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  • 1. CHAPTER SIX ASSESSING AND TEACHING LANGUAGE
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4. Speech and Language
    • Language is defined as “a socially shared code or conventional system for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rule-governed combinations of those symbols” (Owens, 2008, p. 4).
    • Speech involves the actual mechanics or motor act of verbal expression. Thus, whereas speech includes spoken utterances to convey meaning, language indicates a person’s knowledge of the linguistic concepts on which speech is based. Moreover, language comprises receptive skills (understanding) and expressive skills (use) and includes both written and oral forms.
  • 5. Terms
    • Terms such as specific language impairment, language delay, and language disorder generally are used with students who are having difficulty learning language in the absence of any intellectual, sensory, or emotional problems.
  • 6. Definition of Language Disorder
    • The impairment or deviant development of comprehension and/or use of a spoken, written, and/or other symbol system. The disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonologic, morphologic, and syntactic systems), (2) the content of language (semantic system), and/or (3) the function of language in communication (pragmatic system) in any combination.
    • The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (1992, p. 949)
  • 7. Theories
    • Theories of language acquisition fall within three major camps:
      • Behavioristic
      • Nativistic (or psycholinguistic)
      • Interactionistic (or cognitive)
  • 8. Components of Language
    • Phonology
      • The sound system of a language and the linguistic rules that govern the sound combinations
    • Morphology
      • The linguistic rule system that governs the structure of words and the construction of word forms from the basic elements of meaning
    • Syntax
      • The linguistic rule system that governs the order and combination of words to form sentences, and the relationships among the elements within a sentence
  • 9. Components of Language (cont’d)
    • Semantics
      • The psycholinguistic system that patterns the content of an utterance, intent, and meanings of words and sentences
    • Pragmatics
      • The sociolinguistic system that patterns the use of language in communication, which may be expressed motorically, vocally, or verbally
  • 10. Language Difficulties
    • Preschool and Kindergarten Students
      • Delayed readiness skills
      • Unable to follow simple directions
      • Immature-sounding speech
      • Utterances and vocabulary may be similar to that of a younger child
  • 11. Language Difficulties
    • Preschool and Kindergarten Students (cont’d)
      • Word-finding difficulties
      • Inability to name common objects
      • Sound substitutions such as “buzgetti” for “spaghetti”
      • Fewer functionally appropriate and accurate responses (“you know” or “that thing over there,” or describe rather than name objects)
  • 12. Language Difficulties
    • Preschool and Kindergarten Students (cont’d)
      • Unable to make one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds
      • Difficulty discriminating between sounds
      • Frequently play by themselves or exhibit more nonplay and parallel play than do their peers (Roth & Clark, 1987).
  • 13. Language Difficulties
    • Behaviorally, children with language problems may have attention deficits, need additional time to understand information and formulate ideas for expression, and have a poor tolerance for frustration.
  • 14. Language Difficulties
    • Elementary Students
      • Limited ability to identify sounds, difficulty analyzing and synthesizing sound sequences, and problems segmenting words into grammatical units.
      • Difficulty with temporal and spatial concepts, as well as abstract concepts such as before-after, neither-nor, some, if/then, and
  • 15. Language Difficulties
    • Elementary Students (cont’d)
      • In the early elementary grades, the use of manipulatives begins to decrease, and the student must gain information from the teacher’s verbal presentation.
      • As the language complexity increases with each grade advance, the student must keep up with the demands of the instructional language as well as absorb the curriculum content.
  • 16. Language Difficulties
    • Elementary Students (cont’d)
      • By fourth grade, most of the curriculum content is presented in print, and the student with language problems may have particular difficulty making the transition from narrative to expository writing.
      • Deficits in text comprehension
  • 17. Language Difficulties
    • Elementary students with language problems continue to exhibit difficulties in their use of language.
      • Often reflected in the student’s social skills
      • May exhibit some of the same behaviors as they did when they were younger, such as failing to adjust to their listener’s needs and having difficulty joining an ongoing conversation
      • May misinterpret social cues, fail to think of others’ thoughts and feelings, and be unable to predict the consequences of their behavior
  • 18. Language Difficulties
    • Secondary Students
      • Tend to be passive learners
      • Often appear to lack the metacognitive strategies necessary to perform complex academic tasks
      • Teacher is faced with the challenge of designing interventions to assist students in overcoming or compensating for their language disabilities so that they can meet the increased demands of secondary school.
  • 19. Language Difficulties
    • Secondary Students (cont’d)
      • Lack the ability to use and understand higher level syntax, semantics, and pragmatics
      • Are expected to organize their time and complete assignments and, thus, they must follow both oral and written instruction to complete work independently
  • 20. Language Difficulties
    • Secondary Students (cont’d)
      • Receptive and expressive language difficulties affect their ability to learn effectively. This creates problems:
        • Gaining information from class lectures and textbooks
        • Completing homework
        • Following classroom rules
        • Demonstrating command of knowledge through test taking
        • Expressing thoughts in writing
        • Passing minimum competency exams
        • Participating in classroom discussions.
  • 21. Language Difficulties
    • Secondary Students (cont’d)
      • Intervention may change from a content-oriented approach to a functional approach in which the student is taught strategies to deal with everyday situations.
      • Problems in comprehension of auditory language also are persistent in adolescents and result in short-term memory problems and a decrease in the understanding of linguistic relationships (Riedlinger-Ryan & Shewan, 1984).
  • 22. Language Difficulties
    • Secondary Students (cont’d)
      • Frequently, adolescent students with language problems have difficulty organizing information and correctly associating or categorizing it for later retrieval.
      • Poor organization and categorization result in other problems:
        • Poor notetaking, test-taking, and study skills, as well as difficulty integrating
  • 23. Language Difficulties
    • Secondary Students (cont’d)
      • Poor organization and categorization result in other problems, such as poor notetaking, test-taking, and study skills, as well as difficulty integrating information.
      • Difficulties also may persist in language use in the awareness of social cues, interpretation of the motives and emotions of others, and use of appropriate language.
  • 24. Language Difficulties
    • Secondary Students (cont’d)
      • Because adolescents frequently are aware of their difficulties, behaviors such as aggression, frustration, lack of motivation, withdrawal, and inattention may arise (Hazel & Schumaker, 1988; Seidenberg, 1988; Wiig & Semel, 1984).
  • 25. Bilingual and Culturally Diverse Students
    • Some students with limited English proficiency or nonstandard dialects are misdiagnosed as having learning or language impairments because of their difficulty on culturally biased standardized tests (Payne & Taylor, 2006).
  • 26. Bilingual and Culturally Diverse Students
    • As the bilingual population in the United States increases, the teacher must distinguish between students who are unfamiliar with the language and culture and students with a true language problem.
    • Bilingual students with language problems may need services somewhat different from those for students whose primary language is standard English.
  • 27. Bilingual and Culturally Diverse Students
    • Salend and Fradd (1986) note that bilingual students have the following needs:
      • Access to teachers who are proficient in English as well as in the student’s native language.
      • Use of nonbiased assessment and instruction to formulate appropriate individualized educational programs.
      • Exposure to curriculum and alternative instructional strategies that promote the academic and social relevance of instruction.
  • 28. Bilingual and Culturally Diverse Students
    • To determine if a student’s problems are due to language difficulties, a learning disability, or lack of exposure to effective instruction, Salend (2008) suggests that the following factors should be considered in assessing second-language learners:
      • Length of residence in the United States
      • School attendance patterns
      • School instructional history
      • Cultural background
      • Performance in comparison to peers
      • Home life
      • Health and developmental history
  • 29. Assessment of Language Skills
    • 5 major reasons for language assessment:
      • To identify students with potential language problems
      • To determine a student’s language developmental level
      • To plan educational objectives and design appropriate intervention programs
      • To monitor the student’s progress
      • To evaluate the language intervention program
  • 30. Language Service Delivery Models
    • Pullout Therapy Model
    • Classroom-Based Language Models
      • Team Teaching
      • Self Contained Classroom Teaching
      • One-to-0ne Intervention
      • Staff, Curriculum, or Program Development 
      • Consultation 
    • Strategies-Based Model
  • 31. Teaching Language Skills
    • General Principles :
      • The language specialist should be aware of young students with language disorders who are dismissed from language services, because academic problems may resurface later due to a breakdown in the language system and increased curriculum demands.
      • Language screenings should consist of more than one test and be sensitive to subtle forms of language disorders.
  • 32. Teaching Language Skills
    • General Principles (cont’d)
      • Students suspected of having learning problems should receive routine language evaluations that emphasize language and auditory processing.
      • School officials should consider service delivery alternatives to the traditional pullout model, and language specialists should focus on both contextualized and decontextualized aspects of language.
      • Professionals should collaborate to devise a coordinated program for students with language problems rather than implement a variety of isolated programs.
  • 33. Teaching Language Skills
    • General Principles (cont’d)
      • The delivery of instruction in learning strategies should be language sensitive.
      • The curriculum in language intervention should be relevant to the general curriculum, respond to setting demands, reflect areas of academic concern, integrate spoken and written language systems, and focus on generalization.
  • 34. Teaching Language Skills
    • General Principles (cont’d)
      • The individual strategy preferences of students with language problems should be considered, and students should be encouraged to determine which strategies are successful in a given situation.
      • Intervention should encourage student accountability and responsibility.
      • Effective interventions from other disciplines should be applied.
  • 35. Teaching Language Skills
    • Strategies for increasing language comprehension
    • Strategies for increasing language production
    • Imitation and Modeling Strategies
  • 36. Language Activities
    • To teach is + verb + ing (is jumping)
    • To teach plural morpheme s on regular plural nouns
    • To teach possessive pronouns (her, his, their)
    • To teach classification of associated words
    • To teach ed on regular verbs (walked, jumped
    • To teach the prepositions in, on, out of, in front of, in back of, and beside
    • To teach classification of part/whole relationships
    • To teach classification by function
    • To classify objects that belong to the same class (animals, foods, houses, vehicles)
    • To teach synonyms
  • 37. Language Activities (cont’d)
    • To increase auditory discrimination between two phonemes
    • To teach negatives
    • To extend the use of linguistic forms to other environments
    • To use language as an effective communicator
    • To teach the classification of where, when, and what phrases
    • To teach vocabulary likenesses
    • To teach the use of relative clauses
    • To use the conjunctions and, but, because, and so
    • To teach paraphrasing
    • To teach employment vocabulary words to secondary students
  • 38. Instructional Games in Language
    • His, Her, or Their
    • What Goes Together?
    • The Deck
    • Whose Is It?
    • Say the Whole Sentence
    • Phonetic Bingo
    • Fishing for Blends
    • Two-Way Words
    • Sentence Game
    • Can you Answer with a Question?
    • Build a Sentence
    • Prefix Bingo
    • Deal a Sentence
    • Conjunction Square
  • 39. SELF-CORRECTING LANGUAGE MATERIALS
    • Opposites
    • Time Slot
    • Flip-Siders
    • Make a Question
    • When Did It Happen?
    • Word Endings with Meanings
    • Make It Say a Sentence
    • Does It Mean the Same Thing?
    • Descriptors
    • Indirect Requests