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Chapter2 G E N
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Chapter2 G E N

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  • 1. Chapter Two
  • 2. Brain-Behavior Relations
    • Gall
    • introduced phrenology
    • Flouren
    • brain operates as a whole
    • Broca
    • specific part of brain for specific behaviors
  • 3. The Rise of Experimentation
    • Darwin
    • fathered theory of evolution
    • humans can learn about their own behavior(s) by studying different species behavior(s)
    • Watson
    • behaviorism
    • word “mind” should be purged from vocabulary
  • 4. Building Blocks
    • Neurons
    • aka: “nerve cell”
    • basic operating unit of the Nervous System
    • produces energy
    • function = communcation
    • protoplasmic fibers extending from cell body are dendrites & axons
    • biological battery
    • Dendrites
    • “ antannae” of the neuron
    • receives info from other cells
    • “ listens” to other cells
    • Axons
    • forms the “communication line” of the neuron
    • “ talks” to other cells
    • not always , sometimes dendrites talk & axons listen
  • 5. Building Blocks
    • Myelin
    • covers axons
    • aka: myelin sheath
    • gives axons a white appearance
    • does not cover dendrites
    • prevents signals carried by adjacent neurons from interfering with one another
    • Synapses
    • a gap that one can see with an electron microscope
    • means, “to fasten together”
    • found between the axon of one neuron & the dendrites, or a cell body & axon of another
    • how neurons “speak”
    • chemical transmission
    • enables a neuron to receive input
  • 6. How Neurons Communicate
    • The Neural Impulse
    • Resting Potential
    • “ resting” neuron is like a firecracker or a loaded gun--> it is ready to fire when properly triggered
    • neuron “works” at maintaining resting potential
    • Graded Potential
    • need stimulation
    • does not have to exceed threshold
    • full response
    • not an “all-or-none” response
  • 7. How Neurons Communicate
    • Action Potential
    • need stimulation
    • of greater magnitude than graded
    • “ all-or-none” response --> it occurs at full strength, or it does not occur at all
    • must exceed threshold
    • like a fuse burning (going down length of axon)
  • 8. How Neurons Communicate
    • Synaptic Transmission
    • transmission occurs chemically
    • neurotransmitters
    • for each neurotransmitter there is a specific receptor at awaiting neuron
    • like a key fits in a lock
    • neurotransmitter not released exclusively into synapse, can be released into body fluids & carried to many cells
    • Two Effects:
    • Excitatory
    • Excites neurons, making it more likely to “fire” or reach actions potential
    • Inhibitory
    • Makes neurons less likely to “fire”
  • 9. Drugs and Synaptic Transmission
    • Agonistic Effects
    • Drug increases neurotransmitters
    • Drug increases release of neurotransmitters
    • Drug activates more receptors on other “side”
    • Antagonistic Effects
    • Drug interferes with release of neurotransmitters
    • Drug occupies receptor sites
    • Drug causes neurotransmitters to leak from synaptic vessles
  • 10. The Nervous System
    • Central NS
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
    • 2 functions:
    • 1. Carries sensory info to & from the brain
    • 2. Reflexes
    • Peripheral NS
    • Spinal nerves – serves all of body below neck
    • Cranial nerves – extend from brain
    • 2 Major Parts:
    • 1. Somatic NS
    • -composed of afferent neurons > carry info to the brain
  • 11. The Nervous System
    • 1. Somatic NS
    • -all senses originate from this area (sight, taste, touch, smell,
    • sound)
    • 2. Autonomic NS
    • -carries messages between CNS and all internal organs of the body
    • -necessary for breathing, blood flow and emotion
    • a. Sympathetic NS
    • -prepares body for using energy
    • -busiest when you are frightened or angry
    • b. Parasympathetic NS
    • -have opposite effect of Sympathetic NS
    • -conserves body energy
    • -allows body to rest after stress
  • 12. Studying the NS
    • Observe the effects of damage to a brain
    • -Phineas Gage
    • Electrical recording
    • -EEG
    • -part of brain involved in activity should be active
    • -used in research with alzheimer’s
    • Brain Images
    • -Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • -Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • -Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)
  • 13. The Brain
    • Brain size & intelligence
    • -humans born with tiny brains & abnormally small heads are severely developmentally delayed
    • -NO evidence of a correlation between brain size and intelligence with individuals who have heads within normal size range
    • 3 Distinct Parts
    • Hindbrain / Brain Stem
    • -connects spinal cord & brain
    • -regulates bodily functions
    • -earliest part of brain to evolve
  • 14. The Brain
    • a. Medulla
    • -nearest to spinal cord
    • -controls breathing, heart rate, & blood pressure
    • b. Pons
    • -above medulla
    • -connects top of brain to cerebellum
    • c. Cerebellum
    • -regulates motor activities
    • 2. Midbrain
    • -information-processing center
    • -vision, hearing, pain perception
  • 15. The Brain
    • 3. Forebrain
    • -motivation & emotion
    • a. Hypothalamus
    • -regulates the ANS
    • -sweating, crying, salivation
    • -maintains body’s internal environment
    • -regulates eating & drinking
    • b. Thalamus
    • -above the hypothalamus
    • -2 football-shaped parts
    • -”relay” station > receives input & transmits info
    • c. Limbic System
    • -emotions
    • -fighting, sex, feeding, memory
  • 16. The Brain
    • Cerebral Cortex
    • -thin, outer covering of brain
    • -responsible for remembering, planning, reasoning
    • -brownish-gray in color
    • -aka: gray matter
    • Four Lobes:
    • 1. Frontal Lobe
    • -nearest face
    • -damage = loss of fine motor control, especially the fingers
    • 2. Parietal Lobe
    • -information gathered from skin senses
    • -damage = depens on left or right hemisphere
  • 17. The Brain
    • - left hemisphere = lose ability to read or write & knowing where parts of body are located
    • - right hemisphere = seem unaware of left side of body
    • 3. Occipital Lobe
    • - located near back of head
    • -”visual”
    • -damage = “hole” in person’s field of vision; depends on which side of hemisphere is affected
    • 4. Temporal Lobe
    • -located along side of each hemisphere (near ear)
    • -damage = left hemisphere = ability to understand the spoken word
    • -right hemisphere = can recognize speech, but lose ability to recognize other sounds
  • 18. The Endocrine System
    • Endocrine Glands
    • Secrete hormones
    • Hormones
    • Chemical substances
    • Responsible for metabolism, growth, bodily changes during pregnancy
    • Neurohormones –interact with and affect the NS; released slowly into circulatory system, not synapses (exert effect more slowly & for longer period of time)
    • Pituitary Glands
    • Endocrine gland that produces largest number of different hormones
    • Has widest range of effects on body
    • Connected to hypothalamus
      • 2 parts :
      • Posterior Pituitary
      • Anterior Pituitary
  • 19. Genetics
    • Heredity
    • Biologically determined characteristics
    • Genes
    • Chains of chemicals found in the nuclei of cells
    • Function = pass traits from generation to the next
    • Determines one trait
    • Chromosomes
    • Contains chemical DNA
    • Composed of genes (1000s)
    • Determines thousands of traits
    • Mitosis
    • Cell division
    • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome
    • Mutation that produces an enzyme deficiency
    • Individuals engage in self-mutilating behavior(s) & aggressive, violent behavior(s) toward others
    • Phenylketonuria
    • Enzymatic deficiency that produces a form of mental retardation
    • Lacks ability to break down phenylalanine
    • Treatment = regulation of diet

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