Water pollution in indonesia


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Water pollution in indonesia

  1. 1. By Yayat Dhahiyat Water Pollution in Indonesia (Problems and Impacts) Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences University of Padjadjaran
  2. 2. Water pollution Defined as: the inclusion or inserted living things, elements, energy and or other components into the water by human activity so that the water quality decreases to a certain level which causes the water cannot function as intended (PPRI 82/2001)
  3. 3. Main causes of water pollution *Human activities (anthropogenic): *Domestic activities *Agricultural, fisheries and animal husbandaries *Oil and mining activities *Natural: *Volcanic activities (i.e.: Sulfur, cold lava dan thermal pollution)
  4. 4. Pollution on freshwater *River pollution: *Silting *Eutrophication (high concentration of NO3, PO4 and NH3) *Heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Cr) *Characteristics of polluted river: *High turbidity *Low transparency *Low DO and high BOD & COD *Low photosynthetic activity
  5. 5. River status in Indonesia *Determined by human activities in concerned watershed (DAS) *Problems: *Deforestation in upstream region *High sedimentation and erosion on watershed (i.e.: Citarum, Cimanuk and Bengawan Solo) *Flood in rainy season and long drought in dry season *Industrial activities which contribute to the pollution of organic persistent pollutans (POPs) and heavy metals *Urbanisation and mobilisation of inhabitants surrounds the flood plain)
  6. 6. Water pollution case in Citarum River (West Java) *Domestic and industrial waste *Industrial: 80% of wastes from the national textile industries *Chemical parameters which exceeding standard water quality i.e.: Zn, Fe, Mn, NH3, NO2, H2S (all of them are toxic to aquatic organism), BOD and COD *Declining fish biodiversity *Massive sedimentation, prone to flooding *Citarum River is the place where several rivers in Bandung river basin are gathered: Cikijing River, Citarik, Cikeruh, Cidurian, Cikapundung, Cisangkuy, Citepus dan Cibeureum River.
  7. 7. Water pollution case in Siak River (Riau Province) *The fact of Siak River *2004: 60 factories exists along the flood plain of Siak River *2006: only 50 factories existed *Industrial waste dumped (2004: BOD 8.012 tons/year, COD 18.291 tons/year, TSS 9.936 tons/year) dan 66 % of inhabitant dumped their domestic waste into Siak River (4.500 tons/year) *Impact to the biodiversity of fish: declining species of fish (1960: 120 species, 1983: 103 species, 2004: 20 species). During the last 50 years, 100 fish’s species has extinct
  8. 8. Kasus Eutrofikasi di tiga waduk Daerah Aliran Sungai Citarum SAGULING RESERVOIR *Size of area: 5.600 ha, water hydropower (PLTA): 700-1.400 megawatts *Floating fish cages (KJA): > 30.000 units CIRATA RESERVOIR: *Size of area: 6.600 ha, PLTA: 1.000 megawatt *KJA: > 50.000 unit JATILUHUR RESERVOIR *Size of area: 8.300 ha, PLTA: 150 megawatts *Irrigation: 240.000 ha *Three of them are heavily polluted by organic waste: high COD, BOD, NO3, PO4, NH3, H2S; low DO
  9. 9. River Initiative programs *Clean River programme (PROKASIH) by Ministry of Environment Indonesia (KLH) *Watershed (DAS) Rehabilitation Programme by Ministry of Public Works Indonesia (PU) *Reforestation of watershed and upstream of the river by the Ministry of Forestry
  10. 10. Efforts on controlling water pollution *Water pollution control and water quality restoration to guarantee water quality suitable with their standard allocation (PPRI 82/2001). *Example of assessments: *End of pipe approach, by waste water treatment plant (IPAL), *Clean production approach, by reducing, recycling dan reusing of waste
  11. 11. Lake Eutrophication *High content of nutrient N and P entering aquatic environment both by from outside (allochtonous) and from the inside ecosystem (autotonous) *Problems: *Algal blooms (ex: Microcystis) *Massive growth of macrophytes (Eichornia crassipes, Salvinia molesta, Hydrilla verticillata, etc)
  12. 12. Pollution case in Southeast Asia *In Southeast Asia, 80% of domestic waste arrived on sea ecosystem without any treatment, mainly came from waste of slum areas. *In Indonesia organic waste pollution has doubled during the years of 1980-1993, entered South China Sea (Chou, 2009). Wastes came from increasing domestic activities and hotel development along the coast. *Another example in Southeast Asia, animal husbandaries well developped in sub urban region in Hanoi, Bangkok and Manila, producing waste. Live stock wastes rarely used for manuring but somehow are dumped with little or without any treatment.
  13. 13. Pollution case in Southeast Asia * Intensive usage of fertilizers, causing high P and N entering the water channel which then finally ended at the sea. N input from various sources into the rivers in Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam was approximately 300.000 ton N/year (UNEP/GRA, 2006). N fertilizers, animal husbandaries’s waste and industrial waste can be redeposited into the sea environment by athmospheric deposition” (Boyd and Clay, 1998; Paerl et al, 2002). * Aquaculture, including shrimp and fish culture are often over populated in small size of ponds, producing high nutrients through their uneated food and their metabolic wastes (Boyd & Clay 1998; San Diego-McGlone et al. 2008). * Generally, 85 % P, 80-88 % C and 52-95 % N submitted into the food system in aquaculture are lost into the environment (Wu 1995). In 1994 in Thailand approximately 40.000 ha shrimp ponds produced waste approximately 5% N and % P from the total population in Thailand.
  14. 14. Impact of eutrophication *Increasing phytoplankton biomass and vegetation of flowering plants (Spermatophyta) *Algae bloom such as Microsystis, a toxic and inedible algae *Increased benthos and periphyton biomass *Changing in composition of the vegetation of flowering plants *Increasing biomass of consumer species *Increasing incidence of mass of fish deaths *Reducing the diversity of species, usually dominated by one species of phytoplankton or macrophytes, i.e. Microcystis sp and Eichornia crassipes *Reducing number of fish harvested *Reducing water transparency *Decreasing of oxygen in water bodies *Increasing problems in water treatment for drinking purpose *Reducing the aesthetic value of waters
  15. 15. Marine Pollution in Indonesia *Main sources: *Mining activities, i.e.: tailing disposals in gold mining industries *Leaking from oil tanker ship *Kebocoran eksplorasi laut *Montara case in Timor Sea on 21 August 2009 - 3 November 2009. Oil spills spread all over Indonesian and Australian seas, approximately 2000 barrels/hari. Oil spills devastated sea weed culture in Nusa Tenggara and other damage on aquatic organisms which injured local fishermens and sea weed farmers in Nusa Tenggara.
  16. 16. Marine pollution in Indonesia *Oil spills on the seas has occured for several times in the North Coast of West Java and South Coast of Central Java, damaging coastal ecosystems on both areas. *Similar tragedy also occured on Jakarta Bay and Riau waters, where oily sludge was observed along the coast which came from the high seas
  17. 17. * Oil pollution in Timor Sea
  18. 18. Oil pollution in Timor Sea from the aerial photograph
  19. 19. Oil pollution viewed from the ship
  20. 20. Laws and regulations *Laws and regulations concerning water pollution for freshwater and marine environment have existed both nationally and internationally. *However, law enforcement for one who violate the rules is still difficult to be implemented, thus ‘polluters pay principle’ is hardly applied
  21. 21. International laws and regulations *International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ship (MARPOL), *Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, *Protocol Relating ton Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Pollution by Substances other than Oil.
  22. 22. National laws and regulations *Ministry of Environment Indonesia has issued regulations such as : *Law No. 32/2009 on the Protection and Environment Management, *Republic of Indonesia Law No. 19/2009 on the Stockholm Convention Confirmation of Persistence Organic Pollutants (POPs), *Government Regulation No. 19/1999 on the Marine Pollution and Marine Vandalism, Government Regulation No. 82/2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control. *PPRI No. 74/2001 on Hazardous and Toxic Materials.
  23. 23. National laws and regulations Peraturan *Ministry Decree on Water Pollution Control, such as: *Ministry Decree (KepMen) LH No. 35/1995 on Clean River Program, *Kep Men LH No. 115/MENLH/2003 on Guidance for Determination Status of Water Quality, *Kep Men LH No. 51/2004 on Standard Quality for Marine Waters, *Per Men LH No. 12/2006 on Requirements and Guidance on Waste Disposal to the Sea.
  24. 24. Conclussions *Water pollution in Indonesia occurred on the rivers, lakes and Sea which caused by degradable waste and undegradable waste, such as domestic waste and industrial waste (i.e. heavy metals and Persistence Organic Pollutants (POPs)). *Contamination by organic materials enter the rivers and brought into the lake causing eutrophication in lakes, which will cause massive algal growth (algae blooming), and the mass growth of water weeds such as water hyacinth (Eichorni acrassipes Mart (Solms). This later will disturb the lake function and even enhance the frequency of overturn which cause mass death of fishes. *Many reports mentioned that mining pollution, leaking of oil tankers and oil explosion on the sea are the causes of marine pollution. This has damaged marine ecosystems and living marine organisms such as coral reefs, sea grass, macro algae and mangroves. *Laws and regulations already existed both in local, national and international levels. However, law enforcement due to pollution resulting damage on both freshwater and marine environment is still hardly implemented. Polluters pay principle still difficult to be applied.
  25. 25. Thank You