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  • 1. CHAPTER FOUR TEACHING STUDENTS AND MANAGING INSTRUCTION
  • 2. <ul><li>First four chapters </li></ul><ul><li>1. Creating Responsive Learning Environments </li></ul><ul><li>2. Planning and Organizing Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>3. Assessing Students for Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>4. Teaching Students and Managing Instruction </li></ul>
  • 3. &nbsp;
  • 4. Continuum of Instructional Choices <ul><li>Explicit teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectical or interactive teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Implicit teaching </li></ul>
  • 5. Setting Demands of an Implicit Learning Environment <ul><li>Learners must have sufficient prior knowledge to construct new and appropriate meaning from understanding connections between prior learning and new information. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners must attend to teacher presentations, teacher–student interactions, and student–student interactions regarding academics. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners must use cognitive and metacognitive processing to acquire, remember, and construct new knowledge in a manner that is authentic to their lives. </li></ul>
  • 6. Setting Demands of an Implicit Learning Environment (cont’d) <ul><li>Students must be active participants in their own learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Students must engage in group discussions to work in cooperative learning arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>To become self-regulated learners, students must recognize their own learning characteristics, develop their own metacognitive strategies, and maintain a proactive attitude about learning. </li></ul>
  • 7. Research Base for a Continuum of Instructional Choices <ul><li>Research conducted across curriculum areas indicates that students of diverse abilities respond differently to instruction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skiing down the hill </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. SYSTEMATIC TEACHING STEPS <ul><li>Opening the lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting an interactive presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explicit modeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closing the lesson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Practice </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Using Continuous Teaching Components <ul><li>Monitoring Progress and Providing Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering Independence </li></ul>
  • 10. Self-Recording <ul><li>Involves counting and recording one’s own behavior, on the assumption that such actions will influence one’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the rationale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate and model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice with feedback. </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Self-Evaluation <ul><li>The component of self-management that teaches the student to judge how well he or she is doing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the rationale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate and model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice with feedback. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Self-Reinforcement <ul><li>A technique for self-management that involves the student reviewing his or her progress to determine whether reinforcement has been earned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide the rationale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate and model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice with feedback. </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Using Questions <ul><li>Asking questions during presentations and follow-up discussions is a key part of the teaching process. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions are used to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involve the student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promote learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor student progress and adjust instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage the flow of the lesson </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Using Questions (cont’d) <ul><li>Convergent Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergent questions are direct or closed questions and begin with verbs such as define , describe , identify , summarize , paraphrase , or rephrase . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divergent Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divergent questions are open-ended questions with several correct responses (e.g., “What role do you think sports play in building self-discipline?”). These questions require higher level cognitive responses than convergent questions and begin with verbs such as relate , distinguish , differentiate , formulate , compose , produce , justify , or decide . </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Classroom Management <ul><li>CLASSROOM TONE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I strive to maintain good physical health? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I strive to maintain good emotional health? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I treat students with respect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I enjoy teaching? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I behave confidently (e.g., in walking and talking)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I have a positive attitude toward students and peers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I accept the challenge of educating all learners? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I change my position when a compelling reason exists to do so? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I happy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Am I effective at helping students learn? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I listen to students and peers well? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I have a sense of humor? </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Classroom Management <ul><li>Classroom Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the minimum number of rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State the rules positively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine consistent consequences for rule fulfillment or infraction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tailor rules to individual classroom goals and to individual teaching styles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include school rules within class rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Display a set of the rules where the students and the teacher easily can see it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Emmer &amp; Evertson, 2009; Rademacher, Callahan, &amp; Pederson-Seelye, 1998) </li></ul>
  • 17. Classroom Management <ul><li>Teaching Behavioral Expectations for Rules and Classroom Routines  </li></ul><ul><li>Use an advance organizer. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the behavioral expectations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SLANT mnemonic is useful: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S — Sit up straight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L — Lean forward in your desk. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A — Act interested. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N — Nod occasionally to signal understanding. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T — Track the teacher with your eyes.  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. Classroom Management <ul><li>Teaching Behavioral Expectations for Rules and Classroom Routines (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the behavioral expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct guided practice with feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct independent practice with feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain behavioral expectations. </li></ul>
  • 19. Engaging Students <ul><li>Managing instruction and students’ behavior in the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>communicating expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engaging interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instructing for engagement </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Communicating Expectations <ul><li>Establish a positive, expectant, and orderly classroom environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a positive classroom environment through enthusiasm, encouragement, and a positive disposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish rules that involve respect for others. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly state what behaviors are expected and what behaviors are not tolerated. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce and discuss rules, procedures, and consequences for following rules and breaking rules. </li></ul>
  • 21. Communicating Expectations (cont’d) <ul><li>Post rules, discuss rules, and provide rationale for rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish classroom routines and procedures to promote flow of activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Hold students accountable for work and keep records of progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate expectations and provide structure for learning (e.g., instructional groupings, prescriptive seatwork, accessible materials, and support for working). </li></ul>
  • 22. Engaging Interactions <ul><li>Use task-specific and descriptive praise. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a hierarchy of reinforcers to adapt to level of student maturity (e.g., food, objects, tokens, points, praise, activity, or sense of mastery). </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a 3:1 ratio of teacher attention to positive classroom events versus negative classroom events. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive reinforcement for appropriate behavior or effort, successful task completion, and the learning of new or difficult material. </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually shift reinforcement from appropriate behavior to learning accomplishments. </li></ul>
  • 23. Engaging Interactions (cont’d) <ul><li>Provide students with verbal reminders to follow rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Use nonverbal signals when feasible to direct students in a manner that does not disrupt the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver specific praise contingently. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in frequent positive and supportive interactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce student accomplishments. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently scan the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange the classroom to facilitate smooth transitions and ease of student monitoring. </li></ul>
  • 24. Instructing for Engagement <ul><li>Ensure that students have the ability or skills to acquire the targeted content or perform the strategy or procedure being taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct student behavior in a way that helps students understand the appropriate behavior for the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruct students to understand and follow rules through demonstrating, modeling, giving examples and nonexamples, reinforcing students for following rules, correcting students for not following rules, and applying consequences for students who break rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster self-management in students through self-monitoring, self-recording, and self-evaluating. </li></ul>
  • 25. Instructing for Engagement (cont’d) <ul><li>Provide explicit instruction in classroom routines. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide more teacher-led instruction than independent work. </li></ul><ul><li>Use metaphors, anecdotes, and concrete examples to help students connect new content with their existing knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Circulate throughout the classroom to check the accuracy of work and progress of students. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage students in talk about their own thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>ASK STUDENTS TO INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER AND COLLABORATE ON PROBLEM-SOLVING TASKS. </li></ul>
  • 26. Accommodating Students with Learning Problems in General Education Classrooms <ul><li>Accommodations Involving Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of audio recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify or simplify written directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present small amount of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Block out extraneous stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight essential information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate place in consumable material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide additional practice activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide glossary in content areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop reading guides </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Accommodations Involving Interactive Instruction <ul><li>Use explicit teaching procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain daily routines. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide copy of lecture notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide students with a graphic organizer. </li></ul><ul><li>Use step-by-step instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine verbal and visual information. </li></ul>
  • 28. Accommodations Involving Interactive Instruction (cont’d) <ul><li>Write key points or words on the chalkboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Use balanced presentations and activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Use mnemonic instruction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In a review of the literature, Wolgemuth, Cobb, and Alwell (2008) strongly support the use of mnemonic strategies for students with disabilities across settings.  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasize daily review. </li></ul>
  • 29. Accommodations Involving Student Performance <ul><li>Change response mode. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an outline of the lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage use of graphic organizers. </li></ul><ul><li>Place students close to the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage use of assignment books or calendars. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce copying activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Have students turn lined paper vertically for math. </li></ul>
  • 30. Accommodations Involving Student Performance (cont’d) <ul><li>Use cues to denote important items. </li></ul><ul><li>Design hierarchical worksheets. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow use of instructional aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Display work samples. </li></ul><ul><li>Use peer-mediated learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage note sharing. </li></ul>
  • 31. Accommodations Involving Student Performance (cont’d) <ul><li>Use flexible work times. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide additional practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Use assignment substitutions or adjustments. </li></ul>
  • 32. Selecting Curriculum <ul><li>Material Selection Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Materials Should Promote Best Instructional Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Materials Should Foster Learner Understanding   </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Materials Should Guide the Assessment of Relevant Prior Knowledge      </li></ul>
  • 33. Selecting Curriculum <ul><li>Material Selection Factors (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Materials Should Guide Mastery Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Materials Should Promote Generalization   </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Materials Should Provide Guidelines for Learner Diversity    </li></ul>
  • 34. Guidelines for Designing a Curriculum <ul><li>Introduce information cumulatively. </li></ul><ul><li>Build retention. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate confusing elements and terminology. </li></ul><ul><li>Make learning more meaningful by stressing relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce processing demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Require faster responses </li></ul>
  • 35. Planning Units and Lessons <ul><li>Planning Units </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Lessons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Introduce the lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Describe and model the skill or strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Use scaffolding to guide practice and interactive discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4: Conduct independent practice to mastery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 5: Provide feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 6: Teach generalization and transfer </li></ul></ul>
  • 36. Postinstructional Activities <ul><li>“ Everyone needs opportunities for self-renewal, but those responsible for developing other human beings need them most of all. Thinking deeply about what we are doing leads us to ask better questions, break out of fruitless routines, make unexpected connections, and experiment with fresh ideas.” (Brandt, 1991, p. 3) </li></ul>
  • 37. Postinstructional Activities <ul><li>Teacher Reflection and Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher journal writing: (Smyth, 1989) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I do? (Elicits description of practice.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean? (Elicits principles of instruction.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did I come to be this way? (Elicits awareness beyond the classroom and situates practices in a broader cultural milieu.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How might I do things differently? (Elicits action.) </li></ul></ul>
  • 38. Postinstructional Activities <ul><li>Collaborative questions can foster reflection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will curriculum-based assessment allow teachers to assess the progress of students in a manner that provides insight into effective instructional activities and learner differences? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can teachers more effectively involve parents in school activities? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can teachers effectively combine elements of whole language instruction with phonological awareness instruction to improve reading instruction? </li></ul></ul>

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