Genotype – specific genetic material on an indiv’s chromosomes.
Phenotype – the observed characteristic of the indiv (brown eyes; blonde hair)
DOMINANT AND RECESSIVE CHARACTERISTICS Characteristics in the left-hand column dominate over those characteristics listed in the right-hand column . * sex-linked characteristic no dimples attached earlobes no freckles thin lips Susceptibility to poison ivy Congenital deafness Hemophilia albinism dimples unattached earlobes freckles broad lips Immunity to poison ivy Normal hearing Normal blood clotting Normal pigmented skin facial features Other blonde, light, red hair red hair straight hair baldness* normal hairline dark hair non-red hair curly hair full head of hair widow's peak hair normal vision nearsightedness night blindness color blindness* farsightedness normal vision normal vision normal vision vision grey, green, hazel, blue eyes brown eyes eye coloring RECESSIVE TRAITS DOMINANT TRAITS
First two weeks of gestation, from conception to implantation = germinal stage
During first 24-36 hours after conception cell division begins
Cells are alike until @ 4 days after conception; they form a hollow sphere with two layers = blastocyst .
Placenta = organ that allows oxygen, nutrients and other substances to be transferred between mom and baby’s blood. (Brings mother’s and baby’s blood close to one another without allowing them to mix.)
Blastocyst’s inner cells begin to specialize
Umbilical cord – connects the embryo to the placenta
i.e., phenylketonuria (PKU) = involves a recessive gene that causes a baby to have prob’s digesting the amino acid phenylalanine. Can cause MR as the toxins build up in baby’s brain. More likely to occur in Caucusian babies.
Sickle-cell disease = recessive dx that causes red blood cell deformities. Blood can’t carry enough oxygen to keep the body’s tissues healthy. More common in West African and African-American infants.
Huntington’s disease = caused by dominant genes and not usually diagnosed until adulthood. Causes the brain to deteriorate and affects psychological and motor functions.
Infant Mortality is the number of infants out of 1,000 births that die before the age of 1 year.
U.S. mortality rate is about 1%, or 9 of 1000.
15 industrialized nations have lower infant mortality than U.S.
Possible factors include low birth weight resulting from a lack of free or inexpensive prenatal care and fewer paid leaves of absence for pregnant women.
Apgar Test Pink all over Body pink w/blue extremities Blue or pale body/ Extremities Body color Active crying Some contortions and grimacing No facial expressions Reflex Irritability Good flexion and active motion Some flexion of extremities Limb and flaccid Muscle Tone Good respiration normal crying Slow and irregular No breathing for 1 min Respiratory Effort 100-140 beat/min <100 beats/min Absent Heart Rate 2 1 0 Sign