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Classroom-wide Positive Behavior Support
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Classroom-wide Positive Behavior Support


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  • 1. Chapter Seven Classroom-wide Positive Behavior Support
    • Describe the criteria for identifying a universal intervention as effective (research-based) and list several examples.
    • Understand and give examples and non-examples of systematic preparation of students for their learning environment.
    • Analyze a classroom environment and modify it to maximize structure and predictability.
    • Conduct several activities that engage students in a classroom community.
    • Develop, post, monitor, and reinforce classroom expectations that reduce the likelihood of problem behaviors.
    • Self-monitor your verbal and non-verbal interactions with your students.
    • Assess and modify the strategies you use to engage students actively in learning (e.g., differentiated instruction).
  • 3. Introduction
    • Let’s learn specific implementation strategies, or universal interventions, within the classroom---an extension of the school-wide universal interventions you read about in Chapter Two.
  • 4. Evidence-based Practices: The Foundation of Classroom PBS
    • Simonsen et al. (2008) conducted a systematic literature review of evidence-based practices, and identified 20 for which there was “sufficient evidence for classroom adoption” (p. 351).
    • They grouped practices into five categories based on the fundamental intervention strategies of SWPBS.
  • 5. Evidence-Based Classroom Practices  
    • Maximize structure and predictability
    • Post, teach, monitor, and reinforce expectations
    • Actively engage students in observable ways
    • Use a continuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behavior
    • Use a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior
  • 6. In this chapter, we begin with how to build a classroom community. [Using a continuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behavior will be addressed in subsequent chapters.]
  • 7. Build a Classroom Community
    • Let’s begin with strategies for the beginning of the school year.
  • 8. What we do on the first few days of school can have year-long effects on our students. Let’s discuss Figure 7-1.
  • 9. How can we make our first impressions yield positive effects?
    • Promote fairness in the classroom.
    • Show your support and confidence in your students.
    • Establish a consistent routine.
    • Give intrinsic reasons for your students to learn.
    • Encourage positive relationships among your students.
  • 10. How can we make our first impressions positive?
    • Share personal (but not too personal) information that will further connect you to your students.
    • Bring humor to the classroom and try to lighten the mood.
    • Do not focus on your control and authority over the students.
    • Actively minimize any anxieties your students have.
    • Take time to celebrate even small accomplishments early in the year.
  • 11. Maximize Structure and Predictability
    • Also called environmentally mediated universal interventions.
    • Examples: rules, curricula, schedules, seating, and the physical layout of the room.
    • Can you identify some other environmentally mediated interventions?
  • 12. High Classroom Structure
    • High classroom structure refers to the amount of teacher-directed activity taking place.
    • Teacher-directed activity includes the preparation and planning of explicitly defined routines.
    • Do not confuse teacher-directed activities with an over-reliance on teacher lectures or other forms of teacher-led instruction.
  • 13. Behaviorally at-risk children can least afford chaotic classrooms…” (Cartledge, Singh, & Gibson, 2008, pp. 31–32). Why is this true? What does it mean?
  • 14. Routines
    • Classroom signal
    • Arrival, transition, re-entry, and dismissal routines
    • Advance organizers to reinforce routines
    • A plan for “stuff”
    • Can you think of others?
  • 15. Physical Layout
    • The physical layout sends a message to students about who is in power, whether students are welcome, how well-prepared the teacher is, and whether the teacher is interested in them as individuals.
  • 16. Consider these examples:
    • Teacher A teaches from behind her desk often, while Teacher B rarely sits at hers, preferring to circulate while students work.
    • Teacher A has posters in the room only in English. Teacher B has posters in the several languages of his students.
    • Teacher A has little student work posted, while Teacher B posts student work weekly.
    • Students in Teacher A’s room sit in desks arranged in rows, while Teacher B’s students sit in small groups at desks that are together.
    • Students in Teacher A’s room always work independently, while Teacher B’s students regularly interact with each other.
  • 17. What messages are conveyed by a disorganized classroom?
    • ____________________________
    • ____________________________
    • ____________________________
  • 18. Taking student seat assignment as an example, let’s discuss the guidelines from Vaughn, Duchnowski, Sheffield, & Kutash (2005):
    • Proximity to teacher
    • Proximity to other students
    • Proximity to distractions
  • 19. Post, Teach, Monitor, and Reinforce Expectations
    • Another empirically validated strategy.
    • Let’s review how to create a rules-by-routines matrix.
    • Take a look at Figure 7-3.
    • What are the rules about rules?
  • 20. Precorrection as a way to teach expectations
    • When does precorrection take place?
    • Why do you think it works? [Hint: using precorrection involves thinking ahead to the problems, conditions, or contexts in which stimulus control is not yet firmly established.]
    • How could a rules by routines matrix posted on the classroom wall help with precorrection?
  • 21. Prompts and Cues
    • Use the least amount or least intrusive prompt necessary to facilitate a successful response.
    • Because prompts typically are not naturally occurring, be careful not to allow them to become the only stimulus that sets the occasion for appropriate behavior.
  • 22. Here is an example:
    • The dismissal bell, rather than the teacher’s verbal reminder, should be the discriminative stimulus for students to put away materials, straighten their desks, and leave the classroom in an orderly manner.
    • Can you give another example?
    • Once you have posted and taught your classroom rules, you can’t ignore them! You will need specific and contingent praise?
    • Praise is contingent when it _________.
    • Praise is specific when it____________.
    • Give some examples of praise that is either not contingent or not specific.
  • 24. What is specific and contingent praise?
    • Praise is contingent when it _________.
    • Praise is specific when it____________.
    • Give some examples of praise that is either not contingent or not specific.
  • 25. How did Mr. Williams develop and use:
    • classroom rules
    • precorrection
    • prompts, and cues
    • [Come Into My Classroom Case Study, Part 3]
  • 26. Let’s review the behavioral principles that guide us as we monitor and reinforce behaviors
  • 27. Principle I. Behavior is controlled by its consequences.
    • What you do after a student engages in rule following or rule violation is what will control his or her behavior. If you post the rules and forget about them, you are ignoring this basic principle.
  • 28. Principle II. Behavior is strengthened or maintained by reinforcement.
    • If you want students to follow classroom rules and routines, you have to reinforce them when they do.
  • 29. Principle III. Behavior is weakened by withholding the consequences (usually social) that have maintained it (extinction).
    • Can you give an example?
  • 30. Principle IV. Behavior is also weakened by punishment.
    • This principle tells us: (a) that students who violate the rules need either an aversive consequence (e.g., a short, clear reprimand) or (b) removal of a positive reinforcer (e.g., loss of a privilege). These procedures are much more effective when used sparingly. Remember that the first strategy for addressing a behavioral error is error correction.
  • 31. Principle V. To influence behavior effectively, consequences must consistently and immediately follow the behaviors they are meant to control (contingency).
    • When teachers are disorganized and lack “withitness,” they cannot pay attention to rule-following and rule-breaking. As a result, students receive inconsistent and delayed consequences. Teachers who are organized and clear in their expectations, on the other hand, can spot students who are cooperative or challenging and handle those situations more effectively and promptly.
  • 32. Principle VI. Behavior is also strengthened, weakened, or maintained by modeling.
    • In a nutshell, “Walk the talk.”
  • 33. Using Your Voice Effectively
    • When should you use a neutral voice tone?
    • A demonstrative or enthusiastic voice tone?
  • 34. How can you monitor your own verbal behavior? Finish the steps.
    • Wear something with two pockets.
    • Get a bunch of paperclips.
    • Put them in one pocket
    • _____________________
    • _____________________
    • _____________________
  • 35. Active Supervision includes:
    • Moving around
    • Looking around
    • Interacting frequently with students
  • 36. Actively Engage Students in Observable Ways
    • Increase opportunities to respond (OTR).
    • When we increase students’ rates of academic responding they tend to increase correct responses and task engagement as well as decrease disruptive behavior (Conroy et al., 2008; Sutherland, Alder, & Gunter, 2003; Sutherland & Wehby, 2001).
    • Example: Response cards
  • 37. Take a look at Table 7-2
    • Why are these suggestions helpful to students with behavior problems?
  • 38. Peer Tutoring Steps
    • 1. Pinpoint the task and analyze it before you begin.
    • 2. Collect all needed materials.
    • 3. Explain the goal of tutoring to the tutor.
    • 4. Explain the task to the tutor, as much as you think is needed.
    • 5. Instruct the tutor in the use of the materials.
    • 6. Explain how the data are to be collected.
    • 7. Role-play the actual tutoring procedures with the tutor.
    • What are suitable tasks for peer tutoring?
  • 39. Guided Notes
    • Some of the slides in this presentation are examples of guided notes. Do you recall them?
    • Were they more engaging than slides where you read the material and moved on?
  • 40. Differentiated Instruction
    • Take a look at the self-assessment tool in Table 7-4.
    • Let’s review what it assesses.
    • Why do you think these elements of instruction are important for students with behaviors that interfere with learning?