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Chapter 10

Chapter 10






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    Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Presentation Transcript

    • Theories of Personality Chapter 10
    • Personality
      • Consistent behavior patterns originating within the individual.
      • Person versus the Situation
        • Is behavior shaped by the situation we are in?
        • Or, by the type of person we are?
        • Question is: “How does the situation influence our behavior?”
    • Psychoanalytic Approach
      • Freud
      • How much are Freud’s thoughts & theories present in our language?
        • Repression
        • Freudian slip
        • Ego
        • Projection
      • Theory of Personality:
      • (Topographic Model)
      • Conscious
        • Contains thoughts you are currently aware of
        • Material changes constantly
    • Freud’s Theory of Personality
      • Preconscious
        • Large body of retrievable info
        • i.e., “What did you do on Saturday night?”
      • Unconscious
        • Most impt in psycho-analytic viewpoint
        • Material you have no immediate access to
        • Cannot be brought to conscious awareness except under extreme sit’s
    • Freud’s Structural Model of Personality
      • Id
        • Present at birth
        • Actions based on pleasure principle – concerned with only immediate, personal satisfaction
        • Id impulses are always present & held in check by ego and superego
        • Buried deep in unconscious
        • Impulses center around sexuality & aggression
    • Structural Model
      • Ego
        • Actions are based on reality principle – satisfy id and take into consideration the realities of the situation.
        • Job is to keep id in “check”
        • Id impulses tend to be socially unacceptable, need to keep impulses in line with social norms
        • Ego moves freely between conscious, preconscious & unconscious
    • Structural Model
      • Superego
        • Develops @ 5 years of age
        • Represents society, specifically parents, values & standards
        • Places more restrictions on what we can and cannot do
        • i.e., see a $5 on a friend’s table—id wants to take the $5; ego attempts to figure out how to take the $5 without getting caught—superego will NOT allow the action because stealing is wrong!
    • Anxiety & Defense Mechanisms
      • When ego is unable to hold id impulses in “check,” we experience anxiety
      • Anxiety = intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or worry
      • Defense Mechanisms:
      • Repression – active effort by ego to keep id impulses “out” of awareness
        • Boy witnesses father physically assault mother—claims he never saw it
    • Defense Mechanisms
      • Sublimation - channeling of threatening unconscious impulses into socially acceptable actions
        • Aggressive sports
      • Denial - we refuse to accept certain facts (that do exist)
      • Projection - attributing our unconscious impulses to others
    • Psychosexual Stages of Development
      • “ Stage” theory
      • Pleasure is focused on different regions of the body
      • 2 Concepts:
      • Libido - life or sexual instinct
      • Fixation - at each stage, we all leave behind a small amount of libido; should have enough to get thru life—if not, get “stuck” or fixated.
    • Psychosexual Stages of Development
      • 1. Oral Stage
      • Birth – 1 ½
      • Mouth, lips, tongue are erogenous zones
      • Traumatic experiences (feeding problems) may result in fixation
      • “ oral personalities” – dependent on others as adults
      • Anal Stage
      • 1 ½ - 3
      • Anal region is the erogenous zone
      • During this stage most children are toilet trained
      • “ anal personalities” = orderly, stubborn OR generous
    • Psychosexual Stages of Development
      • 3. Phallic Stage
      • 3 – 6
      • Most impt stage
      • Genital region is erogenous zone
      • Oedipus Complex – named for Greek mythological character who unknowingly married his mother
      • Children develop sexual attraction for their opposite-sex parent
    • Oedipus Complex
      • Boys develop castration anxiety - fear father will discover their thoughts & cut off their penis
      • Girls develop penis envy - upon seeing male genitalia; want a penis & feel inferior & jealous due to its absence
      • Resolution = children identify with same-sex parent
    • Psychosexual Stages of Development
      • Latency Stage
      • Time before puberty
      • Boys & girls are uninterested in each other
      • follows resolution of Oedipal Complex
      • Genital Stage
      • Erogenous urges return & focused on adult genital regions
      • If libido intact = normal sexual functioning
      • If libido is not intact = various disorders persist
    • Evaluation of Freud’s Theory
      • Not a scientific theory
      • Ideas such as “id” or “fixation” cannot be measured
      • Modern rx does not support
      • Relied on case studies
    • Other Psychoanalytic Views
      • Neo-Freudians – theorists who accept portions of Freud’s theory, but reject or modify other portions
      • Carl Jung
      • Defected from “Freud’s camp”
      • Was heir to the movement prior to defecting
      • Established analytic psychology
      • Agreed with Freud about unconscious
    • Analytic Psychology
      • Collective Unconscious – consists of all material in the unconscious shared by all; INNATE
      • i.e., mother, father
      • Collective unconscious is expressed as archetypes
        • Images that shape our perceptions of the external world
        • i.e., hero, God, death
    • Analytic Psychology
      • 2 Types of Archetypes
      • Anima – feminine side of the male
      • Animus – masculine side of the female
      • Each of us holds onto an unconscious image of men or women we are looking for—the more someone “matches” our profile, the more we want them!
    • Jung’s Theory of Psychological Types
      • 2 Basic Attitudes:
      • Introversion – channel energy inward; introspective & socially withdrawn
      • Extraversion – channel energy outward; outgoing; interested in people & external world.
    • Neo-Freudians
      • Karen Horney
        • Not a student of Freud’s; studied indirectly
        • Emphasized role of cultural & social influences on personality dev’t
        • Feminine psychology
      • Alfred Adler
        • 1 st to break with Freud
        • Called his approach individual psychology
        • Striving for superiority – attempting to overcome feelings of inferiority
    • Humanistic Theories
      • Optimizing view of humans
      • Emphasizes:
        • Personal responsibility
        • Focus on the present
        • Stress the importance of personal growth
      • Carl Rogers
        • “ The good life is a process not a state of being.”
        • Fully functioning
          • Strive to experience life to its fullest
          • Trust their own feelings
          • Non-conformist
    • Humanistic Theories
      • Carl Rogers
      • If all people can be fully fx’ing, why so much unhappiness?
        • Begins when we experience anxiety & respond with psychological defenses
        • Reduces anxiety, but we lose touch with “who” we are
      • Anxiety occurs when concept of self doesn’t match who we are
      • Can “help” unhappy people with unconditional positive regard
        • Will respect and honor the client regardless of what s/he says or does
    • Humanistic Theories
      • Abraham Maslow
      • “ Freud supplied to us the sick half of psychology & we must now fill it with the healthy half.”
      • Focused on conscious aspects of personality
      • 2 Basic Motives of Personality:
      • Deficiency motive – results from a lack of something (hunger, thirst)
      • Growth motive – unselfish giving of love & dev’t of potential as a human being
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1 = physiological needs 2 = safety 3 = belongingness & love 4 = esteem 5 = self-actualization – maximum potential
    • Trait Theories
      • Personality Traits – stable dimensions of personality along which people vary
      • 2 Assumptions of Trait Theories:
      • Personality characteristics are stable over time
      • Characteristics show stability across situations
        • Aggressive people should be overtly aggressive in family arguments, as well as playing football
      • Trait rx’ers interested in how people score on certain segment of the trait continuum
    • Trait Theories
      • Gordon Allport
      • Taught 1 st personality course in US
      • Grouped traits based on rx
        • Central traits – traits that best describe an individual’s personality
        • Cardinal traits – single trait that dominates a personality
        • Functional Autonomy – (Allport didn’t believe in looking too much into a person’s past in order to understand his present. )Your motives today are independent (autonomous) of their origins.  It doesn’t matter, for example, why you wanted to become a doctor, or why you developed a taste for olives, the fact is that this is the way you are now!
    • Learning Approaches to Personality
      • Social Cognitive Theory
      • Albert Bandura
      • Beh is influenced by cog factors, reinforcement & self-regulation
      • Observational learning
      • Distinction between learning & performance
        • Beh’s learned through observation need not be performed
        • Clashes with behaviorists who maintain that we cannot learn until we have performed the behavior
    • Learning Approach
      • Why do we perform some behaviors & not others?
      • If we never perform a behavior how do we know about the consequences?
    • Measuring Personality
      • Objective Tests
      • Questions or statements regarding personality
      • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
        • ten clinical scales & several validity scales
      • Hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate, masculinity-femininity, paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, mania, & social introversion
    • Measuring Personality
      • Projective Tests
      • Ambiguous stimuli that are interpreted by an individual
      • Rorschach test
      • Responses are scored in MANY different ways; subjective