Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Environmental
Risk Assessment of
Chemical
pollutants
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
What is ERA ?
Determine or Predict the negative impact of
...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Risk Quotient =
PEC / PNEC
Principle
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
PNEC
• Based on multi-species and
• local species – site-s...
Which chemicals (substances)
to Assess?
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Priority Substances
> 100.000 EINECS substances
> 2000 HPV...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Priority lists:
factors to taken account
• the effects of ...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Substance may obtain high scores if, for example
– it is p...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
STP
Air
Use
2. Effects Assessment
Aquatic + Terrestrial
En...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
1. Hazard Identification
- new substances, ‘potential haza...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Environmental Risk Assessment:
The general framework
PEC/P...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
• Content of substance in productsContent of substance in ...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Life cycle stepsLife cycle steps PRODUCTION
FORMULATION
SE...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
PRODUCTION
FORMULATION
SERVICE LIFE
PRIVATE USE INDUSTRIAL...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Target environment
_______________________________________...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Effects assessment
• based on laboratory tests using singl...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
3. Risk
Characterization
PEC
PNEC
Risk Quotient =
< 1 no r...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
1. Exposure and Fate Assessment Screening Tool (E-FAST V2....
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
2. ReachScan
• Essentially, the purpose of ReachScan is to...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
3. Others
• AQUATOX is a freshwater ecosystem simulation m...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
European countries
European Union System for
Evaluation of...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
European Union System for the
Evaluation of Substances
EUS...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Why EUSES ???
- Its the most recent and comprehensive (man...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
EUSES: latest version (2.0.1)
• More complete life cycle a...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
What we will do with EUSES
• Perform ERA for n-pentane.
• ...
Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010
Useful references
Books /Documents
Risk Assessment of Che...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Era2010

299 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
299
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 3 3 2
  • Era2010

    1. 1. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemical pollutants
    2. 2. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 What is ERA ? Determine or Predict the negative impact of chemical pollutants on the environment (aquatic)
    3. 3. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Risk Quotient = PEC / PNEC Principle
    4. 4. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 PNEC • Based on multi-species and • local species – site-specific ERA • Literature based toxicity data or new toxicity experiments PEC • RA for each environmental compartment i.e. sediment, surface water, groundwater, etc. • RA at different spatial scales
    5. 5. Which chemicals (substances) to Assess?
    6. 6. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Priority Substances > 100.000 EINECS substances > 2000 HPVCs 140 Priority Substances
    7. 7. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Priority lists: factors to taken account • the effects of the substance to man or the environment; • the exposure of man or the environment to the substance; • the lack of data on the effects of the substance on man and the environment; • work already carried out in other fora;
    8. 8. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Substance may obtain high scores if, for example – it is produced in large volumes – is used in a dispersive manner – persists in the environment – is highly toxic to humans, animals or plants – has long term/chronic effects – is carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction – little is known about its properties, use or effects Example: EU criteria for classification of Priority substances
    9. 9. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 STP Air Use 2. Effects Assessment Aquatic + Terrestrial Environment Production 1. Exposure Assessment determine how much chemical will reach the environment T ra n s p o rt Determine the toxicity of the chemical on biota (algae, invertebrates, fish) Put in same units i.e. µg/L Overview of ERA of chemicals 3. Risk Characterisation Exposure effects
    10. 10. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 1. Hazard Identification - new substances, ‘potential hazard’ based on scientific judgement - existing substances – toxicity data 2. Effect Assessment Calculate the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) 3. Exposure Assessment Calculate the Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC) 4. Risk Characterization Calculate the Risk Quotient = PEC / PNEC
    11. 11. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Environmental Risk Assessment: The general framework PEC/PNEC Risk characterization Chemical with potential hazard Single species toxicity data Extrapolation PNEC Effects assessment Emissions Distribution PEC target environment Exposure assessment EUSE S
    12. 12. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 • Content of substance in productsContent of substance in products • Service life of substance / productsService life of substance / products • Disposal / re-cycleDisposal / re-cycle • Production volumesProduction volumes • Distribution of substanceDistribution of substance • Function (use) of substanceFunction (use) of substance 1. Exposure Assessment1. Exposure Assessment Objective : To Predict the Environmental Concentration (PEC) of the active substance Parameters to take into account • Characteristic of the recieving environmentCharacteristic of the recieving environment Life cycle
    13. 13. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Life cycle stepsLife cycle steps PRODUCTION FORMULATION SERVICE LIFE PRIVATE USE INDUSTRIAL USE In product In product Processing aid - Processing aid WASTE DISPOSAL - Incineration - Landfilling - Recovery
    14. 14. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 PRODUCTION FORMULATION SERVICE LIFE PRIVATE USE INDUSTRIAL USE WASTE DISPOSAL Exposure Assessment at different spatial scales i.e. local, regional, continental PEC Local PEC Regional PEC Continental
    15. 15. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Target environment __________________________________________ Surface water aquatic organisms Sediment sediment organisms Soil terrestrial organisms ________________________________________ 2. Effects Assessment Objective: to Predict No Effect Concentration (PNEC) i.e. the threshood at which the substance posses no significant adverse effects
    16. 16. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Effects assessment • based on laboratory tests using single species and single chemicals • different trophic levels • obtain toxicity values i.e. short-term and /or long-term toxicity data • calculate PNEC from the end-points (i.e. LC50, EC50) values algae invertebrate fish Aquatic ecosystems
    17. 17. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 3. Risk Characterization PEC PNEC Risk Quotient = < 1 no risk to the environment > 1 there is a risk, measures should be taken to reduce the risk Risk Management - risk reduction steps - monitoring - political, social, economic decissions
    18. 18. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 1. Exposure and Fate Assessment Screening Tool (E-FAST V2.0) • It basically a screening tool intended for rapid assessment • it estimates concentrations of chemicals released to air, surface water, landfills, and from consumer products. • It support both new and existing chemical programs. • E-FAST tends to and is designed to reasonably overestimate exposures.
    19. 19. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 2. ReachScan • Essentially, the purpose of ReachScan is to estimate concentrations of the chemical in surface water downstream from an industrial source to a drinking water facility. • It provides data about human habitation in the area of interest. • It is basically concerned with human risk assessment • but also estimates a level of the chemical that may adversely affect aquatic organisms.
    20. 20. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 3. Others • AQUATOX is a freshwater ecosystem simulation model. It predicts the fate of various pollutants, and their effects on the ecosystem, including fish, invertebrates, and aquatic plants. •Assessment Tools for the Evaluation of Risk (ASTER) – Mainly used by regulators in performing ecological risk assessments by providing high quality data for discrete chemicals.
    21. 21. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 European countries European Union System for Evaluation of Substances (USES)
    22. 22. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances EUSES
    23. 23. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Why EUSES ??? - Its the most recent and comprehensive (many parameters considered) - More realistic estiamates of processes such as degradation rates, geochemical processes - Easy to adapt to other parts of the world - Can be used for preliminarly and final assessment
    24. 24. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 EUSES: latest version (2.0.1) • More complete life cycle assessment • Release estimation – emissions from long-life articles – emissions from waste disposal including recovery • Unintentional uses: calculation of background concentrations • Biocide assessment (assessment of biocides when used for non – agricultural purposes)
    25. 25. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 What we will do with EUSES • Perform ERA for n-pentane. • Perform parameter sensitivity analysis i.e. identifying those factors with the most influence on ERA of individual chemicals (n-pentane as an example) • Adapting EUSES for other geographical regions /countries (editing default parameters) • ERA for Biocide (Assessment of non -agricultural use of biocides) • Several assingments on ERA using EUSES
    26. 26. Environmental Risk Assessment of chemical pollutants – VMK 2010 Useful references Books /Documents Risk Assessment of Chemicals: An Introduction. C.J. van Leeuwen and J.L.M. Hermens (eds). 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 0-7923-3740-9 Technical Guidance Document (TGD) in support of EUSES (European Chemical Bureau) Internet resources http://ecb.jrc.it/ (European Chemical Bureau, responsible for EUSES) www.ecotox.org (searchable toxicity database from the EPA – USA).

    ×