European integration

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European integration

  1. 1. EUROPEAN INTEGRATION
  2. 2. What is European integration? The process of industrial, political, legal, eco nomic integration of states wholly or partially in Europe
  3. 3. The Quest for Unity • 1650, William Penn – Called for the establishment of a European parliament – Abbe Saint Pierre and Cardinal Alberoni • Romantics – The whole of Christian Europe had been one nation – Roman Empire, Holy Roman Empire • 20th century – German hegemony and anti - Nazi resistance – Former Austria-Hungary (Otto von Habsburg)
  4. 4. First Major Initiative for Unity • After the destruction wrought by two European civil wars, the continent will be rebuilt by a common effort • Sep. 1946 speech in Zurich by Winston Churchill: “There‟s a need for a new initiative to help the turbulent and mighty continent to take its rightful place with other groupings and help to shape the destinies of their people.”
  5. 5. First Major Initiative for Unity • Result of the threatened breakdown of the British and French economy • General Marshall speech in Harvard (Marshall Plan) – Talked about the need for European cooperation up to the Urals and the necessity for a common program of recovery • 4-year American aid plan • Creation of a common European market • Resulted to the establishment of Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
  6. 6. Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) • • • • Established on April 16, 1948 Included 17 European nations The United States eventually joined Sought to establish a permanent organization to continue work on a joint recovery program and supervise the distribution of postwar aid
  7. 7. OEEC Principles • Develop intra-European trade by reducing tariffs and other barriers to the expansion of trade • Study the feasibility of creating a customs union or free trade area • Study multi-lateralisation of payments • Achieve conditions for better utilisation of labor • Promote cooperation between countries and their national production programmes for the reconstruction of Europe
  8. 8. Achievements of the OEEC • Trade between European nations doubled within 6 years • A favourable balance of trade helped close the dollar gap • GNP of countries steadily increased every year • When the American aid came to an end, joining OEEC became an important step for development
  9. 9. Decline of the OEEC • A rift between maximalist and minimalist appeared • Unexpected end of the Marshall Plan and a subsequent shift in favour of NATO
  10. 10. The Council of Europe • An answer to Winston Churchill’s speech in the University of Zurich in Sep. 19, 1946 for a „kind of United States of Europe‟ • Promotes cooperation between all the countries in Europe in areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural cooperation • Cannot make binding laws
  11. 11. The Council of Europe • Objectives:  To protect human rights, pluralist democracy and the rule of law  To promote awareness and encourage the development of Europe’s cultural identity and diversity  To find common solutions to the challenges facing European society  To consolidate democratic stability in Europe by backing political, legislative, and constitutional reform
  12. 12. The Issue of European Defense • British and Canadian leaders proposed the idea that there should be some form of Atlantic union backed by American and British Commonwealth • France gave emphasis on the European character of such a scheme and also emphasized the need for closer political collaboration within the framework of a European assembly • But the prospects for cooperation in the military field were not as good as the chances for economic union
  13. 13. The Hague Congress of 1948 • Established a permanent European Assembly, the Council of Europe, in Strasbourg • This body, with its 130 members was consultative in character. • Mainly devoted to the discussion of human rights and cultural relations • Had no power to enforce its resolutions
  14. 14. European Coal and Steel Community • Schuman Declaration – proposal presented by French foreign minister Robert Schuman on May 9, 1950 • Lead to the creation of European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) • Envisaged a coal and steel pool between France and Germany under a common authority
  15. 15. Opposition to the ECSC • Germany and France  Communists appeared as the true defenders of the national interest that had been betrayed by Schumann, Adenauer, and de Gasperi.  Charles De Gaulle and his movement were on principle against curtailment of French Sovereignty  German Social Democrats were in favour of real European unity and not the ‘Europe Inc.’ of the tycoons of the coal and steel industries • Britain:  Not compatible with their Commonwealth links  The Labour Party saw it as a big business conspiracy  Harold Macmillan maintained that „our people will not hand on to any supranational authority the right to close our coal pits or our steel works‟
  16. 16. Opposition to the ECSC • Germany and France  Communists appeared as the true defenders of the national interest that had been betrayed by Schumann, Adenauer, and de Gasperi.  Charles De Gaulle and his movement were on principle against curtailment of French Sovereignty  German Social Democrats were in favour of real European unity and not the ‘Europe Inc.’ of the tycoons of the coal and steel industries • Britain:  Not compatible with their Commonwealth links  The Labour Party saw it as a big business conspiracy  Harold Macmillan maintained that „our people will not hand on to any supranational authority the right to close our coal pits or our steel works‟
  17. 17. Achievements of the ECSC • By 1953, the Common Coal and Steel Market came into being • Steel production rose by 42 percent • Trade between the six member countries flourished • There were no political or economic illeffects
  18. 18. The Messina Conference of 1955 • A conference of the foreign ministers of the six founding members of the ECSC • Led to the establishment of the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) in 1958 • Later became known as the Treaty of Rome
  19. 19. European Atomic Energy Community • To contribute to the formation and development of Europe’s nuclear industries, so that all the Member States can benefit from the development of atomic energy • To ensure security of supply • EURATOM’s powers are limited to peaceful civil uses of nuclear energy
  20. 20. European Economic Community • Principles:  To bring about continuous and balanced expansion  To foster a high level of employment and raise the standard of living  To stabilize prices  To prevent lack of equilibrium in the balance of payments
  21. 21. European Economic Community • Five years after its creation, EEC became the world’s greatest trading power • the biggest exporter and buyer of raw materials • Second largest importer • Steel production second only to the US • Total industrial production of member states increased by 70 percent between 1950-1960
  22. 22. Single European Act • First major revision of the 1957 Treaty of Rome to add new momentum to European integration and to complete the internal market. • It amends the rules governing the operation of the European institutions and expands Community powers • Grew out of discontent among European Community members
  23. 23. Maastricht Treaty • Formally known as the Treaty on European Union (TEU) • Signed on February 7, 1992 at Maastricht, the Netherlands • Created the European Union which led to the creation of a single European currency • Integrated the Euratom, ECSC, EEC and institutionalised cooperation in the fields of foreign policy, defence, police and justice together under the European Union
  24. 24. Maastricht Treaty • Principles: – Strengthen the democratic legitimacy of the institutions – Improve the effectiveness of the institutions – Establish economic and monetary union – Develop the Community social dimension – Establish a common foreign and security policy
  25. 25. The European Union • Political and economic partnership between 27 European countries • Promotes the idea that countries who are economically interdependent is more likely to avoid conflict • Based on rule of law • ‘single market’- main economic engine
  26. 26. The European Union • 6 Founding Members       Belgium Germany Italy France Luxembourg Netherlands • The 3 pillars – European Communities • European community • ECSC • EURATOM – Common foreign and security policy – Police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters
  27. 27. Do not get Confused! • European Union- political union and economic amalgamation of those member states in Europe • Council of Europe – promote democracy and protect human rights and the rule of law in Europe (separate from the EU) • European Council – regular meeting of the heads of state or government from the member states of the EU to plan Union policy (under the EU)
  28. 28. Sub-regional Integration • Baltic Region - Baltic Assembly • Low Countries region - Benelux • Black Sea Region - Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC) • British Isles - British-Irish Council • Central Europe - Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) • Scandinavian Region - Nordic Council
  29. 29. Sources • Organization for European Economic Cooperation http://www.oecd.org/general/organisationforeuropeaneconomic co-operation.htm • Schuman Declaration http://europa.eu/about-eu/basic-information/symbols/europeday/schuman-declaration/index_en.htm • Council of Europe http://www.coe.int/aboutcoe/index.asp?page=nosObjectifs&l=en • European Atomic Energy Community http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/treaties/ treaties_euratom_en.htm • Single European Act http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/treaties/ treaties_singleact_en.htm • Maastricht Treaty http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/treaties/ treaties_maastricht_en.htm • Differences between EU and Council of Europe http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-betweeneuropean-union-and-vs-council-of-europe/

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