Describe the process of determining students’ needs for behavioral support and educational services, including the assessment data that should be collected and the decisions that should be made.
Describe the continuum of positive behavior support for students and indicate how it fits within a response to intervention framework, including deciding when students require increasing levels of intervention.
Explain the importance of using evidence-based practices to address student behavior, and the basis for determining that practices are based on research evidence.
Describe litigation affecting the education of students with emotional or behavioral disorders, including the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), that affect school disciplinary practices for students with disabilities.
Indicate what a definition of behavioral disorders should accomplish and indicate weaknesses of the current federal definition.
Discuss the role of school-based teams in addressing the needs of students for positive behavior support and for reducing the need to identify, label, and serve students in special education programs.
Give a rationale for creating systemic changes in schools as a basis for preventing and responding more effectively to challenging student behaviors.
The 1997 and 2004 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 encourage schools to match the services that a student receives with the student’s level of need (Sandomierski, Kincaid, & Algozzine, 2007).
Two recent national initiatives embody this approach:
SWPBS, a school-wide process that focuses on preventing problem behavior through teaching and reinforcing appropriate student behaviors.
RtI , the practice of applying high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring student progress frequently to adjust interventions or goals, and basing educational decisions on student response data (Batsche et al., 2005)
Response to intervention models typically include:
a continuum of evidence-based services that are available to all students, from universal interventions and procedures to highly intensive and individualized interventions, decision points to determine if students are performing significantly below the level of their peers in academic and social behavior domains
ongoing monitoring of student progress
employment of more intensive or different intervention when students do not improve in response to other interventions; and
evaluation for special education services if students do not respond to intervention instruction
Like SWPBS, RtI typically is facilitated by school-wide and individual-level multidisciplinary teams.
The terms “evidence-based” and “research-validated” practices are used interchangeably to designate educational and clinical practices that have been documented as effective through empirical research.