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Ch5 Ch5 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter Five
    • Learning
    • Any relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potential produced by experience.
    • Key process in human behavior.
    • Classical Conditioning:
    • basic form of learning
    • Pavlov’s experiment
    • 4 Basic Elements of Classical Conditioning:
    • unconditioned stimulus
    • unconditioned response
    • conditioned stimulus
    • conditioned response
  • Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
    • Acquisition
    • process by which a conditioned stimulus can elicit a conditioned response through repeated pairings of the unconditioned stimulus with the conditioned stimulus
    • Temporal Arrangement of CS-UCS Pairings:
    • Delayed conditioning
    • Forward conditioning
    • Trace conditioning
    • Simultaneous conditioning
    • Backward conditioning
    • Delayed conditioning is most effective. Why?
  • Conditioning
    • What are additional factors which affect conditioning?
    • Extinction
    • Decline & disappearance of a CR in the absence of an UCS
    • Can reconditioning occur?
    • Spontaneous Recovery
    • Reappearance of the reaction after a time interval
    • Generalization
    • Remember Little Albert?
    • Stimulus Generalization
    • Tendency of stimuli similar to a CS to elicit similar CR
    • Stimulus Discrimination
    • Responding to certain stimuli, but not others
  • Neural Basis of Learning
    • Cerebellum
    • Plays significant role in learning
    • Stimulation can elicit CR & UCR
    • What happens if cerebellum is damaged?
    • Biological constraints on learning
    • Types of conditioning easily accomplished by species are not accomplished by other species
    • Conditioned Taste Aversions
    • Exception to the “rules” of classical conditioning
    • Can extinction occur?
  • Classical Conditioning
    • Cognitive Perspective of classical conditioning
    • Interested in predictions & expectations
    • Does pairing of CS with UCS provide individuals with predictive information?
    • Phobias & Classical Conditioning
    • Can create them  Watson anyone?
    • Reducing Phobias:
    • Flooding
    • Systematic desentization
  • Operant Conditioning
    • How is this type of conditioning different from classical conditioning?
    • 2 Types of Reinforcement
    • Positive reinforcement
    • Negative reinforcement
    • Premack Principle
    • What are examples of primary reinforcers?
    • What are examples of conditioned reinforcers?
    • Punishment
    • Synonymous with negative reinforcement?
    • 2 Types of Punishment
    • Positive punishment
    • Negative punishment
  • Operant Conditioning
    • Shaping
    • Reinforcing partial responses
    • Successive approximations
    • Chaining
    • Sequence of responses, the last of which leads to a reward
    • Reward Delay
    • Do longer delays produce poorer or better performance?
  • Schedules of Reinforcement
    • Continuous reinforcement
    • Fixed interval
    • Variable interval
    • Fixed ratio
    • Variable ratio
    • Concurrent schedule
    • Ratio =
    • Interval =
  • Cognitive Perspective of Operant Conditioning
    • Learned Helplessness
    • Apathy & passivity are learned in a situation where one’s behavior has no effect on reward & punishment
    • If person does gain control over situation does the helplessness persist?
    • Contrast Effect
    • Temporary behavior shift
    • Influenced by the reward itself, but also by how we evaluate these rewards
  • Cognitive Map
    • Tolman believes learning occurs before individuals reach the goal & occur whether or not the learner is reinforced.
    • Tolman’s experiment:
    • Latent Learning
    • Cognitive map =
    • Insight =
  • Observational Learning
    • Aka =
    • Principles:
    • Need to pay attention
    • Retain and remember
    • Production processes
      • Need to be able to do the behavior physically
      • Monitor own behavior & adjust to model’s
    • motivation
    • Is aggression a learned behavior?