Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

apresentação no ecer 2008

1,091

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,091
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Research and Professional Knowledge Construction in Early Childhood Teachers' Education: a study of student teachers' thesis within two programmes in Portugal. Maria Pacheco Figueiredo School of Education and Center of Studies in Education, Technologies and Health, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu [email_address] Gabriela Portugal Department of Educational Sciences, University of Aveiro [email_address] Maria do Céu Roldão Center of Child Studies, University of Minho [email_address] ECER 2008 Göteborg - From Teaching to Learning? Network 10 10 – 12 September
  • 2. Background analyze professional knowledge production in teacher education and in the teacher profession in Portugal, namely looking at the role of research in the identity and knowledge of early childhood teachers
    • Aims:
      • Analyze the ways in which the research dimension is being conceived and implemented in early childhood teacher education programmes in Portugal (Figueiredo, & Roldão, 2007; Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão, 2008) ‏
      • Describe research produced by students in their teacher education programmes Brinberg and McGrath's methodological, conceptual and substantive domains
      • Identify student teachers’ and early childhood teachers’ qualitatively different ways of experiencing and understanding research
      • Examine the ways in which research is conceived as part of early childhood teachers professional identity
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
  • 3. Background emphasis in the role of teachers as knowledge producers Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão Common European Principles for Teacher Competences and Qualifications (European Commision. Directorate-General for Education and Culture, 2005) ‏ Specificity of teachers' professional knowledge (Montero, 2005; Roldão, 2007; Schon, 1983; Shulman, & Shulman, 2004; ...) ‏ DL 240/2001 + 2/2008 Teachers' p rofessional performance profile (Ministry of Education - Portugal) ‏ Status of teaching as a profession (Fueyo, & Koorland, 1997; Krejsler, 2005; Roldão, 1998, 2004, 2005, 2007; Zeichner, & Noffke, 2001) ‏
      • Changes in the ways in which knowledge is produced
    • (Gibbons et al., 1994) ‏
    Traditions of “teacher as researcher”, reflective practitioner, action-research ... (Stenhouse, Schon, Zeichner, Estrela, Elliott, Cochran-Smith, Carr & Kemmis, Perrenoud ...)
  • 4. Background teachers as knowledge producers: anticipated advantages Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão Emmancipation “ voice” Lifelong learning Teaching and school's quality Development of specific and relevant educational knowledge Teachers' scientific autonomy: control over knowledge and theory that guide and sustain their work
  • 5. Background research dimension in teacher education Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão Reflective and questioning attitude Development of educational knowledge As a training strategy/tool Critical use of research To base decision making and action ...
  • 6. Background Early Childhood initial teacher education in Portugal Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão Historical overview XIX century 1920’s 1977 1980’s 1997 2007 2001 Same as primary school + specific Private schools “ Normal schools” – public Higher education – Bachelor’s degree Higher education – Licenciate's degree Professional performance profile Bologna – Master’s degree 4 + 2 yrs 2 to 4 yrs 3 yrs 3 yrs 4 yrs 3 + 1 yrs > < < < =/< =/< = 1989 Legal orientations for teacher education <
  • 7. Background Research and knowledge production in initial early childhood teacher education in Portugal Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
    • changes in the required qualification for being a basic education (EC + primary) teacher – licenciate's degree :
      • strengthening of knowledge production by early childhood teachers: research method courses + final thesis/essays
      • recognition of the scientific status of specific educational knowledge by the higher education institutions (“universitisation”)
    • common professional performance profile for all teachers (standards for teacher education) ‏
      • professional development sustained in critical reflection of practices, research and collaboration
      • participation in research projects (teaching, learning and student development)
    DL n. 115/97 DL n. 240/01
  • 8. Background Initial early childhood teacher education in Portugal
    • Programmes 1998-2010
    • “ Licenciatura” degree
    • 4 years long, with annual and semesterly courses
    • Compulsory courses in pre-determined order + optional courses
    • Practicum since 1 st or 2 nd year
    • Progressive immersion in the practicum and responsibility for teaching (supervised) ‏
    • Longest practicum: last year
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
  • 9. Study - context The research dimension in initial EC teacher education in Portugal (Figueiredo, & Roldão, 2007; Figueiredo, Portugal & Roldão, 2008) ‏
    • - research is present in official orientations and in curricula of EC teacher education in Portugal: different conceptions about it’s role to a EC teacher and in EC teacher education
    • - five ways of conceiving the research dimension in the programmes:
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão research work in the final year research course
  • 10. Study – methods and participants Case studies of ways of conceiving the research dimension in EC teacher education programmes that includes research work in the last year
    • - the research reports from 103 students (2006/07), from two schools that share the same curricula, were read and analysed in terms of the substantive, conceptual and methodological domains (Brinberg & McGrath, 1985)
    • - reports were accessed in the school libraries after permission was obtained from programme director, teachers of the final seminar courses and students
    • - informal interviews with the teachers and the students, and curricula (programme and courses) analysis from both programmes
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
      • specific research course in the 2 nd year of the curricula
      • year long research project to be developed by the students in their final year ( individually )
      • supervised by teacher (1/25)
      • seminar work
      • report (oral presentation)
  • 11. Results – aims and purposes Shulman and Shulman (2004) ‏
    • 2. studies focused on knowledge about children (27%) ‏
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão 1. studies focused on knowledge for basing decisions about action and/or action (68%) ‏ 3. studies focused on knowledge about ways to accomplish community (5%) ‏ classroom management and organization, content knowledge or curriculum understanding
  • 12. Results – research questions Studies focused on knowledge for basing decisions about action and/or action – pedagogical-didactic focus
    • understanding the impact of teaching strategies on
    • children's learning (44%) ‏
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão solving concrete problems (48%) ‏ analysing and interpreting practices (8%) ‏ how should the EC teacher take part in children's free choice activities? what strategies can the EC teacher use to facilitate communication between children in large group arrangements? how does creating stories with virtual puppets influence children's interest for ICT? in what way constructivist conflict resolution strategies promote children's social competence, ability to negotiate rules and autonomy in conflict resolution? implement and analyse different ways of tapping the potential of “greeting and calendar time” and as meaningful contexts for math learning describe the creation of a travelling agency as an interest area, analysing children's participation in the decision making and planning and their exploration of the proposed materials and situations.
  • 13. Results – research questions + methodology Studies focused on knowledge for basing decisions about action and/or action – pedagogical-didactic focus
    • understanding the impact of teaching strategies on
    • children's learning (44%) ‏
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão solving concrete problems (48%) ‏ analysing and interpreting practices (8%) ‏ auto/heteroscopy only ( 70,3%), or in combination with interviews, sociometry or questionnaires (16,2%), other single method designs: 13,5% used observation or interview or questionnaire or a standardized instrument. auto/heteroscopy only ( 73,3%), or in combination (10%), observation combined with standardized instruments, interviews or questionnaires (16,7%) three method combinations (10%): ex. analysis of children's drawings, observation and storytelling all the studies resorted to combined methods , exs: observation, individual and group interviews with children, document analysis and questionnaires; observation, analysis of children's drawings, interviews with children and photographic records.
  • 14. Results – main trends and issues action research and research with children
    • Predominance of action research (the auto/heteroscopy procedures are described as being developed in the context of action research) ‏
    • - suggests proximity to Schön's (1983) perspective on the impossibility of disassociating professional knowledge from the professional practice it corresponds to
    • An interest in questions regarding the child, informed by a recent emphasis in research with children (Christensen, & James, 2005; Sarmento, 2004) is also proeminent
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
  • 15. Results – main trends and issues many of the studies* are research done by students' on their own practice in their usual practicum school placements
    • - might result from 'topics of study should arise from practice' orientation to course
    • - brings advantages in helping to internalise a research-oriented attitude in their work, about their work
    • - limits students to their practice, competencies and knowledge in a very early stage of their training
    • = attempts to diversify methods and situations of data collection as well as informants
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão *47 studies (45,6%) relied exclusively on the student's analysis of their practice, supported by colleagues and the course's teacher, by means of autoscopy and heteroscopy.
  • 16. Results – main trends and issues research done by students' on their own practice in their usual practicum school placements – ethical dimension
    • - students enter the EC centers as students and then become researchers in the same site
    • - supervision entails analysis of video-recordings of practice by other students and teachers
    • - in the reports, students address this issue as “facilitated” access to the field (problematic role of the researcher? presentation of the study purposes for an informant consent?) ‏
    • = collaboration protocol contemplates students' research work
    • = teachers' who supervise the research projects are also practicum teachers (visit EC Centers on a weekly basis) ‏
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
  • 17. Results – main trends and issues making the work public and open to critique
    • - some (around 8) of the studies were, voluntarily, presented by their authors in the end of the school year activities to other students and some EC teachers
    • - two studies, from the “analysing and interpreting practices” group, were presented in national and international scientific conferences and will be published in a national EC journal
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
  • 18. Discussion Cochran-Smith and Lytle (2007): shared features of practitioner's research Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
    • the practitioner takes the role of researcher
    • knowledge needed to improve practice is generated from practice contexts
    • inquiry is integral to practice
    • systematicity and intentionality are central
    • validity and generalizability as criteria
    • professional context is taken as the site of inquiry
    • opening of the work to a larger community
    • students' research is centered in answering research questions closely linked with practice
    • simplicity of the most proeminent methodological designs and it's withdrawal from practice
    • lack of any reference to validity
    • efforts to help students' identify relevant questions in their practicum
    • weak strategies devised
    • studies presented to the sc. community
       ? ? ?
  • 19. Discussion “specificity generator” elements of teachers’ knowledge - Roldão (2007) ‏
    • recursive mobilization of components of knowledge to analyse situations
    • transformative potential of constant documentation and discussion of the processes undertaken
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
    • composite nature
     ?
    • analytical capacity
    • mobilising and questioning nature
    • meta-analysis
    • communicability and circulation
    • efforts to go beyond non-analytical, non-questioning and descriptive approaches, by resorting to documentation and discussion of the processes, allowed the students to assign and identify meaning in educational situations
    ? 
    • not enough distancing or mastery of knowledge to sustain an intelligent and articulated summoning of different types and/or components of knowledge
    • the studies present knowledge that can be shared and is open to discussion
    • does not represent the needed deconstruction, unhiding and articulation
    ? 
  • 20. Concluding remarks
    • Establishing research as an essential component of teachers' action and training:
      • need and value of enabling teachers with the knowledge and conceptual instruments and research techniques that allow them:
        • a) to become effective and rigorous in their analytical reflection of their activity,
        • b) to critically use the available research and
        • c) the opportunity to produce systematic research (Roldão, 2007).
    • the increase in the quality of teacher performance and the consolidation of their professional status, essential for the improvements in curriculum and social learning that one expects from school, still require a significant qualitative leap in the relation of the teachers with knowledge and its production (Roldão, 2007, p. 12).
    Figueiredo, Portugal, & Roldão
  • 21. Research and Professional Knowledge Construction in EC Teachers' Education: a study of student teachers' thesis within two programmes in Portugal. Maria Pacheco Figueiredo School of Education and Center of Studies in Education, Technologies and Health, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu [email_address] http://meudoutoramento.blogspot.com http://www.intervir.net/maria (draft paper available from monday 15th sept.) Gabriela Portugal, Department of Educational Sciences, University of Aveiro [email_address] Maria do Céu Roldão, Center of Child Studies, University of Minho [email_address] ECER 2008 Göteborg - From Teaching to Learning? Network 10 10 – 12 September

×