Ch5

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Ch5

  1. 1. Chapter Five <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Any relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential produced by experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Key process in human behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning: </li></ul><ul><li>basic form of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Pavlov’s experiment </li></ul><ul><li>4 Basic Elements of Classical Conditioning: </li></ul><ul><li>unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>unconditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>conditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>conditioned response </li></ul>
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>process by which a conditioned stimulus can elicit a conditioned response through repeated pairings of the unconditioned stimulus with the conditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Arrangement of CS-UCS Pairings: </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Forward conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Trace conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Backward conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed conditioning is most effective. Why? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conditioning <ul><li>What are additional factors which affect conditioning? </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Decline & disappearance of a CR in the absence of an UCS </li></ul><ul><li>Can reconditioning occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Reappearance of the reaction after a time interval </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Remember Little Albert? </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to elicit similar CR </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to certain stimuli, but not others </li></ul>
  4. 4. Neural Basis of Learning <ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Plays significant role in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulation can elicit CR & UCR </li></ul><ul><li>What happens if cerebellum is damaged? </li></ul><ul><li>Biological constraints on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Types of conditioning easily accomplished by species are not accomplished by other species </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Taste Aversions </li></ul><ul><li>Exception to the “rules” of classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Can extinction occur? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Cognitive Perspective of classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in predictions & expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Does pairing of CS with UCS provide individuals with predictive information? </li></ul><ul><li>Phobias & Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Can create them  Watson anyone? </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Phobias: </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic desentization </li></ul>
  6. 6. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>How is this type of conditioning different from classical conditioning? </li></ul><ul><li>2 Types of Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Premack Principle </li></ul><ul><li>What are examples of primary reinforcers? </li></ul><ul><li>What are examples of conditioned reinforcers? </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Synonymous with negative reinforcement? </li></ul><ul><li>2 Types of Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Positive punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Negative punishment </li></ul>
  7. 7. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing partial responses </li></ul><ul><li>Successive approximations </li></ul><ul><li>Chaining </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of responses, the last of which leads to a reward </li></ul><ul><li>Reward Delay </li></ul><ul><li>Do longer delays produce poorer or better performance? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed interval </li></ul><ul><li>Variable interval </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Variable ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio = </li></ul><ul><li>Interval = </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cognitive Perspective of Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Learned Helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Apathy & passivity are learned in a situation where one’s behavior has no effect on reward & punishment </li></ul><ul><li>If person does gain control over situation does the helplessness persist? </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary behavior shift </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by the reward itself, but also by how we evaluate these rewards </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Map <ul><li>Tolman believes learning occurs before individuals reach the goal & occur whether or not the learner is reinforced. </li></ul><ul><li>Tolman’s experiment: </li></ul><ul><li>Latent Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive map = </li></ul><ul><li>Insight = </li></ul>
  11. 11. Observational Learning <ul><li>Aka = </li></ul><ul><li>Principles: </li></ul><ul><li>Need to pay attention </li></ul><ul><li>Retain and remember </li></ul><ul><li>Production processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be able to do the behavior physically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor own behavior & adjust to model’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Is aggression a learned behavior? </li></ul>

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