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  1. 1. CHAPTER FIVE Promoting Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. Creating Responsive Learning Environments </li></ul><ul><li>2. Planning and Organizing Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>3. Assessing Students for Instruction  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Teaching Students and Managing Instruction  </li></ul><ul><li>5. Promoting Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development </li></ul>
  3. 5. Promoting Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development <ul><li>Students with learning problems often have difficulty with social skills and emotional development and with maintaining appropriate behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Students with behavioral problems often disrupt others or undermine their own learning progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in these areas frequently overlap. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Student Profiles & Related Interventions <ul><li>Social skills deficits Barry </li></ul><ul><li>Poor self concept Melanie </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency Brad </li></ul><ul><li>Loneliness Tessa </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive Behavior Larry </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity Richard </li></ul><ul><li>Distractibility Amy </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity Jane </li></ul>
  5. 7. Assessment of Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development <ul><li>Considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>type of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>duration </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 <ul><li>For students displaying serious behavioral problems, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a behavior intervention plan (BIP), and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a manifestation determination review for students with disabilities who are removed from school for more than 10 cumulative school days. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Functional Behavioral Assessment <ul><li>An FBA, which is a comprehensive and individualized approach to identify the functional relationship between behaviors, antecedents, and consequent events, can also be an effective assessment technique for dealing with students who have persistent patterns of minor behavior problems that may indicate more severe problems in the future. </li></ul>
  8. 10. FBA (cont’d) <ul><li>The FBA includes two processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) descriptive analysis uses multiple sources (such as interviews, checklists, behavior rating scales, and direct observation) to describe and predict problem behavior, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) functional analysis is used to test and confirm hypotheses about the function of the problem behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) <ul><li>The results of the FBA lead to the development of a BIP, which must address the behavior that led to the student’s removal. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Manifestation Determination <ul><li>Also, a manifestation determination review must be conducted to determine if there is a causal relationship between a student’s disability and the misconduct for which the student is being disciplined. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Techniques and Measures <ul><li>commercial observer-rater instruments </li></ul><ul><li>commercial measures of adaptive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>self-report instruments </li></ul><ul><li>sociometric techniques </li></ul><ul><li>naturalistic observations </li></ul>
  12. 14. Commercial Observer-Rater Instruments <ul><li>With these instruments an observer (e.g., teacher, guidance counselor, social worker, school psychologist, or family member) completes either a checklist or a rating scale. Checklists generally are used to record the presence or absence of specific characteristics or behaviors. </li></ul>
  13. 15. Commercial Observer-Rater Instruments (cont’d) <ul><li>Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2) </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Evaluation Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Rating Profile – 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Conners-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Devereux Behavior Rating Scale—School Form </li></ul><ul><li>Revised Behavior Problem Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Social-Emotional Dimension Scale–Second Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales </li></ul>
  14. 16. Commercial Measures of Adaptive Behavior <ul><li>Adaptive behavior refers to the way an individual adjusts to the demands and changes in the physical and social environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Four measures of adaptive behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive Behavior Assessment System – Second Edition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scales of Independent Behavior—Revised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales – Second Edition </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Self-Report Instruments <ul><li>Self-report techniques allow students to report on their own specific behaviors. Self-report procedures obtain information directly from the students; thus, the information is totally subjective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Self-Report Instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q-sort technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal Self-Report Techniques </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Sociometric Techniques <ul><li>Sociometric techniques are commonly used to assess social skills and related problems. </li></ul><ul><li>3 categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peer nominations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A sociogram provides a visual record of the group’s social structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Naturalistic Observations <ul><li>Direct observation provides an in-depth study of possible problem behaviors identified by rating scales, checklists, and interviews. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation of Teacher–Student Interaction   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation of Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role-Play Assessment   </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. General Techniques for Promoting Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Development <ul><li>Teach for success. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on promoting proactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach self-management. </li></ul><ul><li>Model target behaviors and attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on motivation through behavior modification. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Promoting Proactivity <ul><li>Set goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Give responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in self-appreciation. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Variables Related to Effective Instruction of Difficult-to-Teach Students <ul><li>Preinstructional variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangement of classroom space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing student academic work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication of learning goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacing decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time allocations </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Variables related to effective instruction of difficult-to-teach students <ul><li>Instructional delivery variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engagement time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic learning time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postinstructional variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic feedback </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Activities for Increasing On-Task Behavior <ul><li>Allow the student who avoids academic tasks to choose from a variety of activities within a skill area. </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly after assigning an academic task, provide a reward for students who have started the work and completed several problems. </li></ul><ul><li>To increase speed in performing academic tasks, have the student work against a timer and chart progress. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Activities for Increasing On-Task Behavior (cont’d) <ul><li>To discourage slowness in work, devise a contingency contract. </li></ul><ul><li>When a student shows a task interference behavior, such as looking out the window, move physically closer so that the student is aware of your presence. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, pair the student with a productive worker and use modeling to elicit appropriate behavior . </li></ul>
  24. 26. Activities for Increasing On-Task Behavior (cont’d) <ul><li>Prepare a series of tasks at different levels of difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the student who avoids tasks with an incentive to start working. </li></ul><ul><li>Present academic tasks in game formats, such as start-to-finish races or card playing. </li></ul>
  25. 27. Activities for Increasing On-Task Behavior (cont’d) <ul><li>Use self-correcting materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a spinner to provide reinforcement after the student completes an academic assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Use assistance cards to help manage requests for assistance. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Activities for Increasing On-Task Behavior (cont’d) <ul><li>Use feedback charts for managing student behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the student who does not complete homework earn the privilege of being allowed to do homework at home </li></ul>
  27. 29. Social Development Interventions <ul><li>Social Skills Curriculum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversation skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills for difficult situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving skills </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Emotional Development Interventions <ul><li>Bibliotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution retraining </li></ul><ul><li>Life-space interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Reality therapy </li></ul>
  29. 31. Improving Mood States <ul><li>Suggestions for dealing with temperament, suicide, and general personality variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projective techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role playing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Puppetry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Emotional Development Activities <ul><li>Activities for improving reactions to authority figures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The student may resist coming to school and frequently may challenge the authority of the teacher and principal by arguing constantly and disobeying school rules. This negative reaction needs to be changed to promote a healthy attitude toward school and authority figures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activities for enhancing self-concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-concept refers to a person’s perception of his or her abilities and of how others important to the person feel about him or her. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Instructional Games In Emotional Development <ul><li>Personality Game </li></ul><ul><li>Passport Program </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking, Feeling, Behaving </li></ul>
  32. 34. Behavioral Development Interventions <ul><li>Discipline and fighting rank among the top problems facing public schools (Rose &Gallup 2006). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive Reinforcement Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency Contracting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Token Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. Techniques For Managing Surface Behaviors <ul><li>(e.g. laughing, passing notes, talking out of turn, humming, and pencil tapping) </li></ul><ul><li>Planned ignoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Signal interference. </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity control. </li></ul><ul><li>Interest boosting. </li></ul><ul><li>Tension reduction through humor. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurdle lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Support from routine. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct appeal to value areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Removing seductive objects. </li></ul><ul><li>Antiseptic bouncing. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Behavioral Development Activities <ul><li>As much as possible, ignore disruptions and reward the student’s complying behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore out-of-seat behaviors and give verbal praise to students who remain in their seats. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a timer to see how long an active student can stay seated. </li></ul><ul><li>Give periodic breaks that allow the active student out-of-seat time. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Behavioral Development Activities (cont’d) <ul><li>Devise contingency contracts in which the student agrees to stay seated for a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut out a figure of the student that includes a large pocket and tape it to the wall. Whenever the student behaves appropriately, place a chip or token in the figure’s pocket. When the student engages in an inappropriate behavior (e.g., out of seat, talking out, or use of swear words), remove a chip from the pocket. </li></ul>
  36. 38. Behavioral Development Activities (cont’d) <ul><li>To reduce swearing, suggest to the student other words that can be used (e.g., darn , heck , or shoot ). </li></ul><ul><li>Use a graph to record the number of swear words or sarcastic remarks made by the student during a specific time period. </li></ul><ul><li>When a student begins a temper tantrum, immediately remove the student to a time-out area in which the student is isolated from the teacher and peers. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Behavioral Development Activities (cont’d) <ul><li>At the beginning of the day, make 15 numbered marks on the chalkboard. Explain to the class that they have an opportunity to have a 15-minute recess at the end of the day. However, for each disruptive behavior, one mark is erased from the board. At the end of the day, give the class the number of minutes of extra recess remaining on the board. Instead of recess, the minutes can be used in a special game, story time, or field trips. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Instructional Games In Behavioral Development <ul><li>Picture Puzzle Game </li></ul><ul><li>Work Around the Circle </li></ul><ul><li>Principal’s Game </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Monopoly </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Chase </li></ul><ul><li>The Lottery </li></ul><ul><li>Good Behavior Game </li></ul>