Chapter Two
Brain-Behavior Relations  <ul><li>Gall </li></ul><ul><li>introduced phrenology </li></ul><ul><li>Flouren </li></ul><ul><li...
The Rise of Experimentation <ul><li>Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>fathered theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>humans can lea...
Building Blocks <ul><li>Neurons </li></ul><ul><li>aka: “nerve cell” </li></ul><ul><li>basic operating unit of the Nervous ...
Building Blocks <ul><li>Myelin </li></ul><ul><li>covers axons </li></ul><ul><li>aka: myelin sheath </li></ul><ul><li>gives...
How Neurons Communicate  <ul><li>The Neural Impulse </li></ul><ul><li>Resting Potential </li></ul><ul><li>“ resting” neuro...
How Neurons Communicate  <ul><li>Action Potential </li></ul><ul><li>need stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>of greater magnitud...
How Neurons Communicate <ul><li>Synaptic Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>transmission occurs chemically </li></ul><ul><li>n...
Drugs and Synaptic Transmission <ul><li>Agonistic Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Drug increases neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul...
The Nervous System <ul><li>Central NS </li></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>2 functions:...
The Nervous System <ul><li>1. Somatic NS </li></ul><ul><li>-all senses originate from this area (sight, taste, touch, smel...
Studying the NS <ul><li>Observe the effects of damage to a brain </li></ul><ul><li>-Phineas Gage </li></ul><ul><li>Electri...
The Brain <ul><li>Brain size & intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>-humans born with tiny brains & abnormally small heads are s...
The Brain <ul><li>a. Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>-nearest to spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>-controls breathing, heart rate, ...
The Brain <ul><li>3. Forebrain </li></ul><ul><li>-motivation & emotion </li></ul><ul><li>a. Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li...
The Brain <ul><li>Cerebral Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>-thin, outer covering of brain </li></ul><ul><li>-responsible for reme...
The Brain <ul><li>- left hemisphere = lose ability to read or write & knowing where parts of body are located </li></ul><u...
The Endocrine System <ul><li>Endocrine Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul>...
Genetics <ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Biologically determined characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul>...
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Chapter2 G E N

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Chapter2 G E N

  1. 1. Chapter Two
  2. 2. Brain-Behavior Relations <ul><li>Gall </li></ul><ul><li>introduced phrenology </li></ul><ul><li>Flouren </li></ul><ul><li>brain operates as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>Broca </li></ul><ul><li>specific part of brain for specific behaviors </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Rise of Experimentation <ul><li>Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>fathered theory of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>humans can learn about their own behavior(s) by studying different species behavior(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Watson </li></ul><ul><li>behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>word “mind” should be purged from vocabulary </li></ul>
  4. 4. Building Blocks <ul><li>Neurons </li></ul><ul><li>aka: “nerve cell” </li></ul><ul><li>basic operating unit of the Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>produces energy </li></ul><ul><li>function = communcation </li></ul><ul><li>protoplasmic fibers extending from cell body are dendrites & axons </li></ul><ul><li>biological battery </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>“ antannae” of the neuron </li></ul><ul><li>receives info from other cells </li></ul><ul><li>“ listens” to other cells </li></ul><ul><li>Axons </li></ul><ul><li>forms the “communication line” of the neuron </li></ul><ul><li>“ talks” to other cells </li></ul><ul><li>not always , sometimes dendrites talk & axons listen </li></ul>
  5. 5. Building Blocks <ul><li>Myelin </li></ul><ul><li>covers axons </li></ul><ul><li>aka: myelin sheath </li></ul><ul><li>gives axons a white appearance </li></ul><ul><li>does not cover dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>prevents signals carried by adjacent neurons from interfering with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Synapses </li></ul><ul><li>a gap that one can see with an electron microscope </li></ul><ul><li>means, “to fasten together” </li></ul><ul><li>found between the axon of one neuron & the dendrites, or a cell body & axon of another </li></ul><ul><li>how neurons “speak” </li></ul><ul><li>chemical transmission </li></ul><ul><li>enables a neuron to receive input </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Neurons Communicate <ul><li>The Neural Impulse </li></ul><ul><li>Resting Potential </li></ul><ul><li>“ resting” neuron is like a firecracker or a loaded gun--> it is ready to fire when properly triggered </li></ul><ul><li>neuron “works” at maintaining resting potential </li></ul><ul><li>Graded Potential </li></ul><ul><li>need stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>does not have to exceed threshold </li></ul><ul><li>full response </li></ul><ul><li>not an “all-or-none” response </li></ul>
  7. 7. How Neurons Communicate <ul><li>Action Potential </li></ul><ul><li>need stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>of greater magnitude than graded </li></ul><ul><li>“ all-or-none” response --> it occurs at full strength, or it does not occur at all </li></ul><ul><li>must exceed threshold </li></ul><ul><li>like a fuse burning (going down length of axon) </li></ul>
  8. 8. How Neurons Communicate <ul><li>Synaptic Transmission </li></ul><ul><li>transmission occurs chemically </li></ul><ul><li>neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>for each neurotransmitter there is a specific receptor at awaiting neuron </li></ul><ul><li>like a key fits in a lock </li></ul><ul><li>neurotransmitter not released exclusively into synapse, can be released into body fluids & carried to many cells </li></ul><ul><li>Two Effects: </li></ul><ul><li>Excitatory </li></ul><ul><li>Excites neurons, making it more likely to “fire” or reach actions potential </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibitory </li></ul><ul><li>Makes neurons less likely to “fire” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Drugs and Synaptic Transmission <ul><li>Agonistic Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Drug increases neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Drug increases release of neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Drug activates more receptors on other “side” </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonistic Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Drug interferes with release of neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Drug occupies receptor sites </li></ul><ul><li>Drug causes neurotransmitters to leak from synaptic vessles </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Nervous System <ul><li>Central NS </li></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>2 functions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Carries sensory info to & from the brain </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral NS </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal nerves – serves all of body below neck </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial nerves – extend from brain </li></ul><ul><li>2 Major Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Somatic NS </li></ul><ul><li>-composed of afferent neurons > carry info to the brain </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Nervous System <ul><li>1. Somatic NS </li></ul><ul><li>-all senses originate from this area (sight, taste, touch, smell, </li></ul><ul><li>sound) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Autonomic NS </li></ul><ul><li>-carries messages between CNS and all internal organs of the body </li></ul><ul><li>-necessary for breathing, blood flow and emotion </li></ul><ul><li>a. Sympathetic NS </li></ul><ul><li>-prepares body for using energy </li></ul><ul><li>-busiest when you are frightened or angry </li></ul><ul><li>b. Parasympathetic NS </li></ul><ul><li>-have opposite effect of Sympathetic NS </li></ul><ul><li>-conserves body energy </li></ul><ul><li>-allows body to rest after stress </li></ul>
  12. 12. Studying the NS <ul><li>Observe the effects of damage to a brain </li></ul><ul><li>-Phineas Gage </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical recording </li></ul><ul><li>-EEG </li></ul><ul><li>-part of brain involved in activity should be active </li></ul><ul><li>-used in research with alzheimer’s </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Images </li></ul><ul><li>-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) </li></ul><ul><li>-Positron Emission Tomography (PET) </li></ul><ul><li>-Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Brain <ul><li>Brain size & intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>-humans born with tiny brains & abnormally small heads are severely developmentally delayed </li></ul><ul><li>-NO evidence of a correlation between brain size and intelligence with individuals who have heads within normal size range </li></ul><ul><li>3 Distinct Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Hindbrain / Brain Stem </li></ul><ul><li>-connects spinal cord & brain </li></ul><ul><li>-regulates bodily functions </li></ul><ul><li>-earliest part of brain to evolve </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Brain <ul><li>a. Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>-nearest to spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>-controls breathing, heart rate, & blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>b. Pons </li></ul><ul><li>-above medulla </li></ul><ul><li>-connects top of brain to cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>c. Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>-regulates motor activities </li></ul><ul><li>2. Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>-information-processing center </li></ul><ul><li>-vision, hearing, pain perception </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Brain <ul><li>3. Forebrain </li></ul><ul><li>-motivation & emotion </li></ul><ul><li>a. Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>-regulates the ANS </li></ul><ul><li>-sweating, crying, salivation </li></ul><ul><li>-maintains body’s internal environment </li></ul><ul><li>-regulates eating & drinking </li></ul><ul><li>b. Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>-above the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>-2 football-shaped parts </li></ul><ul><li>-”relay” station > receives input & transmits info </li></ul><ul><li>c. Limbic System </li></ul><ul><li>-emotions </li></ul><ul><li>-fighting, sex, feeding, memory </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Brain <ul><li>Cerebral Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>-thin, outer covering of brain </li></ul><ul><li>-responsible for remembering, planning, reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>-brownish-gray in color </li></ul><ul><li>-aka: gray matter </li></ul><ul><li>Four Lobes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Frontal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>-nearest face </li></ul><ul><li>-damage = loss of fine motor control, especially the fingers </li></ul><ul><li>2. Parietal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>-information gathered from skin senses </li></ul><ul><li>-damage = depens on left or right hemisphere </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Brain <ul><li>- left hemisphere = lose ability to read or write & knowing where parts of body are located </li></ul><ul><li>- right hemisphere = seem unaware of left side of body </li></ul><ul><li>3. Occipital Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>- located near back of head </li></ul><ul><li>-”visual” </li></ul><ul><li>-damage = “hole” in person’s field of vision; depends on which side of hemisphere is affected </li></ul><ul><li>4. Temporal Lobe </li></ul><ul><li>-located along side of each hemisphere (near ear) </li></ul><ul><li>-damage = left hemisphere = ability to understand the spoken word </li></ul><ul><li>-right hemisphere = can recognize speech, but lose ability to recognize other sounds </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Endocrine System <ul><li>Endocrine Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical substances </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for metabolism, growth, bodily changes during pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Neurohormones –interact with and affect the NS; released slowly into circulatory system, not synapses (exert effect more slowly & for longer period of time) </li></ul><ul><li>Pituitary Glands </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine gland that produces largest number of different hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Has widest range of effects on body </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 parts : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior Pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior Pituitary </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Genetics <ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Biologically determined characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Genes </li></ul><ul><li>Chains of chemicals found in the nuclei of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function = pass traits from generation to the next </li></ul><ul><li>Determines one trait </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Contains chemical DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of genes (1000s) </li></ul><ul><li>Determines thousands of traits </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cell division </li></ul><ul><li>Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation that produces an enzyme deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals engage in self-mutilating behavior(s) & aggressive, violent behavior(s) toward others </li></ul><ul><li>Phenylketonuria </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymatic deficiency that produces a form of mental retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks ability to break down phenylalanine </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment = regulation of diet </li></ul>
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