Steve Figard, Ph.D., Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL Just Because You Can, Doesn’t Mean You Should – The Elements of ...
Agenda/Objectives of Presentation <ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Introduction <ul><ul><li>The Problem:  a plethora of options/features/capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion of...
Introduction <ul><ul><li>Two goals of good graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity revealing the story in the data...
Terminology <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPo...
Terminology <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPo...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Folded, spindled, and mutilated from: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introductio...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt use color to categorize, not accessorize. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt use color to categorize, not accessorize. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt choose symbols that can be easily distinguished from one anot...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt choose symbols that can be easily distinguished from one anot...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catego...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catego...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catego...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catego...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catego...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt show variation in thy data, not in thy design. </li></ul></ul...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize the data-ink ratio in thy graphs. </li></ul></ul><ul...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize the data-ink ratio in thy graphs. </li></ul></ul><ul...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize the data-ink ratio in thy graphs. </li></ul></ul><ul...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize thy data density and the size of thy data matrix (wi...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize thy data density and the size of thy data matrix (wi...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize thy data density and the size of thy data matrix (wi...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt draw the viewer’s eye to the data, not to other design elemen...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt do and redo thy graphs to determine which one telleth the sto...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt do and redo thy graphs to determine which one telleth the sto...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt do and redo thy graphs to determine which one telleth the sto...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt do and redo thy graphs to determine which one telleth the sto...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not create “unfriendly” but “friendly” data graphics. </li></...
The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not create “unfriendly” but “friendly” data graphics. </li></...
A Word about PowerPoint <ul><ul><li>The charges: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive style.  Presenter-focused, not conte...
A Word about PowerPoint <ul><ul><li>Yes and no: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some validity to these charges, BUT…they all se...
Competitors for Best & Worst <ul><ul><li>The Best:  Minard’s data map + time-series </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </...
Competitors for Best & Worst <ul><ul><li>The Worst: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li...
Conclusion (in Tufte’s words) <ul><ul><li>“ Design is choice.  The theory of the visual display of quantitative informatio...
Handy References <ul><li>Cleveland, William S.  1994.  The Elements of Graphing Data .  Revised Edition .   Summit, New Je...
Questions ? [email_address]
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Just Because You Can Doesn\'t Mean You Should - Graphing Data Well

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The objective of this presentation is to provide the audience with the principles gleaned from such giants as Cleveland and Tufte within the context of JMP in an effort to combat graphic entropy. Presented at Discovery Summit 2010.

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  • Just Because You Can Doesn\'t Mean You Should - Graphing Data Well

    1. 1. Steve Figard, Ph.D., Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL Just Because You Can, Doesn’t Mean You Should – The Elements of Graphing Data Well
    2. 2. Agenda/Objectives of Presentation <ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Ten Commandments of Good Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Word about PowerPoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Best” & The “Worst” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concluding Statement </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><ul><li>The Problem: a plethora of options/features/capabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion of what can be done with what ought to be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attributable to ignorance… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Programming today is a race between software engineers striving to build bigger and better idiot-proof programs, and the Universe trying to produce bigger and better idiots. So far, the Universe is winning.” -Richard Cook, science fiction author, The Wizardry Compiled </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to lack of training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not usually covered in university classes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    4. 4. Introduction <ul><ul><li>Two goals of good graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity revealing the story in the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of visualizing the plotted data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>“ When a graph is made, quantitative and categorical information is encoded by a display method. Then the information is visually decoded. This visual perception is a vital link. No matter how clever the choice of the information, and no matter how technologically impressive the encoding, a visualization fails if the decoding fails . Some display methods lead to efficient, accurate decoding, and others lead to inefficient, inaccurate decoding.” - William Cleveland <ul><ul><li>The “Grand Unification Philosophy” of good graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>minimize the mental gymnastics that the viewer must go through to understand the graph </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>aka, y axis aka, x axis
    6. 6. Terminology <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    7. 7. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Folded, spindled, and mutilated from: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great opportunity to succeed or to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The units of measure employed-alternate labels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>How relate to log 2 ? Now these numbers we understand!
    9. 9. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great opportunity to succeed or to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The units of measure employed-what to plot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>The raw data: interesting but not as informative… … as the actual difference between the lines.
    10. 10. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great opportunity to succeed or to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The units of measure employed-plotting differences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>The optical illusion: The lines are only one unit apart across the entire range. Why? Because the eye is good at perceiving perpendicular distances between two curves, but not the difference in height. Lesson to be learned: plotting the metric of interest may be more Informative than the raw data.
    11. 11. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great opportunity to succeed or to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The range of those units of measure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choose your range so that the data rectangle fills up as much of the scale-line rectangle as possible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not insist that the zero always be included on a scale showing magnitude, but … </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>“ Get your facts first, and then you can distort them as much as you please. (Facts are stubborn, but statistics are more pliable).” - Mark Twain
    12. 12. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great opportunity to succeed or to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The number of tick marks shown </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too many = clutter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too few = “guesstimation” difficulties </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3-10 usually sufficient </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beware abuse of time-scale tick marks by changing the interval shown… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>one year interval five year interval
    13. 13. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great opportunity to succeed or to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The presence or absence of breaks in the axis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only when necessary…try log scale first </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If used, do a full scale break </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If used, do NOT connect numerical values across the break! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great opportunity to succeed or to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The presence or absence of breaks in the axis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pay close attention to ranges especially when breaks are clearly present – they will impact the interpretation of the data and may alter the message conveyed… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt pay very close attention to thy axes, for therein lieth great opportunity to succeed or to fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The size or length of the axis on the page </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes the default square or rectangle may hide important features in the data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>JMP is particularly good at allowing “ on the fly” adjustment of axes
    16. 16. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt use color to categorize, not accessorize. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only two uses of color that transmit useful information to the viewer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding a categorical variable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt use color to categorize, not accessorize. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only two uses of color that transmit useful information to the viewer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding a quantitative variable: contour plots </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the choice of color for a contour plot must achieve two goals: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>effortless perception of the order of the values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(i.e., we do not want to be constantly referring to a key) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clearly perceived boundaries between adjacent levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    18. 18. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt choose symbols that can be easily distinguished from one another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned with plots in which the data overlaps so that discerning the different datasets being plotted becomes critical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    19. 19. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt choose symbols that can be easily distinguished from one another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Texture” based on micropatterns inherent in the symbol: boundaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>JMP provides several sets of markers that should be evaluated with this commandment in mind
    20. 20. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Category 1: unintentional optical art and the moiré effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Anyone recognize Excel bar chart options here?! The moiré effect describes the phenomenon when the graphic design interacts with the physiological tremor of the eye to generate the distracting appearance of vibration and movement.
    21. 21. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Category 1: unintentional optical art and the moiré effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Can you say “garish”?! garish adj . 1 too bright or gaudy; showy; glaring 2 gaudily or showily dressed, decorated, written, etc. (Webster’s New World College Dictionary, 4 th Ed.)
    22. 22. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Category 2: the dreaded grid (especially compared to symbol size) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    23. 23. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Category 3: the self-promoting graphical duck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>“ When a graphic is taken over by decorative forms or computer debris, when the data measures and structures become Design Elements, when the overall design purveys Graphical Style rather than quantitative information, then that graphic may be called a duck in honor of the duck-form store, ‘Big Duck.’” - Edward Tufte Based on an architectural observation that is valid for graphics: “ It is all right to decorate construction but never construct decoration.” Fortunately, this is really hard to do in JMP…you have to work at it. Our Worst case selection will further clarify this rule of thumb.
    24. 24. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not employ “chartjunk.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Category 3: the self-promoting graphical duck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The charts widely used in mass media and business publications, to wit, the pie chart, divided bar charts, and area charts, will, in most cases, violate this commandment when their use is attempted in science and technology. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt show variation in thy data, not in thy design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid confounding design variation with data variation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Five different vertical scales are used to show the price and two different horizontal scales to show the passage of time without one indication of these changes (not even a scale break)! (FYI: This qualifies as a “self-promoting graphical duck.”)
    26. 26. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize the data-ink ratio in thy graphs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The data-ink ratio = the amount of “ink” used to depict the actual data divided by the total “ink” used to print the graphic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Precision Marching Band of 63 Mosquitoes”: data-ink ratio < 0.6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Some data that doesn’t fit the pattern, an important observation, is actually obscured by the Marching Band…
    27. 27. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize the data-ink ratio in thy graphs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Precision Marching Band of 63 Mosquitoes”: remove the elements below </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    28. 28. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize the data-ink ratio in thy graphs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Precision Marching Band of 63 Mosquitoes”: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>add a few labels and rotate y axis labels and numbers for easier reading </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Data-ink ratio up to ~ 0.9 All data clearly visible
    29. 29. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize thy data density and the size of thy data matrix (within reason). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The human eye has the ability to detect large amounts of information in small spaces: take advantage of this phenomenon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Low data density: </li></ul><ul><li>data matrix contains only four entries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the names (2) and the numbers (2) for the two bars on the right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bar on the left is the sum of the other two </li></ul></ul><ul><li>original graph covers 26.5 square inches </li></ul><ul><li>dividing 4 by 26.5 = data density of 0.15 numbers per square inch </li></ul><ul><li>NOT GOOD! </li></ul>
    30. 30. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize thy data density and the size of thy data matrix (within reason). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good data density: map of France </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>This map of France was originally 27 square inches (close to that of previous slide). It shows the location and boundaries of 30,000 French communes. To recreate the data of the map would require somewhere in the neighborhood of 240,000 numbers: 30,000 latitudes, 30,000 longitudes, and an average of six numbers describing the shape of each commune. The data density thus works out to be nearly 9,000 numbers per square inch.
    31. 31. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt maximize thy data density and the size of thy data matrix (within reason). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Of course, “within reason” applies… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    32. 32. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt draw the viewer’s eye to the data, not to other design elements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use visually prominent graphical elements to show the data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t clutter the interior of the scale-line rectangle with legends, labels, and lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tick marks should generally face outward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use reference lines only when an important value must be seen across the entire graph, and then use a color, weight and style of line that does not overpower the data symbols </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If data labels are used inside the scale-line rectangle, don’t allow them to interfere with the data or to clutter the graph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t put notes and keys inside the scale-line rectangle; notes should go in a caption or the accompanying text </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When datasets are superimposed, choose color, symbol, line weights and styles, and other such graphical elements so that the datasets can be readily visually distinguished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    33. 33. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt do and redo thy graphs to determine which one telleth the story best. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiment: this process is complex and multivariate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not only efficiency, but complexity, structure, density, and even beauty have a role to play in the generation of the final product. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>JMP, particularly the Graph Builder, is uniquely strong in this ability to “play” with visualization options. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Simplest: height by weight…
    34. 34. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt do and redo thy graphs to determine which one telleth the story best. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Playing” with Graph Builder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Wrap by sex:
    35. 35. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt do and redo thy graphs to determine which one telleth the story best. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Playing” with Graph Builder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Adding overlay by age: Eh, don’t like that? Hit undo button twice…
    36. 36. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt do and redo thy graphs to determine which one telleth the story best. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Playing” with Graph Builder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Redo by reversing the process use: wrap by age overlay by sex… And if you still don’t like it or see clearly the story in the data, UNDO…REDO!
    37. 37. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not create “unfriendly” but “friendly” data graphics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remember your audience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    38. 38. The Ten Commandments…of good graphics <ul><ul><li>Thou shalt not create “unfriendly” but “friendly” data graphics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regarding typography: a quote of Tufte quoting someone else: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>The concept that “the simpler the form of a letter the simpler its reading” was an obsession of beginning constructivism. It became something like a dogma, and is still followed by “modernistic” typographers…. Ophthalmology has disclosed that the more the letters are differentiated from each other, the easier is the reading . Without going into comparisons and details, it should be realized that words consisting of only capital letters present the most difficult reading – because of their equal height, equal volume, and with most, their equal width. When comparing serif letters with sans-serif, the latter provide an uneasy reading . The fashionable preference for sans-serif in text shows neither historical nor practical competence.
    39. 39. A Word about PowerPoint <ul><ul><li>The charges: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive style. Presenter-focused, not content or audience focused. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low resolution. Little info per slide - so more slides are needed. Data graphics are weak: average of 12 numbers per graphic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bullets. Bullet lists can show only 3 logical flows: sequence; priority; or membership. Multivariate models with feedback and simultaneity can’t be listed. This encourages lazy thinking, generic ideas and ignores critical relationships and assumptions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Guilty as charged?
    40. 40. A Word about PowerPoint <ul><ul><li>Yes and no: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some validity to these charges, BUT…they all seem to ignore the fact that PowerPoint, or any other presentation software, is just a tool. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To blame the tool for its misuse is to kill the messenger for his message. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is needed is not condemnation of the tool but proper instruction of the use of that tool. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    41. 41. Competitors for Best & Worst <ul><ul><li>The Best: Minard’s data map + time-series </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Plots 6 (!) variables: 1. size of army 2/3. location on 2D surface 4. direction of movement 5. temperature 6. dates during retreat (time) … defies “the pen of the historian by its brutal eloquence.” Invasion starts with 422,000 men at Polish-Russian border A sacked and deserted Moscow reached with only 100,000 men Retreat in dead of winter depicted on lower darker band and linked to temp scale and dates on bottom Only 10,000 made it home!
    42. 42. Competitors for Best & Worst <ul><ul><li>The Worst: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Only five pieces of data (not variables) in this “ graphically preposterous” work of art. Colors signify nothing …” delighted connoisseurs of the graphically preposterous.” Not one but two axis breaks! 3D effect = chartjunk Since numbers all sum to 100%, plotting both is redundant.
    43. 43. Conclusion (in Tufte’s words) <ul><ul><li>“ Design is choice. The theory of the visual display of quantitative information consists of principles that generate design options and that guide choices among options. The principles should not be applied rigidly or in a peevish spirit; they are not logically or mathematically certain; and it is better to violate any principle than to place graceless or inelegant marks on paper.... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What is to be sought in designs for the display of information is the clear portrayal of complexity . Not the complication of the simple; rather the task of the designer is to give visual access to the subtle and the difficult – that is, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the revelation of the complex .” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>10 Commandments </li></ul><ul><li>PowerPoint </li></ul><ul><li>Best/Worst </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    44. 44. Handy References <ul><li>Cleveland, William S. 1994. The Elements of Graphing Data . Revised Edition . Summit, New Jersey: Hobart Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Tufte, Edward R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information . 2nd Edition. Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Huff, Darrell. 1954. How to Lie with Statistics . New York, New York: W. W. Norton & Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Zumel, Nina. 2009. Good Graphs: Graphical Perception and Data Visualization . http://www.win-vector.com / , accessed 4 June 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Pirrello, Chuck. 2010. Effective Visualization Techniques for Data Discovery and Analysis . Cary, North Carolina: SAS Institute, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Few, Stephen. 2009. Now You See It: Simple Visualization Techniques for Quantitative Analysis . Oakland, California: Analytics Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleveland, William S. 1993. Visualizing Data . Summit, New Jersey: Hobart Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Tufte, Edward R. 1990. Envisioning Information . Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Annesley, Thomas M. 2010. Put Your Best Figure Forward: Line Graphs and Scattergrams . Clinical Chemistry 56 (8): 1229-1233. </li></ul><ul><li>Bessler, LeRoy. 2004. Communication-Effective Use of Color for Web Pages, Graphs, Tables, Maps, Text, and Print . SUGI 29, Montreal, Canada. http://www2.sas.com/proceedings/sugi29/176-29.pdf , accessed 2 July 2010. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Questions ? [email_address]

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