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The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia
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The Democratic Rollback? Democracy in East-Asia

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    • 1. The Democratic Rollback? With reference to … The Resurgence of the Predatory State, Larry Diamond, From Foreign Affairs, March/April 2008 By FILI AN
    • 2. Larry Diamond
      • Professor of Political Science and Sociology, Stanford University.
      • Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.
      • Founding co-editor of the Journal of Democracy.
      • Related Books:
        • The Spirit of Democracy
        • Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation
        • Promoting Democracy in the 1990s
        • Political Culture and Democracy in developing Countries ed.
      • (Reference : Prof. Diamond’s website at Stanford)
    • 3. The Democratization Wave
      • By 2000 – 60% of the world’s independent counties democratic.
      • East-Asia : South Korea, Taiwan, Indonesia.
      • (Reference : Following data and charts are from the Freedom House 2008 report)
    • 4. What’s Democracy about?
      • Not sure there is one “definition”…
      • Majority rule (/representative).
      • Rule of Law / Equality before law.
      • Civil liberties & human rights – speech, press, religion, privacy, own property, fair trail etc.
      • Balanced separated powers – government, parliament, judiciary, press...
      • What else?
    • 5. Freedom House – the definition of “Free”
      • “ Freedom is the opportunity to act spontaneously … outside the control of the government … “
      • Political rights - “Participate freely in the political process through the right to …
        • Vote.
        • Compete for public office.
        • Elect representatives who have a decisive impact on public policies and are accountable to the electorate”
      • Civil liberties – “Freedoms of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy without interference from the state“
    • 6. Freedom – Who’s Free in East Asia?
      • Country - (PR, CL)
      • Japan - 1, 2
      • South Korea - 1, 2
      • Taiwan - 2, 1
      • Mongolia - 2, 2
      • Indonesia - 2, 3
      • Philippines - 4, 3
      • Malaysia - 4, 4 (down)
      • Singapore - 5, 4
      • Thailand - 6, 4
      • Cambodia - 6, 5
      • Brunei - 6, 5
      • Vietnam - 7, 5
      • China - 7, 6
      • Laos - 7, 6
      • Burma - 7,7 (down)
      • North Korea - 7, 7
      • The report ranks every country on a seven point scale in two categories ( 1 highest, 7 lowest)
      • “ Political Rights" (PR)
      • “ Civil Liberties" (CL)
    • 7. Freedom - What’s happening in East Asia – 2007-8
      • “ A number of Asia’s most important countries suffered freedom setbacks during 2007”-8
      • Burma – Violence against peaceful demonstrations.
      • China
        • Crack down: Political activists, online journalists, human-rights lawyers.
        • Olympics : “Antidemocratic environment”.
        • Growing pressure on Tibet.
      • Malaysia – Tighter control : online media crackdown, suppression of opposition-led protests.
      • Philippines - High-level corruption allegations.
      • Thailand – Recovering from a military cope. Re-electing the Thaksin’s party allies.
    • 8. Perception of Democracy -> Negative trend
      • Decreasing faith in the democratic political system – Politicians, parties, government officials.
      • Examples :
      • Asian Barometer – Philippines (2001 -> 2005)
        • “ Democracy is Best” : 64% -> 51%.
        • Satisfaction with Democracy : 54% -> 39%.
        • Rejection of Authoritarian Rule : 70% -> 59%.
      • Afrobarometer – Nigeria (2000 -> 2005)
        • “ Government is fighting corruption” : 64% -> 36%
    • 9. World-wide “Democratic Recession”
      • Nigeria, Russia
        • Expansion of executive power, intimidation of the opposition, rigging the electoral process.
        • The people embrace stronger authoritarian leader (Vlademir Potin)
      • Venezuela
        • The people embrace stronger authoritarian leader President Hugo Chavez almost passing a referendum to give him unlimited power. Control.
      • Kenya
        • Ethnic violence regarding Electoral Fraud (2007).
    • 10. What’s the core problem? - Elections
      • Elections
        • “ The Fallacy of Electoralism” : Democracy isn’t all about elections.
        • Potential “Electoral Authoritarianism” : Elections aren’t always democratic.
      • Other strong democracies (US, Europe) accept “superficial democracies”, often mixing economics and politics.
    • 11. Elections - Democracy requires…
      • Freedom to advocate, associate, contest, and campaign.
      • Fair and neutral electoral administration.
      • A widely credible system of dispute resolution.
      • Balanced access to mass media.
      • Independent vote monitoring.
    • 12. What’s the core problem? - Governance
      • “ Monopoly of Power ” - Rule of the Elite - nearly everyone feels powerless, exploited, and unhappy.
      • “ Predatory societies ” – Use any means necessary and break any rules possible to gain power and wealth.
      • “ Social distrust” - Thin line between police and criminals.
      • Robert Putnam, Douglass North, John Wallis, and Barry Weingast – Problem is … “Bad governance is not an aberration or an illness to be cured, but rather a natural condition ”.
    • 13. Governance - Democracy requires …
      • Freedom, justice, and a fairer society through :
      • It takes time to make it work - ongoing commitment to the principles of democracy.
      • Democratic Balance
        • Accountable Government.
        • Judicial system and Rule of Law : Law enforcement, crime and corruption containment.
        • Independent organizations, mass media, and think tanks.
      • Generating steady solid economic growth while ensuring economic equality.
      • Professionalism & open market economy?
    • 14. Governance - Transforming Predator Societies…
      • Civic involvement and consciousness.
      • Forming impartial rules and democratic institutions (political parties, parliaments, and local governments).
        • better, stronger, and more
        • transparency and accessibility .
      • Accountability
        • Vertical (by the public) : G enuine democratic election with strict integrity and neutrality, public hearings, citizen audits, the regulation of campaign finance, and a freedom-of-information act
        • Horizontal (by the counterpart agencies) : Independent with resources - Legal authority, professional staffs, public audits, parliamentary oversight committees, etc.
    • 15. My take on things - Maslow on a social scale
      • Human needs -> Social needs.
      • Social Physiological and Safety should be satisfied in order to allow a confident long-lasting Social-actualization.
    • 16. My take on things - Democracy
      • Democracy – least worst . It’s not near perfect, but it’s the best we have.
      • It’s essentially working - People in strong enduring democracies – see and constantly complain about the weaknesses, but wouldn’t trade it for anything else.
      • The main democratic strength
        • A work in process for the whole society.
        • A self-evolving political system.
        • Focusing on rights and liberties.
    • 17. My take on things - World’s Democratic Recession
      • I’m optimistic .
      • Up to the people - There’s no such thing “cultural tendencies to freedom or democracy”, yet it’s up to the people in different nations to figure out what’s right for them. Democracy can take many forms.
      • Democracy can’t be rushed into - It took Europe and the US hundreds of years and it’s still in process.
      • People’s Democracy - Democracy has to come from the people. It can not be forced upon. People need to want it.

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