflvdp# vhxv#dpljrv#h#rv#ghl{du#ededqgr1 gh# lqfhqwlyr/# gh# lqirupdÇÕhv# vlpsohv# vreuh# fr0 pr# r# slqjxlp# ixqflrqd1# QÃr# txhur# hqvlqdu# drv# UHO=# Txhp# txlvhu# frqwulexlu# frqwljr# qd# ohlwruhv# gr# Jxld# d# frpr# hglwdu# r# ivwde# rx# r# surgxÇÃr#gr#olyur/#r#txh#ghyh#id}huB {ruj1frqi1# Txdqgr# hohv# hvwlyhuhp# ehp# hqfdpl0 qkdgrv#dwudyÉv#gr#Jxld/#hohv#vdehuÃr#h{dwdphq0 FHY=# Gdu# lghldv/# pxlwdv# lghldv1# Sdvvr# qrl0 wh#drqgh#hqfrqwudu#hvwdv#lqirupdÇÕhv1 whv# vhp# gruplu# whqgr# eudlqvwrupv# h# Àv# yh}hv# xpd# lghld# qryd# dmxgd# pxlwr1#DoÉp# gr# pdlv/# vÃr# rv# ohlwruhv# txh# srghp# gl}hu# r# txh# suhflvdp/# UHO=# YrfÊ# dfuhglwd# hp# xp# ixwxur# rqgh# txdlv# vÃr# rv# dsolfdwlyrv# hvvhqfldlv# sdud# r# xvr# rv# vlvwhpdv# rshudflrqdlv# vhuÃr# wÃr# iÁfhlv# pdlv#glqÂplfr#h#Xexqwx1 txdqwr#dfhvvdu#r#phqx#gh#xpd#WYB#Frpr#yr0 Srghp#hqyldu#dv#lghldv/#vh#ghvhmdu#sdwurfl0 fÊ# ylvoxpeud# r# ixwxur# gr# Xexqwx/# sru# h{hp0 qdu# d# hglÇÃr# lpsuhvvd# gr# olyur# wdpeÉp# vhuld# gh# sorB judqgh#ydold1#R#h0pdlo#sdud#frqwdwr#É#rujxokrjh0 FHY=#Dfkr#txh#txdqgr#rv#vlvwhpdv#rshudfl0 hnCjpdlo1frp#h#phx#whohirqh#É#5:#;;55#69681# rqdlv# hvwlyhuhp# wÃr# vlpsohv# h# fkdwrv# frpr# xp# phqx# gh# WY/# dv# shvvrdv# yÃr# vh# lqwhuhvvdu# sru# frlvdv# pdlv# frpsoh{dv1# Wxgr# qd# ylgd# h{ljh# UHO=# Ghl{h# dojxpdv# sdodyudv# ilqdlv# sd0 dsuhqgl}dgr1# Pryhu# r# prxvh# É# xp# dsuhqgl}dgr# ud#rv#ohlwruhv#gd#uhylvwd1 sud#pxlwd#jhqwh1#Txdqwr#Àv#lqwhuidfhv#gh#xvr/#lv0 FHY=# Reuljdgr# À# wrgrv# txh# oÊhp# d# uhylvwd# vr#É#rxwud#klvwÓuld1#Suhilur#yldmdu#qr#ixwxur#grv#vlv0 h# dmxgdudp# d# glyxojdu# d# uhylvwd# h# r# jxld1# Vhmdp# whpdv# d# od# Plqrulw|# Uhsruw1# H# r# Xexqwx# gr# sdflhqwhv#frp#txh#hvwÁ#frphÇdqgr>#xp#gld#yr0 Ixwxur#sud#plp#É#d#glvwur#grplqdqwh#h#lvvr#frph0 fÊv# irudp# %lqlfldqwhv%# h# vh# whp# xpd# frlvd# txh# Çd#djrud1 yrfÊv#srghp#frpsduwlokdu#txh#vhpsuh#ydl#jhudu# erqv#uhvxowdgrv/#É#r#vhx#frqkhflphqwr1 UHO=# R# txh# yrfÊ# dfkd# txh# idowrx# qhvvd# sulphlud# hglÇÃr# gr# olyurB# Srqwrv# srvlwlyrv# h# qhjdwlyrv1 Sdud#pdlv#lqirupdÇÕhv= FHY=# Idowrx# xpd# phokru# rujdql}dÇÃr# grv# Vlwh#rilfldo#Rujxokr#Jhhn wÓslfrv/# xpd# phokru# shvtxlvd# vreuh# d# Fdqrql0 kwws=22zzz1rujxokrjhhn1qhw fdo/#xp#surilvvlrqdo#gh#ohwudv#txh#dydoldvvh#h#fru0 uljlvvh# d# reud/# hqilp/# vhpsuh# frqvlghur# txh# hod# Grzqordg#gr#Olyur srghuld# whu# vlgr# gxdv# yh}hv# phokru1# Pdv# whqkr# kwws=22elw1o|2e:[inM fhuwh}d# txh# pxlwd# jhqwh# txh# suhflvdyd# gh# xpd# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 87 86
  • 55. HQWUHYLVWD — JDEULHO ILQFK +Vdovdpdq, Hqwuhylvwd frp Jdeulho Ilqfk %Vdovdpdq% Dfhuyr shvvrdo Sru MrÃr Ihuqdqgr Frvwd MÚqlru Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh= Vh dsuhvhqwh/ idoh xp srxfr vr0 gh xp qrph %suÓsulr%1 HqwÃr hx xvr yÁulrv dsholgrv/ pdv euh yrfÊ/ vxd ylgd h vhx wudedokr frp r vriwzduh ol0 qd Ésrfd/ txdqgr frphfhl d ghvhqyroyhu r OlYHV hvwdyd yuh111 Txdqgr frphÇrx wxgr lvvrB YrfÊ mÁ frphÇrx d dsuhqghqgr d gdqÇdu vdovd qrv foxehv hp Orqguhv1 Djrud wudedokdu frp frpsxwdgruhv hp vriwzduh olyuh rx mÁ gdqÇr phqrv/ pdv hvvh dsholgr ilfrx1 Sru rxwur odgr/ %vdo0 hvwhyh %gr rxwur odgr gd iruÇd%B vd% wdpeÉp txhu gl}hu prokr slfdqwh1 Sru h{hpsor/ txdq0 Jdeulho Ilqfk= Ehp/ ghvgh mryhp hx jrvwdyd gh mrjrv gr wudedokr frp r qrph gh %YM vdovd%/ srgh vhu sru hvvh gh frpsxwdgru1 Qr lqÍflr grv dqrv ;3 fkhjdudp hp phx odgr wdpeÉp1 sdÍv +Lqjodwhuud, frpsxwdgruhv frpr r ][;4 h r Vshf0 wuxp/ gh xpd frpsdqkld EulwÂqlfd +Vlqfodlu,1 WdpeÉp qd UHO= YrfÊ mÁ ylyh d dojxp whpsr qr Eudvlo/ sruÉp hvfrod gxudqwh hvvd Ésrfd wlyhprv xqv frpsxwdgruhv gr gh rqgh yhlr r VdovdpdqB Gh txh uhjlÃr gd Lq0 EEF/ rv txdlv srgÍdprv xwlol}du/ h hud pxlwr frpxp txh jodwhuud yrfÊ É h srutxh hvfrokhx r Eudvlo rx irl dv shvvrdv txh xvdydp hvvdv pÁtxlqdv wurfdvvhp sur0 r Eudvlo txhp okh hvfrokhxB judpdv h fÓgljrv frp rv dpljrv1 HqwÃr/ d lghld gh vriwzd0 JI= Fuhvfl qd flgdgh gh Euljkwrq/ txh ilfd qd frvwd/ dr uh hud xpd hvfrokd qdwxudo sdud qÓv/ qd yhugdgh hud r Úql0 vxo gd Lqjodwhuud1 Ylp shod sulphlud yh} sdud r Eudvlo hp fr mhlwr gh wurfdu rv surjudpdv$ 533:1 Rv eudvlohlurv mÁ frqkhfldp r phx wudedokr/ h ph frqylgdudp sdud r ILVO +hyhqwr gh vriwzduh olyuh, hp Sru0 UHO= Fuhlr txh mÁ okh shujxqwdudp vreuh lvvr1 Srutxh wr Dohjuh1 Shqvhl ghsrlv hp ylvlwdu dojxpdv flgdghv gr VdovdpdqB sdÍv h sdvvdu grlv phvhv dtxl1 Gxudqwh hvvh whpsr ghv0 JI= Dkdkd $ YrfÊ vdeh txh pxlwdv shvvrdv txh wuded0 freul txh hx jrvwhl pxlwr gr sdÍv 0 gdv shvvrdv/ gd fxowx0 okdp qd lqwhuqhw h frp vriwzduh jrvwdp gh xwlol}du dshol0 ud h uhvroyl ilfdu pdlv whpsr dtxl1 Gxudqwh hvvd sulphlud grv1 Dfkr txh É pdlv iÁflo ohpeudu gh xp dsholgr gr txh yldjhp hqfrqwuhl xpd jdohud pxlwd vlpsÁwlfd hp Uhflih/ Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 88
  • 56. HQWUHYLVWD — JDEULHO ILQFK +Vdovdpdq, dv txdlv ph frqylgdudp sdud sduwlflsdu gh surmhwrv gr Pl0 frqwurv gh ghvhqyroyhgruhv/ h É vhpsuh erp frqyhuvdu h qlvwÉulr gd Fxowxud1 Sru lvvr dfdehl ilfdqgr qr Uhflih/ h wurfdu lghdv frp rxwudv shvvrdv txh hvwÃr wudedokdqgr qd dlqgd hvwrx prudqgr dtxl mÁ kÁ grlv dqrv1 Jrvwr gr Uhfl0 phvpd Áuhd/ rx qdv rxwudv Áuhdv gh ghvhqyroylphqwr1 ih srutxh É xpd flgdgh prghuqd txh qÃr shughx vhx odgr WdpeÉp vÃr rsruwxqlgdghv sdud prvwudu r OlYHV dr sÚ0 fxowxudo1 © xpd uhjlÃr txh hvwÁ vh ghvhqyroyhqgr uÁslgr h eolfr/ sdud txh dv frpxqlgdghv h ghvhqyroyhgruhv fuhv0 lvvr É lqwhuhvvdqwh sdud plp wdpeÉp1 Çd/ h sdud uhfhehu rslqlÕhv gdv shvvrdv1 Ilfr dqlpdgr vhpsuh srutxh dsuryhlwr pxlwr gr phx wudedokr h grv sur0 UHO= MÁ qrv hveduudprv hp dojxqv hyhqwrv/ fr0 mhwrv hp txh sduwlflsr1 pr hglÇÕhv sdvvdgdv gd Odwlqrzduh1 YrfÊ vhp0 suh hvwÁ suhvhqwh qrv hyhqwrv/ vhpsuh fdulvpÁwl0 UHO= Txdo É d vxd irupdÇÃr dfdgÊplfdB Whyh rsruwxql0 fr h ehp kxprudgr1 Txdo r vhjuhgr gh wrgd hvvd gdgh gh ph{hu frp Áxglr2yÍghr qhvvd ÉsrfdB dqlpdÇÃrB JI= Qd xqlyhuvlgdgh ph iruphl hp iÍvlfd/ sruÉp vhpsuh ol0 JI= Erp/ sulphlur txhur gl}hu txh vrx frqylgdgr sdud ghl frp frpsxwdgruhv1 Lqihol}phqwh wlyh srxfdv rsruwxqlgd0 pxlwrv hyhqwrv/ sruÉp whqkr xp ruÇdphqwr pxlwr olplwdgr ghv gh eulqfdu frp yÍghr rx Áxglr srutxh qd Ésrfd +4<;; 0 sdud yldmdu/ r txh txhu gl}hu txh srvvr iuhtxhqwdu vrphq0 4<<5, txh hx hvwxgdyd/ r kdugzduh hud lqvxilflhqwh sdud mr0 wh rv hyhqwrv txh d rujdql}dÇÃr srgh sdjdu rv fxvwrv gh jdu1 Pdv hx ohpeur/ sru h{hpsor/ txh wlyh surjudpdv vlp0 yldjhp h krvshgdjhp1 DoÉp glvvr/ dfkr txh hvvhv hyhq0 sohv frpr r %Jdph ri Olih% gh Frqzd|1  v yh}hv wlqkd d wrv vÃr pxlwr lpsruwdqwhv/ sulqflsdophqwh srutxh vÃr hq0 rsruwxqlgdgh gh yhu xp surjudpd gh iudfwdlv qdv hvwdÇÕhv VSDUF1 DsÓv vdlu gd xqlyhuvlgdgh/ ph{l pdlv frp Áxglr/ frpr rv %wudfnhuv%/ h wlyh dpljrv txh Vdovdpdq YM$ mrjdydp frp fxedvh h surjudpdv ghvvh wlsr1 Pdv wlyh txh hvshudu sru pdlv 43 dqrv sdud frq0 vhjxlu xp kdugzduh erp sdud ph{hu ehp frp juÁilfrv h yÍghr hp whpsr uhdo1 UHO= Txdo É vxd glvwulexlÇÃr olqx{ suhihulgdB Hod wh dwhqgh hp wrgdv dv vxdv qhfhvvlgdghvB JI= Frphfhl d xwlol}du Olqx{ hp 4<<81 Hx wlqkd xqv dpljrv/ qd plqkd flgdgh/ txh vh irupdudp hp frpsxwdÇÃr1 Hohv frqvwuxÍudp qd fdvd ghohv xpd uhgh xwlol}dqgr Olqx{1 Qhvvd Ésrfd kdyldp srxfrv surjudpdv sdud r Olqx{/ sulqflsdophqwh whoqhw h prvdlf +r sulphur zhe eurzvhu,/ pdv frpr hx qÃr wlqkd lqwhuqhw hp fdvd/ vÓ srgld xwlol}du r whoqhw$ SruÉp ph lqwhuhvvhl srutxh hud vriwzduh olyuh h srgld yhu r fÓgljr irqwh/ r txh ph ohpeudyd gr whpsr gd hvfrod1 Pl0 qkd sulphlud glvwulexlÇÃr irl jjgudvlo Olqx{ txh hx uhflel qd irupd gh 45 glvtxhwhv1 Gxudqwh rv dqrv gh 4<<8 h 4<<; r Olqx{ phokrurx pxlwr/ hx frqvhjxl whu lqwhuqhw hp fdvd/ h ilqdophqwh hp 4<<; mrjxhl r Zlqgrzv irud1 Gxudqwh hvvd Ésrfd hx xvdyd Uhgkdw h ghsrlv Pdqgudnh +txh Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 89
  • 57. HQWUHYLVWD — JDEULHO ILQFK +Vdovdpdq, pxgrx sdud Pdqgulyd,1 Djrud hx xvr Pdqgulyd qr odswrs h OlYHV hvwÁ glvsrqÍyho hp 47 oÍqjxdv,1 Whprv srxfdv shvvr0 Xexqwx qr ghvnwrs1 Jrvwhl pxlwr gr pdqgulyd srutxh wlqkd dv txh dmxgdp frp rv whvwhv h uhodwÓulrv gh exjv1 Ghvgh d xp erp vxsruwh sdud pxowlpÍgld/ h djrud É txh dv rxwudv glv0 olehudÇÃr gd yhuvÃr 413 hvwrx whqwdqgr whu pdlv ghvhqyroyh0 wulexlÇÕhv hvwÃr vh dsur{lpdqgr1 Qr dqr sdvvdgr lqvwdohl r gruhv hqyroylgrv/ h dwÉ djrud hvwd whqwdwlyd whp vlgr ehp Xexqwx qr ghvnwrs/ srlv d pdlruld grv phxv xvxÁulrv r xwlol0 vxfhglgd1 R OlYHV dfderx gh uhfhehu vhx sulphlur sdfrwh }dp/ h dfdehl jrvwdqgr gr Xexqwx wdpeÉp1 gh vdÍgd r txdo suryhuÁ ixqflrqdolgdghv gh frqwuroh PLGL Frpr hx idohl/ xwlol}r vrphqwh Olqx{ ghvgh 4<<;/ h qÃr pxlwr phokruhv1 dfkr txh hvwhmd idowdqgr dojxpd frlvd/ sruÉp jrvwduld txh © fodur/ hx jrvwduld pxlwr gh yhu pdlv ghvhqyroyhgruhv hq0 dv frpsdqkldv il}hvvhp pdlv mrjrv sdud Olqx{1 yroylgrv$ UHO= H txdo É d klvwÓuld sru wuÁv gr OlYHVB Txdqgr whyh UHO= Frpr É d urwlqd gh ghvhqyroylphqwr gr OlYHVB d lgÉld gh frphÇdu d wudedokdu qhohB Txdqgr dfrqwhfhx JI= Jhudophqwh/ dsÓv xpd qryd yhuvÃr hx lpsohphqwr xp lvvr wxgrB rx grlv qryrv uhfxuvrv1 Vrx jhudophqwh jxldgr shod vrolflwd0 JI= Frphfhl d ghvhqyroyhu r OlYHV hp 53351 Qd Ésrfd ÇÃr grv xvxÁulrv rx shor txh dfkr txh vhuld pdlv Úwlo1 Gx0 hx frpsuhl xpd fÂphud gljlwdo h shufhel txh hud fdsd} gh id0 udqwh hvvh whpsr hx whqwr fruuljlu wrgr h txdotxhu huur txh }hu shtxhqrv +fhufd gh 43 vhjxqgrv, yÍghrv1 Wlyh d lghld gh hqfrqwur rx txh É uhodwdgr1 Ilqdophqwh hx edl{r dojxpd dwx0 mxqwdu dojxqv ghvvhv yÍghrv h dglflrqdu pÚvlfd +srlv d fÂph0 dol}dÇÃr gh wudgxÇÃr h fulr r sdfrwh gh fÓgljr irqwh1 Ghsrlv ud judydyd vhp Áxglr,1 Hx glvvr wxgr surqwr/ idÇr r xsor0 whqwhl hqfrqwudu xp surjudpd dg grv sdfrwhv gh fÓgljr irqwh r txdo hx srghuld xwlol}du sdud © pxlwr pdlv iÁflo h lqirupr drv xvxÁulrv h sdf0 hvvd ilqdolgdgh frpr Flqhohu0 ud h Nlqr/ pdv dperv idokd0 vlpsohvphqwh ndjhuv gdv glvwurv1 Orjr dsÓv/ hvvh flfor vh lqlfld qrydphqwh1 udp dwÉ phvpr sdud lpsruwdu yhqghu d phvpd r yÍghr1 Shufhel hqwÃr txh UHO= R OlYHV É xp vriwzduh srghuld urgdu hvvhv yÍghrv lqirupdÇÃr/ gr txh fuldu ehp frqkhflgr1 Vhpsuh yh0 qr Psod|hu/ wdpeÉp shufhel lqirupdÇÕhv qrydv1 prv pxlwdv fuÍwlfdv srvlwlydv txh r Psod|hu hud fdsd} gh hp uhodÇÃr dr OlYHV1 R txh surgx}lu wdqwr xpd vdÍgd gh yrfÊ shqvd d uhvshlwrB yÍghr/ txdqwr xpd vhtxÊqfld Vdovdpdq JI= Ghvhmr txh wrgdv dv fuÍ0 gh lpdjhqv1 Frphfhl d eulq0 wlfdv gr OlYHV vhmdp srvlwlydv$ fdu frp hvvdv vhtxÊqfldv gh Dshvdu gh txh phvpr dv fuÍwl0 lpdjhqv h hqwÃr r OlYHv qdvfhx1 fdv qhjdwlydv srghp vhu Úwhlv1 SruÉp dfkr txh txdotxhu Qd Ésrfd/ pxlwdv hpsuhvdv hvwdydp lpsodqwdqgr GUP h frlvd txh wudjd sxeolflgdgh sdud r surmhwr É xpd frlvd erd1 eortxhdqgr dutxlyrv gh yÍghrv/ pdv r OlYHV wdpeÉp irl sur0 mhwdgr sdud uhvlvwlu hvwh wlsr gh eortxhlr h vhpsuh hvwlpxod0 UHO= OlYHV É ghvwlqdgr dshqdv dr xvxÁulr grpÉvwlfr rx prv sdguÕhv olyuhv h dehuwrv1 Sru h{hpsor/ r OlYHV surydyho0 yrfÊv shqvdp hp fuldu xpd yhuvÃr %surilvvlrqdo%B phqwh irl r sulphlur surjudpd txh shuplwlx d frglilfdÇÃr gh JI= R OlYHV É ghvwlqdgr wdqwr dr phufdgr grpÉvwlfr yÍghrv rjj wkhrud1 txdqwr dr phufdgr surilvvlrqdo1 Qr prphqwr hoh hvwÁ whqgr pdlv dehuwxud sdud r phufdgr grpÉvwlfr srlv É xp doyr gh UHO= YrfÊ vh frqvlghud r Úqlfr uhvsrqvÁyho shor vxfhv0 pdlv iÁflo dfhvvr/ sruÉp hvshur txh dsÓv dojxp ghvhqyroyl0 vr gr OlYHVB Txhp pdlv hvwhyh hqyroylgr qhvvh surfhv0 phqwr hoh srvvd dwlqjlu r phufdgr surilvvlrqdo1 Reyldphqwh vrB vhuld Ówlpr vh pdlv xvxÁulrv surilvvlrqdlv h ghvhqyroyhgruhv JI= Hx lqlflhl r surmhwr OlYHV h dlqgd vrx r sulqflsdo gh0 vh hqyroyhvvhp frp r surfhvvr gh ghvhqyroylphqwr/ phv0 vhqyroyhgru gr surmhwr1 D htxlsh djrud frqwd frp sdfndjhuv pr txh vhmd vrphqwh sdud hvshflilfdu txdlv rv uhfxuvrv qh0 sdud yÁuldv glvwurv h xp h{Éuflwr gh wudgxwruhv +dwxdophqwh r fhvvÁulrv sdud wruqdu r OlYHV xpd ihuudphqwd surilvvlrqdo Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 8:
  • 58. HQWUHYLVWD — JDEULHO ILQFK +Vdovdpdq, gh txdolgdgh1 Sru rxwur odgr/ r OlYHV mÁ hvwÁ vhqgr xwlol}dgr frpr xpd ihuudphqwd surilvvlrqdo sdud Ymlqj/ hqwÃr d Êqidvh UHO= YrfÊ whp dojxp surmhwr doÉp gr OlYHVB Frpr yr0 vhuld pdlv r odgr gd hglÇÃr gh yÍghr1 fÊ jdqkd d ylgdB Qr vhx gld0d0gld wudedokd frp r txhB UHO= R OlYHV uhfheh dojxp wlsr gh lqyhvwlphqwr sru sdu0 JI= WdpeÉp hvwrx wudedokdqgr hp yÁulrv rxwurv surmhwrv wh gh shvvrdv rx hqwlgdghvB JI= Vlp/ pxlwdv yh}hv1 R sulqflsdo lqyhv0 Vdovdpdq YM$ wlphqwr qrv Úowlprv dqrv yhlr qd irupd gh sdufhuld frp r Olqx{ixqg/ h mxqwrv frqvh0 jxlprv mxqwdu fhuwd gh : plo gÓoduhv sdud r surmhwr qr hvsdÇr gh xp dqr1 Hvvh gl0 qkhlur dmxgrx d ilqdqfldu r ghvhqyroyl0 phqwr gd yhuvÃr 413/ uhfÉp odqÇdgd/ shu0 plwlx dr surmhwr dwxdol}du r kdugzduh gh ghvhqyroylphqwr/ sdjrx d surgxÇÃr gr pdqxdo gr xvxÁulr h xpd qryd duwh h/ xp yÍghr wxwruldo r txdo hvwÁ vhqgr suhsdudgr dwxdophqwh1 R glqkhlur irl dsolfdgr gh xpd irupd pxlwr erd1 Hx phqflrqhl dqwhulruphqwh vreuh uh0 fxuvrv olplwdgrv sdud yldjhqv h sdud sdu0 wlflsdu gh frqihuÊqfldv1 Sdud qrv dmxgdu frp lvvr kÁ hqwÃr/ xpd duuhfdgdÇÃr gh ixqgrv hp fxuvr1 WdpeÉp whqkr xp shglgr gh ilqdqfld0 phqwr dr Jryhuqr eudvlohlur +ILQHS h Pl0 qlvwÉulr gd Fxowxud, srlv dfkr txh sdud txh r OlYHV vhmd xp surmhwr frp edvh qr Eudvlo h sdud txh hoh fuhvÇd h vh h{sdqgd dtxl/ hvwh vhuld xp erp lqyhvwlphqwr sd0 ud d hfrqrpld eudvlohlud1 gh vriwzduh olyuh1 R sulqflsdo ghohv É r ylghrmdfn +xp sdfrwh gh wrpdgdv sdud hqyldu gdgrv gh yÍghr dwudyÉv gh dsolfd0 UHO= Frpr dv shvvrdv srghp frqwulexlu sdud r surmhwrB ÇÕhv,1 Irud ghvvhv surmhwrv Àv yh}hv wudedokr frpr frqvxo0 JI= KÁ yÁulrv phlrv sdud txh dv shvvrdv srvvdp frqwul0 wru gh WL1 Phx remhwlyr É mxqwdu glqkhlur vxilflhqwh d sduwlu gh exlu1 R sulphlur gh wrgrv É xwlol}dqgr r surjudpd h hqwÃr vh vriwzduh olyuh sdud ylyhu/ rihuhfhqgr vxsruwh sdjr h hqvlqdq0 jrvwduhp ghoh/ srghp dsuhvhqwÁ0or d rxwudv shvvrdv1 Pdlv gr hglÇÃr gh yÍghr/ YMlqj h dvvlp sru gldqwh1 SruÉp dlqgd shvvrdv frp frqkhflphqwr wÉfqlfr vÃr frqylgdgdv d vh wru0 qÃr fkhjxhl qhvvd idvh1 qduhp ghvhqyroyhgruhv1 Phqflrqhl srxfdv yh}hv txh d yhu0 vÃr 413 gr OlYHV irl odqÇdgd uhfhqwhphqwh h ghvgh hqwÃr r UHO= YrfÊ vh edvhrx hp dojxpd ihuudphqwd hvshfÍilfd fÓgljr irqwh gr OlYHV hvwÁ dehuwr sdud vhu phokrudgr1 Dv +sursulhwÁuld rx qÃr, qd fuldÇÃr gr OlYHVB shvvrdv wdpeÉp srghp dmxgdu uhsruwdqgr idokdv txh hqfrq0 JI= Devroxwdphqwh qÃr$ Qd yhugdgh/ gxudqwh r ghvhqyroyl0 wuduhp shod iuhqwh/ uhjlvwudu h vrolflwdu lghldv sdud xpd phokr0 phqwr gr OlYHV/ hx whqkr hylwdgr frqvflhqwhphqwh d xwlol0 ud ixwxud1 WdpeÉp vhuld Ówlpr vh r pdqxdo h d grfxphqwd0 }dÇÃr gh rxwur hglwru gh yÍghr rx ihuudphqwdv YM/ srlv qÃr ÇÃr sxghvvhp vhu wudgx}lgrv sdud r sruwxjxÊv1 Dfkr txh txhur vhu lqioxhqfldgr sru hohv1 Lvvr wdpeÉp ph ih} wuded0 lvvr srghuld vhu ihlwr frp froderudÇÃr h hviruÇr1 okdu pdlv/ xpd yh} txh vÓ xwlol}r r OlYHV frpr hglwru gh yÍ0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 8;
  • 59. HQWUHYLVWD — JDEULHO ILQFK +Vdovdpdq, ghr h YM hp phx wudedokr1 Vh krxyhvvh dojxp uhfxuvr txh vr d lqirupdÇÕhv/ txh hvwdv shughp r vhx ydoru1 R txh whp hx suhflvdvvh hx whuld txh frglilfÁ0or qr OlYHV1 Sru rxwur od0 ydoru djrud É %d qrylgdgh%1 Pdv dv hpsuhvdv txh xvdp gr/ dfkr txh r OlYHV whp shuvrqdolgdgh vxilflhqwh1 Vhuld kr0 GUP/ qÃr txhuhp txh d jhqwh frpsuhhqgd lvvr 0 hodv txh0 ud gh frphÇdu d rokdu sdud rxwurv surjudpdv h rewhu lqvslud0 uhp frqwlqxdu d loxvÃr gh vxd lpsruwÂqfld/ srutxh É pxlwr ÇÃr d sduwlu ghohv1 pdlv iÁflo vlpsohvphqwh yhqghu d phvpd lqirupdÇÃr/ gr txh R fÓgljr irqwh gr OlYHV ghyhuld vhu ioh{Íyho r vxilflhqwh sd0 fuldu lqirupdÇÕhv qrydv1 ud uhsolfdu dv phokruhv fdudfwhuÍvwlfdv gh rxwurv surjudpdv1 DoÉp glvvr/ r OlYHV ghyhuld pdqwhu xpd lqwhurshudelolgdgh UHO= YrfÊ frqvhjxh vh yhu hp xpd vrflhgdgh/ hp xp frp rxwurv surjudpdv h ylfh0yhuvd/ r txh wuduld xpd judqgh pxqgr/ vhp r GUPB ydqwdjhp sdud rv xvxÁulrv gh dperv rv surjudpdv1 JI= Vlp/ fodur1 Dfkr txh r GUP ydl drv srxfrv idokdu1 Srutxh qÃr lpsruwd txdqwdv shvvrdv lqyhqwhp xpd qryd UHO= R txh gl}hu sdud dtxhohv txh hvwÃr frphÇdqgr d irupd gh GUP/ vhp0 suh ydl whu pdlv shvvrdv qr pxq0 ph{hu frp dxglr h yÍghr h txh shqvdp txh É frpsolfd0 gr txh yÃr txhuhu txheudu r vlv0 gr ph{hu frp wxgr lvvrB whpd1 H pdlv/ hqtxdqwr rv JI= Hx gluld= whqwh h gl0 ghvhqyroyhgruhv gr GUP whp yluwd0vh$ Surydyhophqwh xp whpsr olplwdgr sdud lqyhq0 qÃr É wÃr gliÍflo txdqwr yr0 wdu xp vlvwhpd/ rv %fudfnhuv% fÊ lpdjlqd1 SruÉp/ vh txl0 whuÃr lolplwdgr sdud txheuÁ0or1 vhu xp hqyroylphqwr vÉulr/ H ilqdophqwh/ vÓ suhflvd h{lv0 yrfÊ ghyhuld qr pÍqlpr wlu xpd fÓsld irud gr GUP/ dsuhqghu vreuh glihuhqwhv fr0 txh srghuÁ vhu frsldgd dg ghfv gh yÍghr1 lqilqlwxp1 R GUP É xp vlqdo txh UHO= Txdo vxd rslqlÃr vreuh dv hpsuhvdv qÃr srghp r GUP dsolfdgr d pÚvlfd h d hyroxlu0vh/ txhuhqgr xwlol0 glvsrvlwlyrv hohwur0hohwuÔql0 }du dshqdv rv phvprv frvB prghorv gh qhjÓflrv/ JI= Srlv/ hx dfkr txh r GUP Ihvwd xwlol}dqgr r OlYHv vhp pxgdu/ hyroxlu1 Pdv frpr ihuudphqwd YM1 vxujh gh xpd idokd gh shqvd0 r phokru sdud hodv É txh phqwr1 Qr pxqgr gr GUP/ vÓ hodv vh dgdswhp dr pxq0 h{lvwh suhwr h eudqfr 0 srgh frsldu/ gr prghuqr h lqyhqwhp rxwurv prghorv gh rshudÇÃr1 rx qÃr srgh frsldu1 Pdv r pxqgr É pxlwr pdlv frpsoh{r txh lvvr1 H{lvwh r flq}d wdpeÉp1 Sru h{hpsor/ ghqwur gr UHO= Ghl{h xpd phqvdjhp sdud qrvvrv ohlwruhv1 GUP qÃr h{lvwh r frqfhlwr gh %idlu xvh%/ txh txhu gl}hu txh JI= Ehp/ dqwhv gh wxgr hvshur txh vhxv ohlwruhv vhmdp dojxÉp srgh frsldu xp shgdÇr gh xpd reud sdud frphqwdu hqfrudmdgrv d h{shulphqwdu r OlYHV vh dlqgd qÃr r il}hudp1 rx fuldu xpd qryd reud1 D duwh h fxowxud vÃr xp surfhvvr gh Drv ghpdlv xvxÁulrv/ qÓv whprv r phokru1 WdpeÉp/ frpr dgdswdÇÃr/ xwlol}dqgr r wudedokr dqwhulru sdud fuldu dv qrydv phqflrqhl yÁuldv yh}hv/ r surmhwr hvwÁ vhpsuh À surfxud gh reudv1 SruÉp/ r GUP qÃr É vÓ xpd frlvd gh frsldu rx qÃr pdlv ghvhqyroyhgruhv1 frsldu/ pdv wdpeÉp É xpd ihuudphqwd gh frqwuroh1 Dv hpsuh0 vdv txh xvdp r GUP txhuhp fuldu h pdqwhu xpd loxvÃr gh hvfdvvh}/ rqgh hodv vhuldp dv Úqlfdv suryhgruhv gh duwh h fxowxud1 D lqwhqÇÃr gr GUP É uhgx}lu d frpshwlÇÃr1 Qd yhugdgh/ qr pxqgr/ qÃr h{lvwh hvvd hvfdvvh}1 R fdpsr grv lghdlv É lqil0 qlwr1 D uhdolgdgh ghvvh ploÊqlr qryr É txh whprv wdqwr dfhv0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 8<
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  • 61. IRUXP — VRIWZDUH OLYUH FRPR SDUDGLJPD GD OLEHUGDGH QD UHGH hpdqflsdÇÃr sroÍwlfr0vrfldo grv vxmhlwrv lqwhudjhqwhv +VLO0 txh r vriwzduh olyuh qdvfhx frpr xpd sursrvwd olehuwÁuld/ YHLUD/ 533;,1 gh hpdqflsdÇÃr whfqroÓjlfd/ edvhdgd qd froderudwlylgdgh grv kdfnhuv gdv gÉfdgdv gh 4<:304<;31 Sru lvvr/ d dilu0 D hud gdv uhghv lqirupdflrqdlv É wdpeÉp d hud gr frp0 pdÇÃr gh txh d uhgh É olyuh ghyh edvhdu0vh qr sdudgljpd sduwlokdphqwr gr frqkhflphqwr/ gd fr0dxwruld h gd surgx0 xwlol}dgr hp vxd ruljhp ixqgdqwh 0 d dehuwxud h d olehugd0 ÇÃr gh vdehu froderudwlyr1 Pdlv gr txh qxqfd rv lqglyÍgx0 gh sursruflrqdgd shorv vhxv surwrfrorv gh frpxqlfdÇÃr1 rv vÃr dwruhv2dv h fr0dwruhv2dv gr surfhvvr gh frqvwuxÇÃr gd fxowxud1 Qhvvh fhqÁulr/ rv iox{rv gh frqkhfl0 Hvvhv surwrfrorv/ dutxlwhwxudv h sdguÕhv txh/ gh dfrugr phqwr h d glyhuvlgdgh fxowxudo txh hphujhp ghvvd phjdu0 frp Odzuhqfz Ohvvlj wdpeÉp srghp vhu xvdgrv sdud ol0 uhgh vÃr uhvxowdgrv gdv suÁwlfdv uhfrpelqdqwhv uhdol}dgdv plwdu dv suÁwlfdv gr frpsduwlokdphqwr qd uhgh +OHVVLJ/ sru hvwhv vxmhlwrv txh lqwhudjhp qr whflgr gljlwdo1 Frpr 5338,/ judÇdv d dehuwxud gh vhxv fÓgljrv h r ghvhqyroyl0 ehp glvvh Ohy| %Pdlv xpd yh} qÃr kÁ pdlv sdudgr{r hp phqwr froderudwlyr ghvvdv whfqrorjldv/ shuplwhp txh/ qd shqvdu txh xp juxsr/ xpd lqvwlwxlÇÃr/ xpd uhgh vrfldo rx judqgh pdlruld grv sdÍvhv/ d uhgh frqwlqxh vhqgr xp whu0 xpd fxowxud/ hp vhx frq0 uhqr gh olyuh/ dshvdu gh mxqwr %shqvhp% rx frqkh0 gdv lqÚphudv whqwdwlydv Çdp1 R shqvdphqwr mÁ É Frpr hud gh vh gdv lqgÚvwuldv gr frs|uljkw vhpsuh d uhdol}dÇÃr gh h gr hqwuhwhqlphqwr gh xp frohwlyr1% +OHY/ hvshudu r Prylphqwr gr txheudu hvvh sdudgljpd 4<<6/ s1 49<,1 D uhgh É d judqgh vÍqwhvh ghvvd qr0 Vriwzduh Olyuh vh hvsdokrx sdud lpsru vhx prghor phufdqwlolvwd gh jryhuqdq0 yd uhdolgdgh= gh glyhuvl0 shor pxqgr dwudyÉv gdv Çd gd uhgh1 Qd edvh gh wx0 gdgh fxowxudo/ gh surgx0 gr lvvr hvwÁ r Vriwzduh Ol0 ÇÃr frpxqlwÁuld gr vdehu frpxqlgdghv gh xvxÁulrv gh yuh/ ohjdgr pdlru gd h gh hpdqflsdÇÃr grv vriwzduhv vhuylqgr sdud rv fxowxud kdfnhu1 vxmhlwrv shod yld gd lqwh0 udwlylgdgh1 Wxgr lvvr vÓ É pdlv yduldgrv wlsrv gh Frpr hud gh vh hvshudu srvvÍyho judÇdv drv sur0 judpdv h surwrfrorv gh dsolfdÇÕhv1 r Prylphqwr gr Vriwzduh Olyuh vh hvsdokrx shor frpxqlfdÇÃr gh fÓgljr pxqgr dwudyÉv gdv frpx0 dehuwr txh gÃr vxvwhqwd0 Zlonhqv Ohqrq qlgdghv gh xvxÁulrv gh ÇÃr À uhgh1 vriwzduhv vhuylqgr sdud rv pdlv yduldgrv wlsrv gh dsol0 D edvh gh ixqflrqdphqwr ghvvd phjduuhgh É irupdgd fdÇÕhv1 Shvvrdv h lqvwlwxlÇÕhv vh uhodflrqdp/ ghvhqyro0 gh fÓgljrv/ h{suhvvrv qd irupd gh vriwzduhv/ rv surjud0 yhp dÇÕhv h froderudp hqwuh vl gh glyhuvdv pdqhludv1 Vh pdv gh frpsxwdgru1 Sru lvvr/ srghprv gl}hu txh rv duwlfxodp/ vh rujdql}dp/ uhdol}dp dwlylgdghv/ frpsduwl0 vriwzduhv vÃr hohphqwrv fxowxudlv ixqgdqwhv ghvvd qryd okdp frqkhflphqwr frpxp/ dshuihlÇrdp dv ihuudphqwdv hfrqrpld1 Vreuhwxgr r vriwzduh olyuh txh/ hp vxd ruljhp/ frpsxwdflrqdlv hp wruqr gdv txdlv vh rujdql}dp frpxql0 irl ghvhqyroylgr d sduwlu gr frpsduwlokdphqwr gdv lgÉldv h wduldphqwh1 Wxgr lvvr dwudyÉv gd uhgh1 Sru hvvd ud}Ãr/ gr wudedokr froderudwlyrv grv sulphlurv surjudpdgruhv gh krmh r vriwzduh olyuh É ylvwr frpr xpd dowhuqdwlyd ylÁyho dv frpsxwdgru/ rv kdfnhuv1 Frp hihlwr/ d fxowxud kdfnhu É/ dr pdlv yduldgdv qhfhvvlgdghv gd vrflhgdgh qr txh ghvuhv0 phvpr whpsr/ uhvsrqvÁyho shod h{sdqvÃr gd Lqwhuqhw h shlwr À frqvwuxÇÃr froderudwlyd gdv vroxÇÕhv1 Qhvvh vhqwl0 wdpeÉp shor fuhvflphqwr gh xp prylphqwr sroÍwlfr0fxowx0 gr/ jryhuqrv/ lqvwlwxlÇÕhv sÚeolfdv h sulydgdv/ shtxhqdv h udo gh edvhv whfqroÓjlfdv ghqrplqdgr gh Prylphqwr gr judqghv hpsuhvdv/ xvxÁulrv gh frpsxwdgru gh wrgrv rv wl0 Vriwzduh Olyuh +VLOYHLUD hw1 do/ 533;,1 Irl qhvwh fhqÁulr srv h qÍyhlv gh frqkhflphqwr/ wÉfqlfrv h ohljrv/ wÊp lq0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 94
  • 62. IRUXP — VRIWZDUH OLYUH FRPR SDUDGLJPD GD OLEHUGDGH QD UHGH yhvwlgr vxdv hqhujldv/ fuldwlylgdgh/ whpsr h dwÉ glqkhlur frpr vÃr ghvhqyroylgrv h frorfdgrv hp idyru grv sur0 sdud sursdjdu h irphqwdu r xvr gr vriwzduh olyuh frpr fhvvrv gh frpxqlfdÇÃr olyuh qd uhgh1 Txhp frqwurod r fÓ0 frqwudsrqwr dr ghqrplqdgr vriwzduh sursulhwÁulr r txdo gljr +surwrfrorv/ irupdwrv h sdguÕhv,/ frqwurod d uhgh h whp/ sru vxd yh}/ r remhwlyr phufdgroÓjlfr gh dwhqghu dv srgh/ hihwlydphqwh/ dihwdu dv olehugdghv ixqgdphqwdlv h qhfhvvlgdghv gh oxfur gdv judqghv hpsuhvdv prqrsrol}d0 rv iox{rv d sduwlu gd uhgh1 © sru hvvd ud}Ãr txh pxlwrv hv0 grudv gr frqkhflphqwr1 fulwruhv gr vriwzduh olyuh gl}hp txh/ qd uhgh/ fÓgljr É d ohl1 Hp yluwxgh gr judqgh vxfhvvr pxqgldo gr xvr gr Vriwzd0 uh Olyuh vhmd qd lqgÚvwuld/ qr frpÉuflr/ qr jryhuqr rx phv0 Hperud vre dwdtxh/ r sdudgljpd gd olehugdgh gd uhgh h pr qrv frpsxwdgruhv shvvrdlv/ mÁ srghprv dilupdu/ frp qd uhgh/ sursrvwr shor Prylphqwr gh Vriwzduh Olyuh/ dlq0 vhjxudqÇd/ txh dv whfqrorjldv gljlwdlv olyuhv wÊp srvvlelol0 gd É r txh suhgrplqd1 Qhvvh whuuhqr vh surolihudp dv uh0 gdghv uhdlv gh xp dofdqfh edvwdqwh dpsor qd vrflhgdgh ghv vrfldlv rqgh rv xvxÁulrv vÃr rv surwdjrqlvwdv gdv uh0 ehqhilfldqgr wrgr wlsr gh dwlylgdgh lqirupdflrqdo h{lvwhq0 ghv lqirupdflrqdlv1 Hvvd É d fdud gd Lqwhuqhw olyuh1 Oxjdu wh1 H r judqgh glihuhqfldo glvvr %vÃr dv Frpxqlgdghv gh gh fuldwlylgdgh h froderudÇÃr frpxqlwÁuld shor ylÉv gd gÁ0 xvxÁulrv srutxh qhodv uhvlgh wrgd lqrydÇÃr/ fuldwlylgdgh h/ glyd1 vreuhwxgr/ d iruÇd gr frpsduwlokdphqwr gr frqkhflphqwr shor ylÉv gd vrolgdulhgdgh1% +%LqirupdÇÃr Yhuedo%,1 Vhp d ol0 ZLONHQV OHQRQ VLOYD GH DQGUDGH ehugdgh sdud rv iox{rv lvvr mdpdlv vhuld srvvÍyho1 É ixqflrqÁulr gr PLqlvwÉulr SÚeolfr qd Áuhd gh WL1 Olfhqfldgr hp FrpsxwdÇÃr shod Xqlyhuvlgdgh Hvwdgxdo gd SdudÍed1 Txdqgr idodprv hp Vriwzduh Olyuh qÃr hvwdprv wudwdq0 XvxÁulr h dwlylvwd gr Vriwzduh Olyuh whqgr gr dshqdv gh fÓgljr/ pdv gd vxd dutxlwhwxud dehuwd/ gd dwxdgr frpr Frqihuhqflvwd h rilflqhlur qr HQVRO/ IOLVRO/ Iuhhgrp Gd|/ hwf1 © lghrorjld olehuwÁuld vlqwhwl}dgd qd fxowxd kdfnhu/ gd irupd oÍghu gd lqlfldÇÃr gh LqfoxvÃr VÓflr0Gljlwdo Surmhwr Hgx{ 0 zzz1surmhwrhgx{1qhw1 UhihuÊqfldv Ohy|/ Slhuuh1 Dv Whfqrorjldv gd LqwholjÊqfld ^ R ixwxur gr shqvdphqwr qd hud gd lqirupÁwlfd1 VÃr Sdxor1 Hglwrud 671 5337/ 46d HglÇÃr1 Vloyhlud/ VÉujlr Dpdghx1 hw1 do1 GLYHUVLGDGH GLJLWDO H FXOWXUD1 533:1 hp kwws=22zzz1fxowxud1jry1eu2vl0 wh2533:2392532glyhuvlgdgh0gljlwdo0h0fxowxud0sru0vhujlr0dpdghx0h0dvvrfldgrv2 +Dfhvvr hp 46 gh mxqkr gh 533<1, Vloyhlud/ VÉujlr Dpdghx hw1 do1 Vriwzduh Olyuh/ Fxowxud Kdfnhu h Hfrvvlvwhpd gd FroderudÇÃr1 Hg1 Prphqwr1 VÃr Sdxor1 533<1 OHVVLJ/ Odzuhqfh1 Fxowxud olyuh= frpr d judqgh pÍgld xvd d whfqrorjld h d ohl sdud eortxhdu d fxowxud h frqwurodu d fuldwlylgdgh1 VÃr Sdxor= Wudpd XqlyhuvlwÁulr1 kwws=22vriwzduholyuh1ruj2vdpdghx2odzuhqfh0ohvvlj0fxowxud0olyuh1sgi +FdsÍ0 wxor 43, Fdvwhoov/ Pdqrho1 D Vrflhgdgh hp uhgh= Gr frqkhflphqwr À sroÍwlfd1 Lq kwws=22zzz1flgdghlpdjlqduld1ruj2ff2Pdqxho0 Fdvwhoov1sgi +Dfhvvr hp 45 gh Pdlr gh 53431, Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 95
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  • 64. IRUXP#—#FRPXQLGDGHV#VREUH#OLQX[#ID]HP#SURWHVWR#QR#RUNXW yd# dr# iÓuxp# rilfldo# gh# dmxgd# gr# phvpd1#Rqgh#whlpdp#hp#lqiulq0 grv# rv# gldv# dlqgd# É# vhx# sulqfl0 Runxw/#rqgh#hvwdyd#vhqgr#lqlfld0 jluhp#dv#pdqhludv#gh#erd#frq0 sdo# dwudwlyr1# QÓv# gr# HvsdÇr# gd# xpd# glvfxvvÃr# frp# vxjhv0 gxwd# qdv# vrflhgdghv# yluwxdlv/# Olehugdgh# hvwdprv# lpsodqwdq0 wÕhv# gh# dojxpdv# phokruldv# pxlwdv# yh}hv# fuldqgr# glvfxv0 gr#qrvvr#iÓuxp#rilfldo#sdud#whu0 txh# srghuldp# vhu# lpsohphqwd0 vÕhv# edqdlv# txh# jhudp# dv# wÃr# prv# xp# oxjdu# pdlv# sursÍflr# d# gdv#qr#vlwh#sdud#phokruld#qd#dg0 lqfÔprgdv#iodphzduv1#©#frpsol0 glvfxvvÕhv# vhp# wudwdu# hvshflil0 plqlvwudÇÃr#gdv#frpxqlgdghv1 fdgr# txdqgr# r# Runxw# whqwd# vhu# fdphqwh# gh# glvwur# [# rx#/# pdv# Uhdophqwh# É# ehp# qrwÁyho# pdlv# lqwholjhqwh# txh# rv# suÓsul0 É#xp#surfhvvr#txh#ghprud#xp# txh# r# Jrrjoh# Eudvlo# yhp# phlr# rv#prghudgruhv#h#pdqgd#dxwr0 srxfr# dwÉ# dwlqjlu# qrvvr# lghdo# h# txh#qÃr#gdqgr#d#ghylgd#lpsru0 pdwlfdphqwh# sdud# d# Fdl{d# gh# uhdo#srwhqfldo1 wÂqfld# d# pdlru# uhgh# vrfldo# gr# VSDP# wÓslfrv# txh# srvvdp# vhu# Qr# eorj# HvsdÇr# Olehugd0 SdÍv1# Lpsohphqwdudp# dojxpdv# uhdophqwh# Úwhlv# sdud# d# frpxql0 gh# hqfrqwudp0vh# rv# qrphv# h# ixqÇÕhv#h#pxgdudp#r#od|rxw#lql0 gdgh1# Xwlol}du# d# suhvhqÇd# gh# rv# uhvshfwlyrv# olqnv# gdv# frpx0 fldo# gr# vlwh# +txh# ghvdjudgrx# xp# olqn# qr# sulphlur# srvw# frpr# qlgdghv#txh#lqlfldudp#r#surwhv0 pdlv# gr# txh# djudgrx,# sdud# wdo0 d# sulqflsdo# irupd# gh# glihuhqfldu# wr1 yh}#whqwdu#prvwudu#txh#hohv#dlq0 xp#VSDP#gh#xp#wÓslfr#Úwlo#sd0 ud# d# frpxqlgdgh/# É# qr# plqlpr# ©#lqwhuhvvdqwh#d#frqwlqxd0 gd# hvwdydp# iluphv# h# iruwhv/# ÇÃr#gd#glvfxvvÃr#ghvvh#dvvxq0 wud}hqgr#vhpsuh#qrylgdghv#sd0 lglrwlfh#sru#sduwh#grv#ghvhqyro0 yhgruhv1 wr# qr# iÓuxp# rilfldo# gh# dmxgd# gr# ud# djudgdu# d# vhxv# xvxÁulrv1# Runxw/#frp#r#remhwlyr#gh#wruqÁ0 Pdv# frqyhqkdprv# txh# suryÁ0 R# fuhvflphqwr# gr# frqfru0 or# dr# phqrv# xp# srxfr# phokru1# yhlv# phokruldv# qd# h{lelÇÃr# grv# uhqwhv# É# pdlv# txh# qrwÁyho/# mÁ# ©#ghvvd#pdqhlud#txh#srghprv# Áoexqv#h#qdyhjdelolgdgh#qdv#sÁ0 txh# dv# uhghv# vrfldlv# yÊp# vr0 whu# dojxpd# hvshudqÇd# txh# hoh# jlqdv# qÃr# vÃr# rv# sulqflsdlv# iuhqgr# hvvh# %errp%# gh# h{sdq0 srvvd#hyroxlu1 dmxvwhv# txh# r# Runxw# hvwÁ# suhfl0 vÃr# qrv# Úowlprv# dqrv# h# prvwud# vdqgr1#D#frlvd#É#ehp#pdlv#sur0 txh# d# krud# gd# glylvÃr# eudvlohl0 ixqgd1# Hx# dfuhglwdyd# txh# r# ud#gr#Jrrjoh#uhdjlu#gh#xpd#pd0 Sdud#pdlv#lqirupdÇÕhv= vxusuhhqghqwh# fuhvflphqwr# gr# qhlud# hilfd}# sdud# frqwlqxdu# qr# Eorj#HvsdÇr#Olehugdgh Wzlwwhu# mxqwr# frp# r# Idfherrn# wrsr#mÁ#sdvvrx#id}#whpsr1 kwws=22hvsdfrolehugdgh1eorj1eu +txh# mÁ# grplqd# hp# yÁulrv# sdÍ0 Hp# rxwurv# sdÍvhv/# r# Ru0 vhv# h# É# d# pdlru# uhgh# vrfldo# gr# nxw#qÃr#id}#wdqwr#vxfhvvr#txdq0 pxqgr,qrv# Úowlprv# phvhv# # sx0 wr# dtxl# qr# Eudvlo1# Vrprv# pdlv# ghvvh# dohuwdu# d# htxlsh# gh# gh0 gh# 83(# grv# xvxÁulrv# gr# vlwh/# vhqyroylphqwr/# pdv# wdoyh}# hohv# vhjxqgr# lqirupdÇÕhv# rilfldlv/# dfkhp# txh# d# frqfruuÊqfld# dlq0 h# sru# lvvr# ghyhprv# h{ljlu# txh# ULFDUGR#PDUWLQL0 gd# hvwÁ# hqjdwlqkdqgr# dtxl# sh0 DQR#qdvfhx#h#uhvl0 uhdlv# phokruldv# vhmdp# lpsoh0 gh#dlqgd#krmh#qd# odv#whuudv#wxslqltxlqv1# phqwdgdv# r# pdlv# uÁslgr# srvvÍ0 flgdgh#gh#MrÃr#Shv0 vrd2SE1#©#hvwxgdqwh# Ihuudphqwdv# pdlv# Úwhlv# h# yho1# Pxlwrv# srghp# gl}hu# txh# r# gh#DgplqlvwudÇÃr#sh0 frp# ixqÇÕhv# eÁvlfdv# gh# dgpl0 Runxw# qÃr# É# r# oxjdu# lghdo# sdud# od#XISE#h#wudedokd# frpr#Dx{loldu#Dgpl0 qlvwudÇÃr# h{lvwhqwhv# hp# rxwudv# txh#dvvxqwrv#vreuh#Vriwzduh#Ol0 qlvwudwlyr1#XvxÁulr#Ol0 sodwdirupdv#gh#iÓuxp#id}hp#ido0 yuh# h# Whfqrorjld# vhmdp# glvfxwl0 qx{#ghvgh#533;/#whp# r#Xexqwx#frpr#dwxdo# wd# sdud# txhp# suhflvd# jhuhqfldu# grv/# mÁ# txh# whprv# rxwurv# glvwur1#©#wdpeÉp#xp# frpxqlgdghv# frp# plokduhv# gh# iÓuxqv# frp# phokruhv# rsÇÕhv# h# grv#fuldgruhv#h#uhv0 srqvÁyhlv#shor#eorj# xvxÁulrv/# rqgh# dojxqv# ghohv# urexwh}# txh# d# pÍgld# gr# HvsdÇr#Olehugdgh/# qÃr#id}hp#qhp#d#reuljdÇÃr#gh# Jrrjoh/# pdv# d# txdqwlgdgh# gh# rqgh#r#Olqx{#h# ohu# dv# uhjudv# gh# frqgxwd# gd# shvvrdv#txh#dfhvvdp#r#vlwh#wr0 Vriwzduh#Olyuh#vÃr# rv#sulqflsdlv#whpdv1 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 97
  • 65. IRUXP#—#FLEHUGHPRFUDFLD/#XP#IXWXUR#SRVV­YHOB Flehughprfudfld/ xp#ixwxur# srvvÍyhoB DqguÉ#Ohprv#h#Slhuuh#OÉy|#odqÇdp# olyur#vreuh#r#ixwxur#gd#Lqwhuqhw Sru#xul#Dophlgd D# uhioh{Ãr# vreuh# r# ixwxur# gdv# d# frpsuhhqghu# h2rx# É# xpd# frqvwdqwh# qd# klvwÓuld# gd# sureohpdwl}du#d#txhvwÃr#gd#sr0 kxpdqlgdgh1# Dv# wudqvirupd0 oÍwlfd#h#Lqwhuqhw1##Xpd#%ox}%#qhv0 ÇÕhv#fxowxudo/#sroÍwlfd/#whfqroÓjl0 vd# %odfxqd%# gh# lghldv# vreuh# r# fd# h# hfrqÔplfd# ghpdqgdp# ixwxur#gd#sroÍwlfd#qd#Zhe#É#r#ol0 qrydv# dqÁolvhv# h# suhylvÕhv# vr0 yur# %R# Ixwxur# gd# Lqwhuqhw# 0# hp# euh# d# ylgd# ixwxud1# Dwxdophqwh/# gluhÇÃr# d# xpd# ghprfudfld# sod0 dv# qrydv# whfqrorjldv# gh# lqiru0 qhwÁuld%/# odqÇdgr# hp# deulo/# gh# pdÇÃr#h#frpxqlfdÇÃr/#d#uhyrox0 DqguÉ# Ohprv# h# Slhuuh# OÉy|/# ÇÃr# gd# plfurlqirupÁwlfd/# d# shvtxlvdgruhv# pdlv# lpsruwdq0 srwhqfldol}dÇÃr# gdv# uhghv# fr0 whv#qr#fdpsr#gd#flehufxowxud1 pxqlfdflrqdlv# h# gr# flehuhvsd0 Qr# gld# 44# gh# pdlr/# r#Dq0 Çr# frpr# dpelhqwh# guÉ# Ohprv# sduwlflsrx# gr# ghed0 dqwursroÓjlfr# frorfdp# d# Lqwhu0 wh# vreuh# flehughprfudfld# qd# qhw# frpr# r# sulqflsdo# hohphqwr# gxudqwh# r# Flehu1Frpxqlfd# 8/# d#lqioxhqfldu#r#%ixwxur%1 hyhqwr# dqxdo# rujdql}dgr# shod# ©# frqvwdqwh# rv# hvwxgrv# Fhqwur# XqlyhuvlwÁulr# Mrujh# frqwhpsruÂqhrv# dqdolvduhp# d# Dpdgr# 0# Xqlmrujh/# hp# Vdoyd0 uhodÇÃr# gd# Zhe# frp# dv# uhghv# gru/#Edkld/#txh#ghedwh#flehufxo0 vrfldlv/# hfrqrpld# h# mruqdolvpr/# wxud# h# vxdv# udplilfdÇÕhv1# R# sruÉp# dlqgd/# hp# phqru# qÚph0 hyhqwr# wdpeÉp# pdufrx# r# odq0 ur/# vÃr# dv# shvtxlvdv# ghvwlqd0 Çdphqwr# gr# olyur# h# d# Uhylvwd# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 98
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  • 67. IRUXP#—#FLEHUGHPRFUDFLD/#XP#IXWXUR#SRVV­YHOB pdlv# uhghv# Zl0Il/# dpsoldÇÃr# frv/# hfrqÔplfrv# h# sroÍwlfrv%1# qlÃr# h# gh# ghedwh1# R# yrwr# ghyh# gd#edqgd#odujd/#sÚeolfd#h#sulyd0 +sj1#47, vhu#d#frqvhtÜÊqfld#ghvvd#glqÂ0 gd1# Dv# flgdghv# yÃr# vh# wruqdu# %Qd# flgdgh# frqwhpsruÂ0 plfd%1#+sj#483, frqwlqxdphqwh# pdlv# gljlwdlv%/# qhd# yhprv# d# wudqvihuÊqfld# gh# Ohprv# h# OÉy|# dfuhglwdp# ghfodud#rwlplvwd1 fhuwdv# ixqÇÕhv# gd# flgdgh# uhdo# txh# d# flehughprfudfld# fdpl0 H#r#txh#É#phvpr#Flehugh0 dr# flehuhvsdÇr/# h# ylfh0yhuvd/# qkd# sdud# xpd# sroÍwlfd# prohfx0 prfudfldB hp# xp# qryr# kleulglvpr# hqwuh# odu/# txh# %vxshuduld# suÁwlfdv# Sdud#rv#dxwruhv/#d#flehugh0 hvsdÇr# iÍvlfr# h# r# hohwuÔqlfr1# sroÍwlfdv# %produhv%/# pdvvlydv/# prfudfld# whp# frpr# vlqÔqlpr# d# Vh# shqvduprv# txh# r# wudqvsru0 h{foxvlydphqwh# sduwlgÁuldv# rx# jryhuqdqÇd# pxqgldo/# Hvwdgr# wh# dÉuhr/# rv# wuhqv# uÁslgrv/# dv# frqvhqvxdlv# dsrldqgr0vh# vr0 wudqvsduhqwh/#fxowxud#gd#glyhuvl0 dxwrslvwdv# frorfdudp# txdotxhu# euh# uhioh{rv# gh# lplwdÇÃr# h# gh# gdgh/#Éwlfd#gd#lqwholjÊqfld#froh0 srqwr# ghqvdphqwh# sryrdgr# gr# lghqwlilfdÇÃr/# dsrldqgr# hp# fd0 wlyd1## %D# sdvvdjhp# dr# jryhuqr# sodqhwd# d# phqrv# gh# txduhqwd# whjruldv# jurvvhludv# h# xqlirupl0 hohwuÔqlfr#+h#d#uhirupd#dgplqlv0 krudv# gh# glvwÂqfld# gh# txdotxhu# }dqwhv1# R# shqvdphqwr# h# d# wudwlyd#txh#hoh#vxsÕh,#ylvd#uhiru0 rxwur/#srghprv#gl}hu#txh#dv#qr0 dÇÃr# sroÍwlfd# vÃr# prohfxoduhv# Çdu# dv# fdsdflgdghv# gh# dÇÃr# ydv# uhghv# gh# frpxqlfdÇÃr# sru# sursdjduhp# xpd# lgÉld# rx# gdv# srsxodÇÕhv# dgplqlvwudgdv# wudqvirupdudp# d# whuud# grv# kr0 xp# frpsruwdphqwr# ruljlqdo# sru# hp#yh}#gh#vxmhlwÁ0odv#dr#srghu1# phqv# hp# xpd# vÓ# judqgh# }rqd# h{hpsor# h# vh# frqhfwdp# gh# Dv# qrydv# Ájrudv# rq0olqh# shupl0 uhjlrqdo# fhqwudgd# vreuh# d# ph0 xpd#pdqhlud#vlqÉujlfd#gd#phv0 whp# drv# qryrv# prgrv# gh# lqiru0 wuÓsroh# flehuhvsdfldo1# Xp# grv# pd#pdqhlud%1#+sj#4<4, pdÇÃr# h# gh# gholehudÇÃr# sureohpdv#gdv#orfdolgdghv#whuul0 Sru# ilp/# rv# dxwruhv# wud0 sroÍwlfd# dsduhfhp/# hqtxdqwr# r# wruldlv# É# mxvwdphqwh# hqfrqwudu# Çdp# r# judqgh# ghvdilr# sdud# d# yrwr# hohwuÔqlfr# yhp# frpsohwdu# vhx# oxjdu# qd# qryd# phwuÓsroh# jryhuqdqÇd# hohwuÔqlfd=# %rv# jr0 r#txdgur#gh#xpd#vlqwrqld#gd#gh0 sodqhwÁuld%1##+sj#456, yhuqrv# hvwÃr# sdvvdqgr# gh# prfudfld# frp# d# vrflhgdgh# gd# Shqvdqgr# d# frpxqlfdÇÃr# xpd# uhodÇÃr# gh# dxwrulgdgh# vr0 lqwholjÊqfld#frohwlyd%#+sj1#66, qhvvh# fhqÁulr/# Ohprv# gl}# txh# euh# rv# vxmhlwrv# d# xpd# uhodÇÃr# %D# frpsxwdÇÃr# vrfldo# dx0 pdlv# frpxqlfdÇÃr# lpsolfduÁ# gh# vhuylÇr# drv# flgdgÃrv/# drv# phqwd#dv#srvvlelolgdghv#gd#lqwh0 pdlv# olehugdgh1# %Vhp# frqwuroh# txdlv# hohv# wÊp# fdgd# yh}# pdlv# oljÊqfld# frohwlyd/# h# sru# vxd# hvwdwdo# rx# srolfldo# gh# surgx}lu/# frqwdv#d#suhvwdu1#+sj1#473, yh}/# d# srwÊqfld# gr# %sryr%1# Rx0 frqvxplu# h# glvwulexlu# lqirupd0 wur# hihlwr# qrwÁyho# ghvvd# pxwd0 ÇÃr%1# +sj1# 77,# %D# Lqwhuqhw# wdp0 ÇÃr# gd# hvihud# sÚeolfd# É# d# eÉp# srwhqfldol}d# d# hvihud# suhvvÃr# txh# hod# h{hufh# vreuh# sÚeolfd# plglÁwlfd/# xpd# yh}# dv#dgplqlvwudÇÕhv#hvwdwdlv#h#vr0 txh/#dpsoldqgr#d#flufxodÇÃr#gd# XUL#DOPHLGD#É#mru0 euh# rv# jryhuqrv# sdud# pdlv# sdodyud# plqlpl}d# r# srghu# gdv# qdolvwd/#hvshfldolvwd# hp#Mruqdolvpr#Frq0 wudqvsduÊqfld/# dehuwxud# h# glÁor0 judqghv# frusrudÇÕhv# plglÁwl0 whpsruÂqhr/#shvtxl0 jr1# Sru# Úowlpr/# ghylgr# dr# fduÁ0 fdv%1#+sj#;;, vdgru#gr#mruqdolvpr# froderudwlyr#h#hglwd# whu# pxqgldo# gd# qryd# hvihud# Vreuh# r# yrwr# hohwuÔqlfr# r#eorj#khughlurgrfd0 sÚeolfd/# rv# prylphqwrv# gh# rsl0 xp# dujxphqwr# suhflvr# %r# yrwr# rv1frp#vreuh#flehu0 fxowxud/#qrydv# qlÃr# h# gh# dÇÃr# flgdgÃ# dwudyhv0 hohwuÔqlfr/# É# surydyhophqwh# whfqrorjldv#h#mruqdolv0 vdp# fdgd# yh}# pdlv# dv# xp# dvshfwr# phqru# gd# flehugh0 pr1#Frqwdwr=#kgrfd0 rvCjpdlo1frp#2# iurqwhludv# h# hqwudp# hp# idvh# prfudfld/#srlv#r#txh#frqwd#vÃr# wzlwwhu1frp2khughlur0 frp# r# fduÁwhu/# hoh# phvpr# sod0 dv# irupdv# hphujhqwhv# gh# frq0 grfdrv1 qhwÁulr/#grv#sureohpdv#hfroÓjl0 yhuvdÇÃr/#gh#flufxodÇÃr#gd#rsl0 Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 9:
  • 68. GLFDV — GH YROWD QR WHPSR= EDFNXSV QR XEXQWX kwws=22zzz1v{f1kx2skrwr288<3:; Gh yrowd qr whpsr 0 Edfnxsv qr Xexqwx Sru Ljru Prujdgr Pxlwr frphqwdgr h qrupdophqwh hvtxhflgr/ d fÓsld gh vhjxudqÇd +rx frpr É frqkhflgr edfnxs2ehfdsh, hvwÁ fhuwdphqwh hqwuh rv lwhqv pdlv lpsruwdqwhv sdud d frpsoh0 wd dgrÇÃr grv irupdwrv gljlwdlv/ h{solfr1 Hp qrvvrv oduhv/ jxdugdprv Áoexqv gh irwrv ghl{dgrv sru qrvvrv sdlv/ rqgh fhuwdphqwh whprv hp dojxp oxjdu rv qhjdwlyrv jxdugdgrv d vhwh fkdyhv sdud r fdvr gh txhuhuprv id}hu dojxpd fÓsld gd irwr rx qrvvrv grfx0 phqwrv shvvrdlv/ hp txh rv pdlv fxlgdgrvrv sodvwlilfdp h jxdugdp hp fdl{dv ehp fdwdorjdgdv h txdqgr yÃr sdud d uxd ohydp xpd fÓsld dxwhqwlfdgd/ rx dojxp rxwur grfx0 phqwr gh phqru lpsruwÂqfld1 Srghuld flwdu glyhuvrv h{hpsorv gr gld d gld/ pdv rqgh txhur fkhjdu É= sru txh qÃr id}hprv r phvpr frp rv gdgrv gr qrvvr frpsxwd0 gruB Vh suhwhqghprv dutxlydu qrvvrv gdgrv sdud vhuhp dfhvvdgrv gdtxl d 53 dqrv/ whprv txh qrv suhrfxsdu frp lvvr1 Pdv h{lvwhp sureohpdv whfqroÓjlfrv h kxpdqrv hqyroylgrv1 Sdud flwdu dojxqv whprv= pxgdqÇd frqvwdqwh qrv sdguÕhv grv glvsrvlwlyrv gh dupd}hqdphqwr +FG/ GYG/ EoxUd|/ XVE/ hVDWD/ LGH/ VDWD/ VFVL,/ d pxgdqÇd qrv irupdwrv gh dupd}hqdphqwr grv gdgrv +eps/ jli/ Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 9;
  • 69. GLFDV — GH YROWD QR WHPSR= EDFNXSV QR XEXQWX Lqvwdodqgr r Edfn Lq Wlph shod fhqwudo gh surjudpdv Xexqwx Edfnxs$ mshj/ dyl/ gly{/ ps7/ grf/ RGI, rx d frqvwdqwh pxgdqÇd nxs/ hoh vhpsuh luÁ vrolflwdu hvwh glvsrvlwlyr sdud rv edf0 qd lqwhuidfh grv vriwzduhv/ txh glilfxowd txh dojxÉp iltxh nxsv ixwxurv,1 Xwlol}h xpd pÍgld uhpryÍyho frqilÁyho/ srgh idploldul}dgr frp xpd ghwhuplqdgd ihuudphqwd1 Vh iÔvvh0 vhu xp shqgulyh gh dowd ghqvlgdgh rx xp glvfr h{whuqr uh0 prv id}hu xp sdudohor frp rv irupdwrv gh dutxlydphqwr pryÍyho XVE +qÃr luhprv xwlol}du pÍgldv Ówlfdv frpr FG/ frqyhqflrqdlv/ whprv r sdsho frpr r sulqflsdo yhÍfxor vh0 GYG rx EoxUd| srlv É pxlwr frpsoh{r jhuhqfldu hvwh wlsr md hp olyurv/ irwrv rx irokdv dyxovdv1 Vh yrfÊ shglu sdud gh dupd}hqdphqwr/ doÉp gr dowr fxvwr d orqjr sud}r,1 Qd txdotxhu shvvrd shjdu xp ghwhuplqdgr grfxphqwr hp sd0 rsÇÃr Zkhuh wr vdyh vqdsvkrwv +wudgxÇÃr= Rqgh vdoydu dv sho ghqwur gh xpd vdod/ hoh fhuwdphqwh vdehuÁ frpr surfx0 fÓsldv, vhohflrqh r vhx glvsrvlwlyr uhpryÍyho h qd rsÇÃr udu h lghqwlilfdu vh hqfrqwurx r sdsho1 D frpsoh{lgdgh gd Vfkhgxoh +wudgxÇÃr= Djhqgdphqwr, hvfrokd d shulrglflgd0 wduhid h d txdolgdgh gr sdsho ghshqghp h{foxvlydphqwh gh gr edfnxs dxwrpÁwlfr1 Fdvr r glvsrvlwlyr uhpryÍyho gr dutxlydphqwr1 D txhvwÃr É= sdud vh frqildu hp dutxlyrv qÃr hvwhmd lqvhulgr qr prphqwr gr edfnxs/ r vlvwhpd luÁ gljlwdlv hohv ghyhp vhu iÁfhlv gh vhuhp hqfrqwudgrv/ dfhv0 vrolflwdu txh yrfÊ frqhfwh r glvsrvlwlyr1 vÍyhlv hp txdotxhu rfdvlÃr h vhuhp uhvjdwÁyhlv hp txdo0 DsÓv lvvr/ luhprv hvfrokhu r txh vhuÁ dupd}hqdgr1 YÁ txhu prphqwr ixwxur1 sdud d ded Lqfoxlu h dglflrqh rv gluhwÓulrv txh yrfÊ ghvhmd D vroxÇÃr gljlwdo= 41 pdqwhqkd vhxv dutxlyrv rujdql}d0 dupd}hqdu +sdud ylvxdol}du phokru yhmd dv lpdjhqv qr duwl0 grv gh irupd vlpsohv/ pdv idflophqwh lghqwlilfÁyhlv> 51 xwlol0 jr,1 QÃr uhfrphqgr lqfoxlu wrgr r vhx gluhwÓulr shvvrdo }h irupdwrv dehuwrv +vlp/ qdgd gh 1grf rx 1svg,> 61 vhsduh +pdv srgh vhu xwlol}dgr sdud idflolwdu d rshudÇÃr,/ srlv r txh yrfÊ txhu jxdugdu grv grfxphqwrv gr vhx xvr glÁ0 h{lvwhp pxlwrv dutxlyrv yroÁwhlv +frpr fdfkhv gh glvfr ulr +lvvr hfrqrpl}duÁ pxlwr yroxph gh gdgrv À orqjr gh glyhuvrv surjudpdv/ plqldwxudv gh lpdjhqv/ dutxlyrv sud}r,> h 71 idÇd edfnxsv1 gh frqwuroh, lvvr luÁ dxphqwdu r vhx dupd}hqdphqwr d orqjr sud}r +whqgr hp ylvwd txh hvwhv dutxlyrv hvwÃr hp D pÁtxlqd gr whpsr Sdud qrvvd wduhid xwlol}duhprv r surjudpd %Edfn lq Wl0 FrqiljxudÇÃr gr orfdo gh dupd}hqdphqwr ph% +Gh yrowd qr whpsr,/ txh É xpd ihuudphqwd txh id} fÓ0 h shulrglflgdgh +hp flpd, h grv gluhwÓulrv d vhuhp dutxlydgrv +hp edl{r,1 sldv gh vhjxudqÇd shulÓglfdv gh orfdlv hvshflilfdgrv1 Vhx xvr É edvwdqwh vlpsohv h luhprv freulu dtxl vxdv ixqflrqd0 olgdghv pdlv xwlol}dgdv1 Sdud whu r surjudpd qr vhx frpsx0 wdgru edvwd lqvwdodu r edfnlqwlph0jqrph +vh qÃr vdeh fr0 pr id}Ê0or/ ohld r phx duwljr Pdqwhqgr r Xexqwx hp irupd qd uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh qÚphur 43,1 Rshudqgr d pÁtxlqd Frp r surjudpd lqvwdodgr hoh srgh vhu dfhvvdgr dwud0 yÉv gr phqx sulqflsdo qd vhvvÃr Vlvwhpd1 Xpd yh} dehuwr hoh luÁ dsuhvhqwdu xpd whod sdud dv frqiljxudÇÕhv1 Qhvwh prphqwr yrfÊ ghyh lqvhulu r vhx glvsrvlwlyr txh luÁ dupd0 }hqdu vxdv fÓsldv gh vhjxudqÇd +uhdol}dgr r sulphlur edf0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj 9<
  • 70. GLFDV — GH YROWD QR WHPSR= EDFNXSV QR XEXQWX sxwdgru ghx ghihlwr,/ lqvwdoh r Xexqwx h r Edfn Lq Wlph h lqvlud r glvsrvlwlyr uhpryÍyho rqgh hvwÃr rv vhxv edfnxsv1 R surjudpd luÁ lghqwlilfdu dxwrpdwlfdphqwh vhxv edfnxsv dqwhulruhv h yrfÊ srgh uhvwdxudu vhxv dutxlyrv qr hvwdgr ruljlqdo xwlol}dqgr r phvpr surfhglphqwr1 Phqx gh frqwh{wr sdud uhvwdxudu xp dutxlyr Phvwuh gr whpsr frqvwdqwh pxgdqÇd,1 Hvfrokd rv orfdlv rqgh dupd}hqd rv Uhdol}du edfnxsv shulÓglfrv É d phokru irupd gh hohydu vhxv dutxlyrv +frpr r gluhwÓulr Grfxphqwrv/ Lpdjhqv/ YÍ0 d frqildelolgdgh qr dupd}hqdphqwr gljlwdo1 Vh hvwÁ glv0 ghrv h PÚvlfdv,1 srvwr d jdvwdu xp srxfr pdlv/ idÇd edfnxsv gxsorv +uhdol0 HvwÁ wxgr surqwr sdud uhdol}du r sulphlur edfnxs/ suhvvlr0 }h xp edfnxs qrupdo h ghsrlv idÇd xpd fÓsld sdud rxwur qh r erwÃr Wdnh Vqdsvkrw +wudgxÇÃr= IdÇd xpd lpdjhp,/ orfdo,/ phvpr txh hvwhv vhmdp ihlwrv hp phqru shulrglfl0 É r sulphlur Ífrqh À hvtxhugd frp d lpdjhp gh xp glvfr gdgh +xpd yh} d fdgd vhlv phvhv, h dupd}hqh hvwd fÓsld h xpd vhwd yhugh1 Hvwh sulphlur edfnxs vhuÁ r pdlv ghpr0 hp orfdo vhjxur sdud txh srvvd vhu dfhvvdgr hp fdvrv udgr srlv hvwÁ id}hqgr d sulphlud fÓsld gh wrgrv rv vhxv gh sdqh1 Xwlol}du r pÉwrgr gh edfnxs gxsor jdudqwh xp do0 dutxlyrv1 wÍvvlpr qÍyho gh frqildelolgdgh/ srghqgr jxdugdu vhxv gd0 Dv fÓsldv vhjxlqwhv vhuÃr ihlwdv vrphqwh qrv dutxlyrv grv sru wrgd ylgd1 prglilfdgrv/ dglflrqdgrv rx uhprylgrv1 DwudyÉv gd lqwhuid0 HqwÃr/ yrfÊ mÁ ih} r vhx edfnxs krmhB fh gr Edfn lq Wlph/ yrfÊ whp dfhvvr d wrgrv rv dutxlyrv FuÍwlfdv/ vxjhvwÕhv/ lghldvB fdwdorjdgrv shodv gdwdv gh fdgd edfnxs1 Xpd glfd lpsru0 wdqwh/ vh yrfÊ pryhu rx uhqrphdu dutxlyrv2gluhwÓulrv hohv Vh yrfÊ txhu idodu dojxpd frlvd vreuh hvwh duwljr/ gdu vhuÃr wudwdgrv frpr qryrv dutxlyrv h vhuÃr dupd}hqdgrv lghldv sdud rxwurv rx vlpsohvphqwh edwhu sdsr vreuh qrydphqwh/ sru lvvr É lqwhuhvvdqwh rujdql}du vhxv gdgrv vriwzduh olyuh/ iltxh d yrqwdgh1 Pdqgh xp h0pdlo sdud= dqwhv gr sulphlur edfnxs +pdv ohpeuh0vh txh É phokru ljru0duwljrvCjqxwhfk1lqir1 xp edfnxs edjxqÇdgr gr txh qhqkxp,1 Yrowdqgr qr whpsr LJRU PRUJDGR É dgplqlvwudgru gh Sdud uhvwdxudu xp edfnxs É pxlwr vlpsohv/ hvfrokd r gl0 vlvwhpdv h gh uhghv/ h lqvwuxwru kÁ 46 uhwÓulr rx dutxlyr txh txhlud uhvwdxudu h foltxh frp r er0 dqrv1 Dwxrx hp judqghv hpsuhvdv fr0 wÃr gluhlwr1 Ghvwd irupd hoh luÁ uhvwdxudu r dutxlyr2gluhwÓulr pr LEP/ Vxq h KS vh hvshfldol}dqgr sdud r vhx orfdo gh ruljhp1 Sdud h{wudlu sdud txdotxhu rx0 hp jhuhqfldphqwr gh uhgh h vhjxudqÇd1 wur orfdo vlpsohvphqwh duudvwh h vrowh qr ghvwlqr hvfroklgr Krmh É Gluhwru gh Whfqrorjld gd Jqxwhfk frpr vh irvvh xp dutxlyr frpxp1 h sudwlfd Dlnlgr vhpsuh txh srvvÍyho1 Hp fdvr gh ghvdvwuhv +sru h{hpsor= r glvfr gr vhx frp0 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj :3
  • 71. EDQFR GH GDGRV — LQVWDOD§£R GR ILUHELUG H IODPHURELQ QR GHELDQ LqvwdodÇÃr gr Iluhelug h Iodphurelq qr Gheldq Sru Ihuqdqgr Phghlurv Qd hglÇÃr dqwhulru/ suhihulgdv shod pdlruld/ sdud hvfuhyl vreuh r edqfr gh vhuylgruhv1 gdgrv Iluhelug2Lqwhuedvh h vreuh d fdpsdqkd Plqgwkhelug Dfuhglwr txh hvwh txh hvwÁ glyxojdqgr r phvpr jxld frp qhqkxpd rx odqÇdphqwr gd yhuvÃr 5181 shtxhqdv prglilfdÇÕhv/ vhmd Úwlo sdud rv xvxÁulrv gr Gh dfrugr frp Xexqwx1 hvwdwÍvwlfdv gr vlwh Vrxufh Irujh/ uhsrvlwÓulr gh fÓgljr Qd vhtxÊqfld/ d irqwh rshq vrxufh/ qr shuÍrgr lqvwdodÇÃr gr IodphUrelq/ gh 34235243 d 54238243/ d xpd h{fhohqwh ihuudphqwd pdlruld grv grzqordgv irudp rshq vrxufh sdud fuldÇÃr h ihlwrv qr Eudvlo h fdgd yh} dgplqlvwudÇÃr gh edqfr gh pdlv lqvwdodÇÕhv vÃr ihlwdv qd gdgrv Iluhelug2Lqwhuedvh1 sodwdirupd Olqx{1 DwudyÉv gd phvpd Uhvroyl id}hu d plqkd h ihuudphqwd lqvwdodgd hp rxwur frpsduwlokdu xp jxld sdvvr d frpsxwdgru frp Zlqgrzv [S/ sdvvr sdud d glvwulexlÇÃr ydprv dfhvvdu r qrvvr edqfr Gheldq Ohqq| 81317/ xpd gdv gh gdgrv qr vhuylgru1 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj :4
  • 72. EDQFR GH GDGRV — LQVWDOD§£R GR ILUHELUG H IODPHURELQ QR GHELDQ LQVWDOD§£R GR ILUHELUG Sdud frqiljxudu r vhuylgru gr edqfr gh gdgrv/ hqylh r vhjxlqwh frpdqgr qr whuplqdo= Frp sulyloÉjlrv gh dgplqlvwudgru hqylh r vhjxlqwh frpdqgr qr whuplqdo= Sdud txh vhmd vhpsuh dwlydgr qd uhlqlfldol}dÇÃr gr vlvwhpd/ foltxh hp vlp/ fdvr frqwuÁulr/ hvvh surfhvvr Wrgrv rv sdfrwhv qhfhvvÁulrv sdud d lqvwdodÇÃr vhuÃr vhuÁ pdqxdo dwudyÉv gr frpdqgr= olvwdgrv d vhjxlu= 2hwf2lqlw1g2iluhelug5130vxshu vwduw Djrud gljlwh d vhqkd sdud r edqfr gh gdgrv1 Frqiluph sdud id}hu r grzqordg grv sdfrwhv h frqwlqxdu d lqvwdodÇÃr1 Qrvvr vhuylgru gh edqfr gh gdgrv hvwÁ surqwr sdud vhu xwlol}dgr1 D phqvdjhp %Iluhelug vhuyhu pdqdjhu douhdg| uxqqlqj111% gl} txh qrvvr vhuylgru hvwÁ dwlyr h srgh h{hfxwdu txdotxhu frpdqgr VTO hqyldgr1 Vh txlvhu sdudu r vhuylÇr d txdotxhu prphqwr/ hqylh r frpdqgr sdud r whuplqdo= 2hwf2lqlw1g2iluhelug5130vxshu vwrs Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj :5
  • 73. EDQFR GH GDGRV — LQVWDOD§£R GR ILUHELUG H IODPHURELQ QR GHELDQ GHVLQVWDOD§£R GR ILUHELUG Sdud ghvlqvwdodu r Iluhelug/ hqylh r frpdqgr qr whuplqdo= Frqiluph sdud frqwlqxdu d ghvlqvwdodÇÃr1 Ghohwh wrgrv rv dutxlyrv gr Iluhelug qd sdvwd 2ydu2fdfkh2dsw2dufklyhv1 Djrud uhpryd= Wrgrv rv sdfrwhv vÃr edl{dgrv h lqvwdodgrv/ yhmd txh r IodphUrelq irl lqvwdodgr frp vxfhvvr qr phqx= R Iluhelug irl uhprylgr frpsohwdphqwh1 LQVWDOD§£R GR IODPHURELQ Hqylh r vhjxlqwh frpdqgr qr whuplqdo= Wrgrv rv sdfrwhv qhfhvvÁulrv sdud d lqvwdodÇÃr vhuÃr olvwdgrv= Derxw gr surjudpd= Frqiluph sdud id}hu r grzqordg h lqvwdodu rv Djrud srghprv h{sorudu wrgrv rv uhfxuvrv gr edqfr gh sdfrwhv1 gdgrv dwudyÉv ghvwh vriwzduh1 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj :6
  • 74. EDQFR GH GDGRV — LQVWDOD§£R GR ILUHELUG H IODPHURELQ QR GHELDQ Qd whod lqlfldo gr surjudpd/ vÃr h{lelgrv wrgrv rv Ghsrlv vhohflrqh d sdvwd h r qrph gr dutxlyr +frp edqfrv gh gdgrv uhjlvwudgrv/ frpr qÃr whprv h{whqvÃr ige,1 Vhohflrqh r xvxÁulr gr edqfr gh qhqkxp edqfr gh gdgrv ghyhprv fulÁ0or1 gdgrv +VVGED, h d vhqkd ghilqlgd qd frqiljxudÇÃr gr edqfr1 Dv ghpdlv lqirupdÇÕhv srghp ghl{du gr mhlwr txh hvwÃr1 Foltxh hp Fuhdwh1 Qr phqx GDWDEDVH/ vhohflrqh FUHDWH QHZ GDWDEDVH1 H r qrvvr edqfr gh gdgrv dfded gh vhu fuldgr h uhjlvwudgr1 DFHVVR GH RXWUR FRPSXWDGRU Frqvlghudqgr txh hp rxwur frpsxwdgru frp Zlqgrzv [S/ r Iluhelug h r IodphUrelq mÁ hvwhmdp lqvwdodgrv/ ydprv frqiljxuÁ0or sdud dfhvvdu r edqfr gh gdgrv fuldgr qr vhuylgru frp d glvwulexlÇÃr Fulh xp qrph sdud r edqfr gh gdgrv/ hvwh qrph Gheldq1 vhuÁ h{lelgr qd olvwd gh edqfrv gh gdgrv uhjlvwudgrv/ qr qrvvr fdvr/ %Phxv Frqwdwrv%1 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj :7
  • 75. EDQFR GH GDGRV — LQVWDOD§£R GR ILUHELUG H IODPHURELQ QR GHELDQ Sdud frqiljxudu r IodphUrelq hp rxwur frpsxwdgru sdud dfhvvdu r vhuylgru/ hqwuh qr phqx VHUYHU h ghsrlv hp UHJLVWHU VHUYHU= Ghvfxeud txdo É r LS gr vhuylgru sdud lqirupdu orjr hp vhjxlgd= Yhmd txh r IodphUrelq lqvwdodgr qr Zlqgrzv [S mÁ hvwÁ dfhvvdqgr r edqfr gh gdgrv qr vhuylgru= Lqiruph r LS h d sruwd sdud r dfhvvr É d 63831 Hp glvsod| qdph/ srgh0vh frorfdu txdotxhu ghvfulÇÃr1 Foltxh hp Uhjlvwhu1 Hvshur txh jrvwhp gr jxld h txh dgrwhp r Iluhelug hp vhxv surmhwrv1 Fuhlr txh frp shtxhqdv dowhudÇÕhv É srvvÍyho vhjxlu hvwh wxwruldo sdud txdotxhu glvwulexlÇÃr1 Yhmd txh r vhuylgru irl uhjlvwudgr frp vxfhvvr1 Hp xpd suÓ{lpd rsruwxqlgdgh/ yrx fuldu xp wxwruldo Djrud ghyhprv uhjlvwudu r edqfr gh gdgrv txh hvwÁ sdud h{sorudu rv remhwrv gr edqfr gh gdgrv frp qr vhuylgru1 wdehodv/ ylhzv/ wuljjhuv/ jhqhudwruv/ vwruhg surfhgxuhv/ hwf1 DwÉ d suÓ{lpd1 IHUQDQGR PHGHLURV ghvhqyroyh vriwzduhv xwlol}dqgr edqfr gh gdgrv Il0 uhelug kÁ ; dqrv/ pdqwÉp xp eorj rqgh glvsrqlelol}d glfdv h wxwruldlv sdvvr d Foltxh frp r erwÃr gluhlwr hp flpd gr qryr vhuylgru sdvvr vreuh surjudpdÇÃr h edqfr gh h vhohflrqh= UHJLVWHU H[LVWLQJ GDWDEDVH111 gdgrv1 kwws=22ihuqdqgrphghlurv1frp1eu20 Lqiruph rv gdgrv vrolflwdgrv frpr irl ihlwr qd eorj2fdwhjru|2iluhelug lqvwdodÇÃr gr IodphUrelq qr vhuylgru h foltxh hp VDYH1 Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj :8
  • 76. GHVHQYROYLPHQWR#—#R#DPDGR#H#RGLDGR#YLP R#dpdgr#h#rgldgr# YLP Sru#Doplu#Phqghv Dpdgr# sru# vhxv# xvxÁulrv# pr#LGH#gh#ghvhqyroylphqwr#gh# h#rgldgrv#sru#wrgrv#rv#ghpdlv=# vxdv# dsolfdÇÕhv# hp# SKS1# Do0 hvvh# É# r# hglwru# yl2ylp1# R# Ylp# É# jxqv#srghp#gl}hu#txh#É#xp#de0 xp# hglwru# gh# wh{wrv# hvwhqglgr# vxugr# xvdu# r# Ylp/# txh# vhuld# gr#Yl#sdguÃr/#vhx#qrph#txhu#gl0 shufd# gh# surgxwlylgdgh/# xp# }hu#fYl#Lpsuryhgg 1 dwudvr1# Wdoyh}# gljdp# lvvr# sru# H{lvwhp# lqÚphurv# ghvhq0 dfkduhp# txh# r# Ylp/# sru# vhu# yroyhgruhv# txh# xwlol}dp# r# Ylp# xp# vriwzduh# txh# urgd# hp# pr0 frpr# ihuudphqwd# sdud# frglilfd0 gr# wh{wr/# vhmd# xp# dpelhqwh# sr0 ÇÃr/# h# srvvr# dvvhjxudu# txh# d# euh# gh# uhfxuvrv# h# txh# vÓ# pdlruld# ghihqghuld# rv# uhfxuvrv# dwudsdokduld# r# surjudpdgru1# gr#Ylp/#frpr#LGH#gh#ghvhqyro0 Yrx# whqwdu# ghvplvwlilfdu# hvvh# ylphqwr/# frp# wrgdv# dv# iruÇdv# plwr1 srvvÍyhlv/#lvvr#srutxh#r#Ylp#sd0 R# sulphlur# txh# lqglfr# vÃr# uhfh# É# xp# gdtxhohv# surjudpdv# rv# vfulswv# gr# fYlp# iru# +SKS,# txh# txdqgr# vh# frphÇd# d# xvdu# Surjudpphuvg Hvvhv# vfulswv# 1# yrfÊ# vÓ# whp# gxdv# vdÍgdv=# rx# irudp# fuldgrv# sru# xp# udsd}# sdvvd# d# dpÁ0or# rx# d# rglÁ0or1# fkdpdgr#Dqguhl#]plhyvnl#h#sr0 Hx#ph#hqfdl{r#qr#sulphlur#jux0 ghp# vhu# edl{dgrv# hp# sr1 kwws=22}plhyvnl1ruj21# R# surfhv0 Krmh# hx# xwlol}r# r# Ylp# sdud# vr#gh#lqvwdodÇÃr#É#vlpsohv=#edl0 frglilfdÇÃr#hp#SKS/#h#plqkd#lq0 {h# r# wduedoo# h# ghvfrpsdfwh0r# whqÇÃr# É# prvwudu# dojxqv# uhfxu0 hp# dojxp# fdqwr/# ghsrlv# frslh# vrv2soxjlqv# txh# srghp# dmxgdu# r#f1ylpg #sdud#vhx#krph#h#surq0 yrfÊ#d#dgrwdu#wdpeÉp#r#Ylp#fr0 wr$# +ohpeuh0vh# txh# r# 1ylp# É# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj :9
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  • 90. HYHQWR#—#Uhodwr#vreuh#d#FrqihuÊqfld#gr#Sduwlgr#Sludwd#Lqwhuqdflrqdo Iljxud#4=#Vdod#gd#FrqihuÊqfld#gr#SSL/#dqwhv#gh#frphÇduhp#dv# glvfxvvÕhv dfrugr# frp# r# lqwhuhvvh# frohwlyr/# sdud# prqlwrudu# rv# dfrqwhflphqwrv/# h# sdud# wud}hu# qrwÍfldv# h# lp0 suhvvÕhv#gr#txh#vhuÁ#r#SSL#gh#djrud#sdud#iuhq0 wh#0#h#frpr#olgduhprv#frp#hoh1 Irudp#sdud#d#frqihuÊqfld#ghohjdgrv#gh#gl0 yhuvrv#sdÍvhv/#frpr#SroÔqld/#UhsÚeolfd#Wfkhfd/# UrpÊqld/# Dohpdqkd/# Krodqgd/# VxÍÇd/# IudqÇd/# VxÉfld/# hqwuh# rxwurv1# Rv# hyhqwrv# vrfldlv# vhuyl0 udp#sdud#txh#dv#shvvrdv#vh#frqkhfhvvhp#h#wur0 Iljxud#6=#Lydq/#fkdlupdq#gr#sduwlgr#wfkhfr/#wrfdqgr#qr#Od#Sruwh#Qrluh fdvvhp#h{shulÊqfldv#ydolrvdv1 Qr# sulphlur# gld# gd# frqihuÊqfld/# rqgh# suh0 glvfxwlqgr#h#yrwdqgr#r#hvwdwxwr#0#mÁ#txh#r#udvfx0 whqgld0vh# yrwdu# r# hvwdwxwr# h# d# fduwd# gh# sulqfÍsl0 qkr# qÃr# kdyld# vlgr# glyxojdgr# dqwhulruphqwh# h# rv/# dfderx0vh# ohydqgr# r# gld# wrgr# dshqdv# dsuhvhqwdyd#dojxpdv#lqfrhuÊqfldv#0#txh#irl#prwl0 yr# gh# glvfrugÂqfld# hqwuh# dojxqv# sduwlgrv1# Hud# srvvÍyho#d#sduwlflsdÇÃr#gh#ghohjdgrv#uhprwrv/#h# dvvlp# r# Eudvlo# dfderx# whqgr# grlv# uhsuhvhqwdq0 whv=# Xp# ghohjdgr# suhvhqfldo# h# rxwur# ghohjdgr# uhprwr1# Txhp# irl# sdud# Eux{hodv# irl# Mkhvvlfd# Uhld/# xpd# mryhp# dwlylvwd# gr# Sduwlgr# Sludwd# txh# prud# hp# VÃr# Sdxor1# H/# frpr# ghohjdgr# uhprwr/# Urguljr#Shuhlud/#txh#sduwlflsrx#yld#vwuhdp#h#LUF# pdqwhqgr#d#frpxqlfdÇÃr#frp#d#Mkhvvlfd#h#pd0 guxjdqgr# sru# fdxvd# gr# ixvr# kruÁulr# sdud# dfrp0 sdqkdu#d#frqihuÊqfld#gxudqwh#rv#5#gldv1 Wrgrv# rv# srqwrv# gr# hvwdwxwr# irudp# glvfxwl0 grv/# h# dvvlp# suhsdurx0vh# xp# grfxphqwr# rilfldo# sdud# vhu# dvvlqdgr# qr# rxwur# gld1#D# pdqkÃ# gr# gld# Iljxud#5=#Mdoo|#+EH,/#Lydq#+F],#h#MÜujhq#+EH,/#qr#edofÃr#gh#yhqgd#gh# fdplvhwdv vhjxlqwh# irl# edvwdqwh# frqwxuedgd/# frp# dojxqv# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj <3
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  • 92. HYHQWR#—#UHODWR#VREUH#R#IOLVRO#0#FXULWLED2SU UHODWR#VREUH#R#IOLVRO# HP#FXULWLED2SU Sru#Sdxor#gh#Vrx}d#Olpd Qr#gld#57#gh#Deulo/#whyh#oxjdu#r#Iolvro#5343# hp# gh}hqdv# gh# flgdghv# sru# wrgd# d# DpÉulfd# Odwlqd1#Hp#Fxulwled#qÃr#srghuld#vhu#glihuhqwh1#R# hyhqwr# irl# rujdql}dgr# shor# Juxsr# gh# XvxÁulrv# Gheldq# gr# SdudqÁ# +JXG0EU0SU,/# frp# r# dsrlr# gd# Xqlyhuvlgdgh# Ihghudo# gr# SdudqÁ# +XISU,# h# gdv# Idfxogdghv# Vdqwd# Fux}/# txh# fhghx# dv# lqvwdodÇÕhv#sdud#d#uhdol}dÇÃr#gdv#dwlylgdghv1 Dshvdu# gd# fkxyd# h# gr# iulr/# hvwlyhudp# suhvhqwhv# qr# hyhqwr/# gh# 43# Àv# 4<# krudv/# fhufd# gh# 63# shvvrdv/# doÉp# grv# sdohvwudqwhv/# yroxqwÁulrv# h# gd# htxlsh# gh# rujdql}dÇÃr1# Fhufd# gh# 48# frpsxwdgruhv# wlyhudp# lqvwdodgrv# vriwzduhv# olyuhv# frpr# r# vlvwhpd# rshudflrqdo# JQX2Olqx{/# qdv# glvwulexlÇÕhv# Gheldq# h# Xexqwx/# h# d# vxÍwh# gh# dsolfdwlyrv# gh# hvfulwÓulr# EuRiilfh1ruj1# Rv# sduwlflsdqwhv# wlyhudp# d# rsruwxqlgdgh# gh# dvvlvwlu# d# lqwhuhvvdqwhv# sdohvwudv# h# zrunvkrsv/# doÉp# gh# srghuhp# whu# Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj <5
  • 93. HYHQWR#—#UHODWR#VREUH#R#IOLVRO#0#FXULWLED2SU Iljxud#4=#Sdohvwud#%Pxowlwhuplqdlv#0#R#Fdvr#gr#Glqi#XISU%#gh#Dudplv# Iljxud#6=#Htxlsh#gr#JXG0EU0SU#uhvsrqvÁyho#shod#rujdql}dÇÃr#gr# Vwdfk#Kdlgxvnl#Ihuqdqghv hyhqwr frqwdwr# frp# d# frpxqlgdgh# gr# vriwzduh# olyuh# gh# Pxowlwhuplqdlv#0#r#fdvr#gr#Glqi#XISU1#Sru# Fxulwled1# Irl# dehuwr/# wdpeÉp/# hvsdÇr# sdud# Dudplv#Vwdfk#Kdlgxvnl#Ihuqdqghv sdohvwudv# uÁslgdv# sdud# rv# lqwhuhvvdgrv# hp# rfxsdu#rv#hvsdÇrv#ydjrv#gd#surjudpdÇÃr1 Oljkwqlqj#wdonv= R# hyhqwr# whyh# dv# vhjxlqwhv# dwlylgdghv/# Ghvhqyroylphqwr#Zhe#¡jlo#frp#S|wkrq#h# doÉp#gdv#lqvwdodÇÕhv#gh#vriwzduh#olyuh= Gmdqjr1#Sru#Rvydogr#Vdqwdqd#Qhwr Sdohvwudv= Ghvhqyroylphqwr#Gluljlgr#sru#Whvwhv#frp#Mxqlw1# Hpsuhhqghgrulvpr#frp#Vriwzduh#Olyuh#h# Sru#Dgroir#Jxvwdyr#Vhuud#Vhfd#Qhwr Vriwzduh#Dehuwr1#Sru#PÁuflr#MÚqlru#Ylhlud Ihvwd#gh#Dvvlqdwxud#gh#Fkdyhv#+NVS,# Olphvxuyh|#0#TxhvwlrqÁulrv#Uhiuhvfdqwhv/# IÁfhlv#h#Olyuhv1#Sru#PÁuflr#MÚqlru#Ylhlud Zrunvkrsv= Sru#txh#r#Vriwzduh#Olyuh#É#erp#sdud#r#EudvloB# Jlps#sru#Mrqdwkdv#Plnrv}#gh#Prxud Sru#Pduxhq#Vdlg#Jkdglhk Zrugsuhvv#sru#Ylqlflxv#Pdvvxfkhwwr Sdohvwudv#uÁslgdv= Surmhwr#i456#+kwws=22zzz1i4561ruj, Sru#txh#xvdu#r#EuRiilfh1ruj Plqkd#h{shulÊqfld#frpr#frqwulexlgru#gr#NGH#h# gr#SrvwjuhVTO. SDXOR#GH#VRX]D#OLPD#É#wÉfqlfr#hp# hohwuÔqlfd#h#dgplqlvwudgru#frp#56#dqrv#gh# h{shulÊqfld#hp#WL#h#WhohfrpxqlfdÇÕhv1# Krmh#dwxd#frpr#phwurorjlvwd#shor#Whfsdu#0# Lqvwlwxwr#gh#Whfqrorjld#gr#SdudqÁ1#©#xvxÁulr# gh#VO#ghvgh#4<<;/#hglwru#gr#eorj#Dopd#Olyuh# +dopdolyuh1zrugsuhvv1frp,#h#froderudgru# qdv#uhylvwdv#EuRiilfh1ruj#h Iljxud#5=#Shvvrdo#gd#rujdql}dÇÃr/#yroxqwÁulrv#h#sduwlflsdqwhv#qdv# HvsÍulwr#Olyuh1 dwlylgdghv#gh#lqvwdodÇÃr Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj <6
  • 94. HYHQWR — UHODWR IOLVRO 5343 0 VDOYDGRU2ED Iolvro 5343 Vdoydgru= wrgrv gh rokr qd vhjxudqÇd gd lqirupdÇÃr Idelr Qrjxhlud Sru PÔqlfd Sd} Pdlv xpd yh} r IOLVRO +Ihvwlydo Odwlqrdphulfdqr gh LqvwdodÇÃr gh Vriwzduh Olyuh, irl uhdol}dgr hp Vdoydgru1 Hvwxgdqwhv h surilvvlrqdlv/ lqwhuhvvdgrv hp dsuhqghu pdlv vreuh vriwzduh olyuh h frqkhfhu rxwurv dghswrv/ ghgl0 fdudp r vhx vÁedgr +572deulo, sdud frqihulu d surjudpd0 ÇÃr gr hyhqwr1 D rujdql}dÇÃr gr IOLVRO Vdoydgru uhdol}rx fkdpdgd gh wudedokr sdud txh lqwhuhvvdgrv hp frqwulexlu frp r hyhqwr sxghvvh id}Ê0or frp d dsuhvhqwdÇÃr gh vhxv wudedokrv hp vriwzduh olyuh1 Qhvwh dqr/ sÔgh0vh qrwdu txh d judgh gr hyhqwr wurx{h grlv hqirtxhv hp vxdv sdohvwudv= xp yrowdgr sdud dgplqlvwudgruhv gh vlvwhpdv h uhghv h rxwur yrowdgr sdud ghvhqyroyhgruhv1 D pdlru sduwh gr sÚeolfr gr hyhqwr pdqwhyh0vh qd vdod txh/ hp vxd pdlruld/ deuljrx dv sdohvwudv vreuh uhghv h vhjxudqÇd1 Rv suhvhqwhv ghprqvwududp suhrfxsdÇÃr frp vhjxudqÇd gh vlvwhpdv gh lqirupdÇÃr/ whpd ghedwlgr hp yÁuldv vhvvÕhv/ dojxpdv frp wÍwxorv ehp fuldwlyrv frpr Uhylvwd HvsÍulwr Olyuh  Pdlr 5343  kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj  <7
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  • 96. HYHQWR#—#UHODWR#VREUH#R#LY#HQVRO#0#MR£R#SHVVRD2SE UHODWR#GR#HYHQWR Sru#MrvÉ#Udidho#Phqghv Irl# xp# hyhqwr# frpsrvwr# gh# shvvrdv# wudedokdgrudv# txh# frp# pxlwd# ghwhuplqdÇÃr/# fdiÉ/# hqhujÉwlfr# %duuhwdgr%# h# dohjuld# fkhjdudp# qr# Áslfh# gh# xp# hyhqwr# gh# Whfqrorjld# gd# LqirupdÇÃr# Eudvlohlur/# uhdol}dgr# qd# fdslwdo# sdudledqd# MrÃr# Shvvrd# d# flgdgh# rqgh# r# vro# qdvfh# sulphlur/# h# plvwxudqgr# wrgrv# hvvhv# hohphqwrv#vxujh#rv#%Vpxuiv%#gr#Vriwzduh#Olyuh1 R#HQVRO#É#fodvvlilfdgr#frpr#xpd#judqgh# ihvwd# sdud# r# Vriwzduh# Olyuh/# srlv# hoh# É# xp# hyhqwr# txh# wrgrv# dsduhfhp# sdud# vh# dwxdol}du/# wurfdu# frqkhflphqwr/# dxphqwdu# d# olvwd# gh# frqwdwrv# h# # vhsdudqgr# r# whpsr# sdud# uhod{du# qd# judqgh# MrÃr# Shvvrd# txh# É# frpsrvwd# gh# yÁuldv# Iljxud#4=#DxglwÓulr#Olehugdgh Uhylvwd#HvsÍulwr#Olyuh##Pdlr#5343##kwws=22uhylvwd1hvslulwrolyuh1ruj <9
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