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An exploration into the function of socialisation and education with regard to youth development practice

An exploration into the function of socialisation and education with regard to youth development practice

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  • 1. Social institutions are often aboutthe control of deviance (ordifference) and getting individuals toconform
  • 2. Schools and Prisons ….How are they the same?How are they different?
  • 3. Radical thinkers in education0 Argue that the purpose of education (both formal andinformal) has more to do with the economic needs ofa society than the needs of the individual0 Talk about education (particularly schools) as a placesof social reproduction and conformity0 See classrooms as places in which following the rulesis more important than learning to think for yourself
  • 4. Noam Chomsky0 Is a professor at MIT0 Has contributed topsychological theory and tocritical theory0 Critical of right wing politicsin the USA0 Critical of the use of massmedia as an institution ofsocialisation
  • 5. Noam Chomsky0 Power and consent0 Work and freedom0 Media0 A tool of propaganda0 A means to manufactureconsent0 General critic of US society(
  • 6. Chomsky and Education0 Schools provide an “ideological” service geared atconformity and socialization0 Schools are “institutions of indoctrination” (Macedo,2000, p.2)0 This means that what matters in ‘education’ isdiscipline not original, or innovative, thought0 Universities are just another ‘cog’ in the system
  • 7. “If you happen to be a little innovative, ormaybe you forgot to come to school oneday because you were reading a book orsomething, that’s a tragedy, that’s a crime –because you’re not supposed to think,you’re supposed to obey, and just proceedthrough the material in whatever way theyrequire”(Chomsky, 2003, p.28)
  • 8. “Actually, I happen to have been very lucky myselfand gone to an experimental-progressive school[based on Dewey’s ideas] … children wereencouraged to challenge everything … you weresupposed to think things through for yourself … itwas quite a striking change when it ended and Ihad to go to the city high school, which was thepride of the city school system. It was the schoolfor academically-orientated kids … it was thedumbest, most ridiculous place I’ve ever been …For one thing, it was extremely competitive –because that’s one of the best ways of controllingpeople”(Chomsky, 2003, p.29)
  • 9. “Real education is about getting peopleinvolved in thinking for themselves – andthat’s a tricky business to know how to dowell, but clearly it requires that whatever itis you’re looking at has to somehow catchpeople’s interest and make them want tothink, and make them want to pursue andexplore”(Chomsky, 2003, p.27, author’s emphasis)
  • 10. It’s no surprise that for some youngpeople school is like prison ….But is it really?
  • 11. Foucault – More than Coincidence0The history of the modernprison0Two periods of time and twoforms of power0Contemporary society is oneof panoptic power0Pedagogical practices workas a form of social control
  • 12. 0 Societies can be examined and critiqued across fourdimensions:1. How the society thinks about deviance or crime2. How the society thinks about power3. How the society thinks about the individual4. How the society thinks about social controlFoucault’s Thesis
  • 13. The Time of Punishment0Crime was against thesovereign0The sovereignexercised overt (visiblepower) over society0The individual wassubject to the sovereign0Overt punishment
  • 14. Braveheart – Scottish Hero and TheHammer Against England0 William Wallace and KingEdward 1 (Longshanks)0 Committed the crime ofrebellion against the kinginstead of being a passivesubject0 This rebellion wasconceptualised as an attackon the King himself0 After capture Wallace’s bodywas cut up into pieces andsent across Scotland as amessage
  • 15. The Time of Discipline0 Modern society andindustrialisation0 Crime is against society(everyone)0 This requires people to beself-disciplined0 The individual isautonomous and selfgoverning0 Covert/panoptic discipline(docile bodies)
  • 16. Panoptic Power0 Power is invisible but everywhere … it flows0 Because we don’t know when we are in the gaze ofpower we are self-disciplined0 Social institutions (school, prison, hospital, militaryetc) are places of socialisation where self discipline isenforced through architecture, techniques, andpractices
  • 17. (
  • 18. Panoptic Power Enforces Self-DisciplineIt is Big Brother … Without a BigBrotherPanoptic Arrangements EncourageSelf Discipline along withPsychological and PedagogicalTechniques
  • 19. Self-Discipline and DocilityThrough Practices0 Enclosure0 Control of activity0 Observation0 Normalizing judgements0 Examination0 Panoptic surveillance0 Informed by psychology0 Informed pedagogy
  • 20. The AbnormalThe NormalThe Elite
  • 21. The Experiment0 German Movie/BBC Reality Show0 Stanford Experiment0 Guards and prisoners under camera surveillance0 Looked at overt formsof power but reallyshowed psychology asa covert power,9865,714927,00.html
  • 22. 0 Deviance and crime0 Are controlled through social institutions, knowledge,and practices0 Power0 Is seen as something that is connected to the controlof crime and engrained in social practices reflective ofthe society in which it is embedded0 Individual0 Currently defined through psychology and throughideas of power as self discipline0 Social control0 The purpose of institutions, knowledge, and powerFoucault’s Dimensions
  • 23. But is youth work connected tothis???
  • 24. 0 Foucault would point to thegenealogy and argue that theoriginal purposes has tracesthroughout history0 In general, youth work is alwaysconnected to our definitions ofyouth, society, ‘progress’ and ….Control (especially if it is seen asneeded by all society).Just think …