SUS+ CCWG COP 17 2011.10.16 Presenter: Fid Anuar Dept of Environment Systems Graduate School of Frontier Sciences Universi...
Presentation Overview Intro to Kyoto Protocol Mechanism (KPM) Joint Implementation Clean Development Mechanism Internation...
Introduction to Kyoto Protocol Mechanism Source: CDM in Charts  http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835...
Country Definition in Kyoto Protocol DARK GREEN - Annex I & II countries (agree and ratify Kyoto Protocol) GREEN - Non Ann...
Joint Implementation (JI) Source: CDM in Charts  http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach/charts....
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Source: CDM in Charts  http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach...
Condition of CDM Project Source: CDM in Charts  http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach/charts.p...
International Emission Trading (IET) Source: CDM in Charts  http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/att...
So, how Annex 1 countries calculate their emission cap?  Source: CDM in Charts  http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envi...
General History of KPM Negotiations in COP  Buenos Aires Plan of Action, Argentina (1998) - COP 4 - establish 140 list of ...
KPM Related Issues for COP17  <ul><li>CDM Related: </li></ul><ul><li>Materiality standard under the Clean Development Mech...
Inclusion of Nuclear Power as CDM Project: Background  BUT, at 2nd week of COP 15 in Copenhagen, Denmark, AWG-KP opened th...
Inclusion of Nuclear Power as CDM Project: The NO Case  But, in AWG-KP Sixteenth Session in Panama (1-7 October,2011)… ( h...
Inclusion of Nuclear Power as CDM Project: The YES Case  <ul><li>Option 3, Paragraph 1   </li></ul><ul><li>Decides   </li>...
Which Country Supports / Opposes the Idea  <ul><li>SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><li>...
Conclusion  <ul><li>nuclear is not listed in the UNFCCC website as one of the main negotiation points for Kyoto Protocol M...
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20111016 CCWG COP17 Study Session: Kyoto Protocol Mechanism

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20111016 CCWG COP17 Study Session: Kyoto Protocol Mechanism

  1. 1. SUS+ CCWG COP 17 2011.10.16 Presenter: Fid Anuar Dept of Environment Systems Graduate School of Frontier Sciences University of Tokyo Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms and Nuclear Inclusion in CDM
  2. 2. Presentation Overview Intro to Kyoto Protocol Mechanism (KPM) Joint Implementation Clean Development Mechanism International Emission Trading History of KPM Negotiation Issues Regarding KPM in COP17
  3. 3. Introduction to Kyoto Protocol Mechanism Source: CDM in Charts http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach/charts.pdf
  4. 4. Country Definition in Kyoto Protocol DARK GREEN - Annex I & II countries (agree and ratify Kyoto Protocol) GREEN - Non Annex I countries (agree and ratify Kyoto Protocol) GREY - Countries that have not yet decided BROWN - No intention to ratify at this stage
  5. 5. Joint Implementation (JI) Source: CDM in Charts http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach/charts.pdf
  6. 6. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Source: CDM in Charts http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach/charts.pdf
  7. 7. Condition of CDM Project Source: CDM in Charts http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach/charts.pdf
  8. 8. International Emission Trading (IET) Source: CDM in Charts http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach/charts.pdf
  9. 9. So, how Annex 1 countries calculate their emission cap? Source: CDM in Charts http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/modules/envirolib/upload/835/attach/charts.pdf
  10. 10. General History of KPM Negotiations in COP Buenos Aires Plan of Action, Argentina (1998) - COP 4 - establish 140 list of action that necessitated agreement before countries could ratify the Protocol ( http: //unfccc .int/resource/docs/cop4/16a01. pdf ) <ul><li>Bonn Agreement, Germany (2001) - COP 6 bis </li></ul><ul><li>first agreement on flexible mechanism of Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>George W Bush become US President, US refused to ratify the Protocol ( http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/cop6secpart/l07.pdf ) </li></ul><ul><li>Marrakech Accord (2001) - COP 7 </li></ul><ul><li>operational rules for IET </li></ul><ul><li>accounting rules for flexible mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>( http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/cop7/13a01.pdf ) ( http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/cop7/13a02.pdf ) </li></ul>
  11. 11. KPM Related Issues for COP17 <ul><li>CDM Related: </li></ul><ul><li>Materiality standard under the Clean Development Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Standardized baselines under the CDM (from CMP 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of the inclusion of reforestation of lands with forest in exhaustion as afforestation and reforestation CDM project activities ( http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/cmp5/eng/l10.pdf ) </li></ul><ul><li>The implications of the establishment of new hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of possible changes to the limit established for small-scale afforestation and reforestation CDM project activities </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) as CDM project activities </li></ul>
  12. 12. Inclusion of Nuclear Power as CDM Project: Background BUT, at 2nd week of COP 15 in Copenhagen, Denmark, AWG-KP opened the door for nuclear power in draft text on a possible new agreement What about inclusion of nuclear power plant into CDM?? - In Marrakech Accord, it was decides that ` Annex I parties are to refrain from using CER generated from nuclear facilities to meet their quantified GHG emissions reduction targets ` ( http: //unfccc .int/resource/docs/cop7/13a02. pdf ) In the draft text, the chair presented three options on nuclear power which could be adopted. SO, COME THE THREE OPTIONS ( two is NO Case and one is YES Case)
  13. 13. Inclusion of Nuclear Power as CDM Project: The NO Case But, in AWG-KP Sixteenth Session in Panama (1-7 October,2011)… ( http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2011/awg16/eng/crp02r01.pdf ) <ul><li>Option 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Decides </li></ul><ul><li>that activities relating to nuclear facilities shall not be eligible under the CDM/JI </li></ul><ul><li>in the second commitment period </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes </li></ul><ul><li>that Parties included in Annex I to the Convention that are also Parties to the Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>are to refrain from using CER/ERU generated from nuclear facilities </li></ul><ul><li>to meet their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments; </li></ul>- Revised proposal by the Chair to facilitate negotiations, Chap. 3, Emission Trading and Project Based Mechanism, for both CDM and JI: STRICT NO SOFT NO Current situation Strict option The NO Case OPTION 2: This would have the effect of allowing nuclear power credits to be claimed for nuclear power stations in all non-Annex 1 countries.
  14. 14. Inclusion of Nuclear Power as CDM Project: The YES Case <ul><li>Option 3, Paragraph 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Decides </li></ul><ul><li>that activities relating to nuclear facilities that commenced operation on or after 1 January 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>shall be eligible under the CDM/JI </li></ul><ul><li>in the second and subsequent commitment periods ; </li></ul><ul><li>Option 3, Paragraph 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Requests </li></ul><ul><li>the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice </li></ul><ul><li>to recommend modalities and procedures for the inclusion under the CDM of the activities referred to in paragraph above, </li></ul><ul><li>with a view to forwarding a draft decision on this matter to the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol for adoption at its 8 th session </li></ul>What’s the difference with current situation? The YES option (means that considering for future negotiation in COP 17) <ul><li>most probably proposed by Annex I countries that support nuclear proliferation </li></ul><ul><li>This option would not only allow new nuclear power stations to earn credits under the CDM but also back date the start time two years. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Which Country Supports / Opposes the Idea <ul><li>SUPPORT </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>OPPOSE </li></ul><ul><li>Pacific Island nations </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>NGO like Greenpeace </li></ul><ul><li>since there is strong anti-nuclear lobby group in COP, these three options negotiation remains undecided from COP 15 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conclusion <ul><li>nuclear is not listed in the UNFCCC website as one of the main negotiation points for Kyoto Protocol Mechanism in COP 17 </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, based on the AWG-KP session last two weeks, there is a possibility of future negotiation regarding nuclear in CDM/JI issue </li></ul>
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