The telephone fys project


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The telephone fys project

  1. 1. By: Kristen Steed and Mari Figueroa
  2. 2. Who Was the Creator of the Telephone? • Alexander Graham Bell was born in 1847, in Edinburgh, Scotland • He was educated at the University of London • While trying to invent a machine to transmit sound through electricity, he was working at a school for the deaf teaching deaf children sign • In 1872, he established a school for the deaf in Boston, MA • Stumbled upon the idea for the telephone in 1874 • Worked tirelessly to help deaf people and founded the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf in 1890 • Bell died in 1922 and people in North America were urged to stop making phone calls on the day of his burial as a day of silence and remembrance  (Gordon et al., 1991)
  3. 3. The Origins of the Telephone Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both designed a device “that could transmit speech electrically.” This invention came to be known as the telephone. Both inventors wanted to patent their speech transmitters but Bell ultimately patented his first and became the inventor of the telephone that we recognize today (Bellis). Bell’s invention came about as an improvement of the telegraph; with the telegraph “limited to receiving and sending one message at a time,” he wanted to improve the efficiency of sending multiple messages back and forth, thus happening upon the idea of the telephone. With the birth of the telephone came the loss of the telegraph (Bellis).
  4. 4. The History of the Telephone The Telephone was patented on March 7 th , 1876 The first telephone call was made on March 10 th , 1876. The first words ever heard on a telephone: “Mr. Watson--come here--I want to see you” These words were exchanged between Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson The first transcontinental call was made between San Francisco and New York (Kupczak et al., 2012)
  5. 5. History continued… The year before Bell stumbled upon the telephone, he experimented with a technique called the “harmonic telegraph,” which was the discovery of hearing a sound over a wire, otherwise known as the “twang” (Bellis). Bell believed that being able to “talk with electricity” was far better than the past capability of sending and receiving messages with the telegraph (Bellis). After the discovery of the “twang”, it wasn’t quite known where this invention was headed, but the benefits are more than they ever imagined from this machine and the new technology to come. The Telegraph
  6. 6. The Evolution of the Telephone 1876-Liquid Transmitter 1879-Top Box 1880-Gower-Bell Telephone The Main stages of the Telephone: 1. The Wall Mounted Telephone 1892-Western Electric Folding Cabinet 1902-Kellog Corner Vanity 2. The Dial Phone 1905-Strowger 11 digit desk telephone 3. Long-Distance Telephone 1915-De Veau Desk Set 4. The Touchtone Phone 1940s-Rotary Phone 5. The Telephone Answering Machine 1960s-Video Phone 6. Picture Phones 1980s-Princess Phones 7. Modems 1983-Motorola DynaTAC 8000X 1990s-Cordless Phone 1999-Nokia Hand-held cell phones 2003-Blackberry 2013-iPhone 5 (Christianson et al., 2013) 8. Cellular Telephones (Cole, 2002, pg. 233-240)
  7. 7. Evolution continued… The evolution of the telephone was rapid that this form of communication with others was now a necessity. “Bell’s 1876 Patent…was arguably the most valuable patent ever granted…” (Cole, 2002, pg. 233) and this is completely true because without this first key step by Bell, the technological advancements may not be as advanced or efficient as they are today. From the basic liquid transmitter, where the first words from a telephone were heard, to the phones and devices we have today, have been a huge step for society and the way we all communicate. 1876 -The Liquid Transmitter 2013 -The iPhone -Windows Phone -The Galaxy
  8. 8. Social History of the Telephone (Past) The day after the phone call was made and the newspaper detailed the events of the first phone call, there was wonder spread throughout the town, people were asking about what other people in Boston were saying and asking questions such as, "Is it thawing or freezing at Maiden?" "Who will be the next President?” etc ( 1877, pg. 2). This is a prime example of people wanting to become more aware of the world around them because of the ability for them to see what is now possible for them. The The telephone relied on practicality to motivate people to use telephones in their own homes. People at first used the telephone to better handle affairs and cope with emergencies. People could talk with friends and family more efficiently. The first conversations were very brief and were usually for “greetings, invitations, or news of safe arrival.” invention of the telephone made people more far away from each other become confident in their In the 1920’s telephone companies called subscribing for telephone services as a “comfort and convenience.” knowledge of what is going on in the world around (Fischer, 1992, pg. 75-76) curious about what is happening in their world, and the invention of the phone allowed people who were them.
  9. 9. Social History (Present) Todays impacts from telephones include many positive outcomes: • “Responsiveness and responsible behavior” • “Control and power” • “Obsessiveness with connectivity” • “Gaining social status or reinforcing identity” • “Bonding and caring about maintaining social connections • “Yield efficiency gains for organizations and workers” (Katz, 1999, pg.44-45)
  10. 10. Why is the telephone the most important invention? • Accessibility we have to everyone • The connection and comfort one feels when they can talk to anyone in the world in just a few seconds • A way to keep occupied during long days or for pleasure during quiet moments • Helps people feel socially acceptable because most people have a phone nowadays; you fit in • Breaking news or emergency information is able to travel throughout the country faster. (E.g. if ever there is an emergency on campus people can be called or texted instantly thanks to the phone. • With the telephone you are never truly alone, you are always connected to people you care about.