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Ch6 Ch6 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Six
    • Information Processing Approach
    • Encoding – converting info to be entered into memory
    • Storage – retaining info
    • Retrieval – locating & accessing info
  • Human Memory
    • 3 Kinds of Memory
    • Sensory – temporary info brought to us by our senses.
    • Working (aka = short-term) – holds small amounts of info for (how long)?
    • Long-term – vast amounts of info for very long periods of time
    • Types of Information in Memory
    • semantic memory – general knowledge about the world
    • episodic memory –specific events that we experience personally
    • Procedural memory – memory that can’t be put into words
    • Sensory Memory
    • What is the capacity of sensory memory?
    • Holds information from our senses very briefly
    • Working Memory
    • also referred to as = “consciousness”
    • serial position curve
      • example
  • Serial Position Curve
    • List of words – tendency to remember first and last words, but not the middle
    • Recency effect – most recent items presented, will recall.
  • STM & LTM
    • Is recall easier with shorter or longer words?
    • Is recall easier for similar or unsimilar words?
    • Capacity = 7 to 9
    • Coding = we code info phonologically for STM
      • We code the way the word sounds even if reading the word
    • Retention & Retrieval
      • decay theory – passing of time will cause the strength of memory to decrease.
      • interference theory – info gets mixed up with, or pushed aside by other info.
    • Long-Term Memory
    • memory which is more or less permanent
    • Which type(s) of information is housed here?
    • Memory Distortion & Construction
    • distortion = alterations in what is remembered
      • schemas = set of beliefs or expectations about something that is based on past experience
        • Ie: “classroom schema”
  • LTM
    • Construction = tendency to fill in details when remembering events or to recall events that never occurred
    • eyewitness testimony
    • Retrieval Cues
    • context-dependent memory = info learned in one environment is easier to remember in similar environments
    • state-dependent retrieval = easier to recall info when internal state matches that when we stored info
    • mood-dependent memory = what we remember in a given mood may be determined in part by what you learned when previously in that mood.
    • mood-congruence effects = tendency to remember info congruent with our current mood
  • LTM
    • Coding:
      • Elaborative rehearsal
        • Relating new info to something that we already know
        • Necessary for LTM
        • Requires cognitive effort
      • Dependent upon how we have to retrieve the info
        • Ie: fill-in-the-blank versus multiple choice
    • Storage & Retrieval
      • Rx suggests info staying in LTM is related to how hard you had to work to “put” it there.
  • Memory
    • Forgetting & LTM
    • retroactive interference – new info interferes with old info
    • proactive interference – old info interferes with or blocks new info
    • Repression – active elimination from memory; info that is painful
      • Little rx to support; mostly support comes from case studies
    • Intentional forgetting – trying to forget or ignore info because no longer useful
    • Autobiographical memory
    • aka = episodic memory
    • How accurate is this information?
    • Infantile Amnesia
    • What is your earliest memory?
    • 2 Early Explanations:
      • Structure necessary for autobiographical memory is not present
      • Absence of language skills
    • 2 Current Explanations:
      • Lack of a self-concept
      • Lack ability to reflect on experiences in past, present & future
  • Memory
    • Flashbulb Memory
    • vivid memories of what we were doing at an emotionally-provoking event
    • Accurate or inaccurate?
    • Biological Bases of Memory
    • Lashley (1950) removed certain parts of rats brains & rats were still able to recall certain memories.
      • Concluded—no one part of brain is responsible for memory
    • limbic system – believed to be instrumental in transferring info from STM to LTM
    • Amnesia
    • retrograde amnesia – can’t remember things before the amnesia-producing event
    • anterograde amnesia – can’t remember things after the amnesia-producing event
    • Korsakoff’s Syndrome – huge consumption of alcohol; sensory & motor prob’s; accompanied by anterograde and retrograde amnesia
    • Alzheimer’s disease – occurs among 5% of people over 65
  • Differences between STM & LTM
    • Entry of info
      • STM = info enters as a result of applying attention to the stimulus
      • LTM = if info is rehearsed enough, then transfers
    • Modality
      • STM = acoustic; visually; semantic (applying meaning to info)
      • LTM = info encoded semantically
    • Capacity
      • STM = limited and small
      • LTM = No known limit
    • Duration
      • STM = up to 30 seconds
      • LTM = potentially a lifetime