LED Lamps
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LED Lamps

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  • 1. JABATAN KERJA RAYAUNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA CAWANGAN KEJURUTERAAN MELAKA ELEKTRIK, IPOH Comparison of LED with Other Lighting Sources Prepared by: Siti Norfika bt Khamis (Trainee) Matrix Number: D011010062 1
  • 2. Agenda o Introduction o Types of Luminarieso Luminaries Comparison o Luminous Efficiencyo Lighting The Used of LED o Lighting Pollution o Recommendation 2
  • 3. Learning Outcome Able to know what is the harm brought by normal lamp Able to differentiate between LED and other lighting sources Able to teach people on the use of efficient energy sources 3
  • 4. Introduction Stands for Light Emitting Small light sources Diode that become illuminated by the movement of electron through a semiconductor material. Working principle: Electroluminescence 1. Directional light 2. Compact Size3. Breaking and vibration resistance 4
  • 5. IntroductionLighting Technology Timeline1780---Oil Lamp 1910---Neon Lighting1790---Gas Lamp Tungsten Filament1800---Platinum Filament 1920---1810--- 1930---Fluorescent Lamp1820---Vacuum Tube Lamp 1940---1840---Arc Lamp 1950---1850---Bamboo Filament 1960---Light Emitting Diode1860--- 1970---Compact Fluorescent Lamp1870---Fluorescent Lamp 1980--- ---Electric Light Bulb 1990---White SON1880---Long Lasting Filament ---Organic LED1890---Gas Discharge Lamp ---Magnetic Induction Lamp1900---Mercury Vapor Lamp ---Sulfur Lamp 2000--- 5
  • 6. Introduction 1901 ~1990 2000 2009 Fluorescent “High Brightness” White LED Lamp Production White 1879 Tube 1919 1970s Red, Orange, demonstrates LED LampEdison Light Sodium First Red Yellow, & Green LEDs Incandescent Exceeds 100 lm/W Bulb Vapor Lamp LED Efficacy (17 lm/W) 2005 1995 White LED Lamp “High Brightness” demonstrates Blue, Green LEDs Fluorescent Efficacy (70 lm/W)U.S. 223,898 Monochrome Calculators and signs Indicators Full Color Signs Solid State Lighting • Current lighting technology is over 120 years old • LEDs began as just indicators, but are now poised to become the most efficient light source ever created 6
  • 7. Types of LuminariesCombustion Incandescent Light Emitting DiodeArc Lamp Fluorescent Gas Discharge 7
  • 8. Luminaries ComparisonIncandescent Lamp• Produces light by heating a filament wire to a high temperature until it glows.• The filament is normally made of tungsten because it has a high melting pointwhich is 3500 degree Celsius.• The hot filament is protected from oxidation in the air with a glass enclosure thatis filled with inert gas (Argon, Nitrogen) or evacuated.• Normally the filament is made in coil shape.• Life period of incandescent lamp can last until 1000 hours .• The efficiency of incandescent lamp is 12 lumen/watt (depends on lamp shape,life period and operation voltage). 8
  • 9. Luminaries Comparison Do you know why the filament is made in coil shape? • The filament has a compact shape and arrangement. • Heat loss can be reduce in current transfer in gas and give high capacity.Incandescent lamp Energy flow diagram of incandescent lamp 9
  • 10. Luminaries ComparisonTungsten Halogen LampFeaturesEfficacy – 18 lumen/wattColor Temperature – Warm (3000K-3200K)Lamp Life – 2000-4000 hours 10
  • 11. Luminaries ComparisonAdvantages More compact Longer life More light Whiter light (higher color temperature)Disadvantages Cost more Increased IR Increased UV Handling problem 11
  • 12. Luminaries ComparisonFluorescent Lamp• Fluorescent lamp are about 3 to 5 times as efficient as standard incandescent lamps and can last about 10 to 20 times longer.• Passing electricity through a gas or metallic vapor will cause electromagnetic radiation at specific wavelengths according to the chemical constitution and the gas pressure.• The fluorescent tube has a low pressure of mercury vapor, and will emit a small amount of blue/green radiation, but the majority will be in the UV. 12
  • 13. Luminaries Comparison Fluorescent lamp Energy flow diagram of fluorescent lamp 13
  • 14. Luminaries Comparison How do T12, T10, T8, and T5 fluorescent lamps differ?• These four lamps vary in diameter (ranging from 1.5 inches that is 12/8 of an inch for T12 to 0.625 or 5/8 of an inch in diameter for T5 lamps).• Efficacy is another area that distinguishes one from another.• T5 & T8 lamps offer a 5-percent increase in efficacy over 40- watt T12 lamps, and have become the most popular choice for new installations. 14
  • 15. Luminaries ComparisonFeaturesHalo phosphateEfficacy – 80 lumens/Watt (HF gear increases this by 10%)Color Temperature – AnyLamp Life – 7-15,000 hoursTri-phosphorEfficacy – 90 lumens/WattColor Temperature – AnyLamp Life – 7-15,000 hours 15
  • 16. Luminaries ComparisonSodium Vapor Lamp• Produce yellowish light.• Work at high pressure or low pressure sodium.• Neon gas is used to start the discharge, pink light will be produced.• The process then is take over by sodium vapor with increasing the pressure and light will change to yellow in 3-4 minutes.• This shows that the lamp has been fully discharge.• The efficiency of this lamp is 75 lumen/watt.• Normally used in street light with range of 150W, 250W and 400W for JKR. 16
  • 17. Luminaries ComparisonFeatures• Efficacy – 50 - 90 lumens/Watt ( better CRI, lower Efficacy)• Color Temperature – Warm• Lamp Life – up to 24,000 hours, excellent lumen maintenance• Warm up – 10 minutes, hot re-strike – within 60 seconds• Operating sodium at higher pressures and temperatures makes it highly reactive.• Contains 1-6 mg sodium and 20 mg mercury• The gas filling is Xenon. Increasing the amount of gas allows the mercury to be reduced, but makes the lamp harder to start• The arc tube is contained in an outer bulb that has a diffusing layer to reduce glare.• The higher the pressure, the broader the wavelength band, and the better CRI, lower efficacy. 17
  • 18. Luminaries ComparisonMetal Halide Lamps• The halides act in a similar manner to the tungsten halogen cycle.• As the temperature increases there is disassociation of the halide compound releasing the metal into the arc.• The halides prevent the quartz wall getting attacked by the alkali metals. 18
  • 19. Luminaries ComparisonFeatures• Efficacy – 80 lumens/Watt• Color Rendering Index – 1A –2 depends on halide mix• Color Temperature – 3,000K – 6,000K• Lamp Life – 6,000 - 20,000 hours, poor lumen maintenance• Warm-up – 2-3 minutes, hot re-strike 10-20 minutes• The choice of color, size and rating is greater for MBI than any other lamp type• They are a developed version of the two other high intensity discharge lamps, as they tend to have a better efficacy.• By adding other metals to the mercury different spectrum can be emitted• Some MBI lamps use a third electrode for starting, but other, especially the smaller display lamps, require a high voltage ignition pulse. 19
  • 20. Luminaries Comparison Metal Halide Lamps 20
  • 21. Luminaries Comparison Energy flow for metal halide lamps 21
  • 22. Luminaries ComparisonLED Lamps LED lighting are viable in any lighting applications and has prove to have a better energy efficiency than other lamps. Costly, but worth for a once life time project. Basic components for LED lighting are: - LEDs - Driver (power conversion device) - Control devices (dimming controls, color mixing controls) - Optics - Fixture (housing, including heat sink devices, to contain all components) 22
  • 23. Luminaries Comparison• LED Driver (Power conversion device) - converts a system voltage (e.g:240V) into power required by the LED system. - Delivering proper power to an LED system is crucial to maintaining correct light levels and life expectancy of the LEDs. - The driver also regulates power delivered to the LEDs to counter any fluctuations in system conditions. - Drivers also isolate the LED system from the high voltage system to reduce shock hazards and make a lighting system safer. 23
  • 24. Luminaries Comparison• LED lamps are the newest addition to the list of energy efficient light sources in JKR.• While LED lamps emits visible light in a very narrow spectral band, they can produce “white light”.• This is accomplished either a red-blue-green array or phosphor-coated blue LED lamps.• LED lamps last 40,000 to 100,000 hours depending on color.• LED lamps have made their way into numerous lighting applications including exit signs, traffic signals, under-cabinet lights, and various decorative applications. 24
  • 25. Luminaries Comparison• The luminous efficacy of LEDs in comparison with other lamps; Source Efficacy Life Time (lumen/watt) (hours) LED 4.5-150 25,000-30,000 Incandescent 10-30 More than 2,000-4,000 Fluorescent 60-90 More than 7,000 Neon 5-20 More than 12,000 Metal Halide 70-90 6,000- 20,000High Pressure Sodium 90-125 25,000 25
  • 26. Luminaries Comparison• However, the comparison does not tell the whole story. Efficiency of the complete system must be considered while making comparison.• Colored LED used in applications such as traffic signals and channel letters can be up to 90% more efficient than neon and incandescent. 26
  • 27. Luminaries Comparison• It is true that these applications have historically filtered white light to get a specific color of light, so most of the light is wasted in the filtering process.• In traffic signal lights, a red traffic signal head that contains 196 LEDs draws 10W versus its incandescent counterpart that draws 150W.• Various estimates of potential energy savings range from 82% to 93%. 27
  • 28. Why LED lighting?Energy consumption• Improved night visibility due to higher color rendering, higher color temperature and increased illuminance uniformly.• Longer lifespan.• Lower energy consumption.• Reduced maintenance costs.• Instant-on with no run-up or re-strike delays.• No mercury, lead or other known disposable hazards.• Lower environmental footprint.• An opportunity to implement programmable controls. 28
  • 29. Applications of LED LightingResidential: Bedroom, Kitchen, Living Room.Commercial: Restaurant, Retail Store, Office, StageSafety: Street/Road, Parking Area, Park, Emergency LightingHealth: Hospital, Clinic. 29
  • 30. How LED light differ from fluorescent, incandescent or other source light? Incandescent bulb create light by passing electricity through a metal filament until it becomes so hot that it will glows. Incandescent bulbs release 90% energy as heat. In a CFL, an electric current is driven through a tube containing gases. This reaction produces ultraviolet light that gets transformed into visible light by the fluorescent coating (called phosphor) on the inside of the tube. A CFL releases about 80% of its energy as heat. LED lighting products use light emitting diodes to produce light very efficiently. The movement of electrons through a semiconductor material illuminates the tiny light sources we call LEDs. A small amount of heat is released backwards, into a heat sink, in a well-designed product; LEDs are basically cool to the touch. 30
  • 31. Why does lighting has become one of my concern?Others include: Refrigeration (3 billion kWh), water heater (2billion kWh) and cooking (1 billion kWh) 31
  • 32. Lighting Pollution One teaspoon of mercury can contaminate a 20 acre lake. . Forever.* Each year, an estimated 600 million fluorescent lamps are disposed of in U.S. landfills amounting to 30,000 pounds of mercury waste.* The mercury from one fluorescent bulb can pollute 6,000 gallons of water beyond safe drinking levels.** www.lightbulbrecycling.com 32
  • 33. RecommendationEnergy Saving Opportunities1. Use natural daylight• Natural Light from windows should also be used. However, it should be well designed to avoid glare. Light shelves can be used to provide natural light without glare.2. De-lamping to reduce excess lighting• De-lamping is an effective method to reduce lighting energy consumption.• In some industries, reducing the mounting height of lamps, providing efficient luminaries and then de-lamping has ensured that the illuminance is hardly affected. 33
  • 34. Recommendation• De-lamping at empty spaces where active work is not being performed is also a useful concept.• De-lamping also can be done by replacing lamp with more efficient lamp.3. Replacing electromagnetic ballast with electronic ballast• Conventional electromagnetic ballasts (chokes) are used to provide higher voltage to start the tube light and subsequently limit the current during normal operation.• The losses in electronic ballasts for tube lights are only about 1 Watt, in place of 10 to 15 Watts in standard electromagnetic chokes. 34
  • 35. THANK YOU!!See you again! 35