Fire, helpful and destructive to
mankind, is more than a necessary evil:
controlled, it provides warmth and food,
but uncontrolled, it produces death and
Because of the power of fire, its
unintentional origin and behavior are
difficult to predict and determine.
In order to understand the behavior of
fire, one must have an understanding of
the chemical principles that control its
origin and spread and the physical
phenomena that result from its behavior.
Fire itself is a chemical phenomenon,
all fuels are (synthetic or organic) chemical
compounds and when fuel is ignited, the
result is a chemical reaction with
predictable physical effects.
FIRE consists of three
basic elements, as represented
by the fire triangle: HEAT,
FUEL and OXYGEN.
These basic components
have been recognized in the
science of fire protection for
over 100 years.
The diffusion flame process (fire) is
a rapid self-sustaining oxidation process accompanied by
the evolution of heat and light of varying intensities.
Oxygen is always present in the home.
If, however, you can separate heat sources
from fuel sources (combustibles), you will have
taken the first step toward fire prevention.
HEAT SOURCES - Anything that produces heat.
Damaged electrical wiring Stoves
FUEL SOURCES - Anything that will burn.
Furniture Flammable liquids
The combustion reaction can be depicted
more accurately by a four-sided solid geometric
form called a tetrahedrontetrahedron.
UNINHIBITED CHAIN REACTION
OF COMBUSTION PROCESS
The four sides represent HEATHEAT, FUELFUEL,
OXYGENOXYGEN, and UNINHIBITED CHAINUNINHIBITED CHAIN
1.CLASS A = FIRES INVOLVING ORDINARY COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS.
Ex. Rubber, plastics, fibers, wood, papers etc.
2. CLASS B = FIRES INVOLVING FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS AND GASES.
Ex. Gasoline, paints, Liquefied petroleum gas
3. CLASS C = FIRES INVOLVING ENERGIZED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS.
Ex. Overloading electrical system, short circuit, defective appliances
4. CLASS D = FIRES INVOLVING COMBUSTIBLE METALS.
Ex. Sodium, potassium, explosives
1. COOLING / QUENCHING = REDUCTION OF TEMPERATURE.
2. BLANKETTING = REMOVAL OF OXYGEN.
3. STARVING = REMOVAL OF FUEL.
HOW DOES FIRE SPREAD?
3 WAYS OF HEAT TRANSFER
1.CONDUCTION = TRANSFER OF HEAT FROM HOT SURFACE TO A
COOLER SURFACE BY DIRECT CONTACT OR THRU A CONDUCTOR.
2. CONVECTION = TRANSFER OF HEAT FROM HOT SURFACE TO A
COOLER SURFACE THRU MOVEMENT HOT GASES AND LIQUIDS.
3. RADIATION = TRANSFER OF HEAT FROM HOT SURFACE TO A
COOLER SURFACE THRU ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES WITHOUT
HOW DOES FIRE WILL INTENSIFY?
THRU THE FACTORS WHICH WILL AFFECT THE RATE OF INTENSITY OF
1. Amount of fuel available for burning.
2. Calorific value of fuel
3. Oxygen supply available
4. Surfaced area of exposure
5. Flame length produce
AUTOMATI C HOME FI RE SPRI NKLER SYSTEM
Consider inst alling an aut omat ic home f ire sprinkler
syst em in your home. Sprinklers can cont ain and even
ext inguish a home f ire in less t ime t han it t akes t he f ire
depart ment t o arrive.
I NSTALL SMOKE ALARMS
Smoke alarms save lives by warning
you about a f ire while t here' s t ime t o
escape. I nst all alarms on every f loor of
your home, including t he basement , and
out side each sleeping area - inside as well,
if you sleep wit h t he door closed - and
t est t hem once a mont h. Smoke alarms
lose t heir sensit ivit y over t ime. Replace
alarms 10 or more years old.
PLAN YOUR ESCAPE
I f t here’s a f ire, you have t o get
out f ast , so be prepared. Draw a
f loor plan of your home, marking t wo
ways out of each room. Go over t he
plan wit h your household so t hat
everyone knows how t o escape if
t here' s a f ir e, t hen physically walk
t hrough each escape rout e. Decide on
an out side meet ing place in f ront of
your home where everyone will meet
af t er t hey' ve escaped. Pract ice your
escape plan by holding a f ire drill
t wice a year.
I N A FI RE, CRAWL
LOW UNDER SMOKE
Smoke and heat rise, so
during a f ire t here' s
cleaner, cooler air near t he
f loor. Always t ry anot her
exit if you encount er
smoke when you are
escaping a f ire. But if you
have t o escape t hrough
smoke, crawl on your hands
and knees wit h you head I
t o 2 f eet (30 t o 60
Don' t smoke in bed or
when you' re drowsy. Give
smokers large, deep, non-
t ip ash t rays, and soak
but t s and ashes bef ore
dumping t hem. I f someone
has been smoking in your
home, check on and around
f urnit ure, including under
cushions, f or smoldering
cigaret t es.
Always st ay wit h t he st ove
when cooking, or t urn of f
burners if you walk away.
Wear clot hes wit h snug -
rolled up - sleeves when you
cook t o avoid cat ching your
clot hes on f ire. Turn pot
handles inward where you
can' t bump t hem and children
can' t grab t hem, and enf orce
a "kid-f ree zone" 3 f eet
around your st ove when you
KEEP MATCHES AND LI GHTERS OUT OF SI GHT
Keep mat ches and light ers away f rom children. Lock t hem
up high and out of reach, and use only child- resist ant light ers.
Teach young children t o t ell you if t hey f ind mat ches or
light ers; t each older children t o bring mat ches and light ers t o
an adult bef ore t hey f all int o young hands.
USE ELECTRI CI TY SAFELY
Know t he warning signs of problems
f or elect rical appliances: f lickering
light s, smoke or odd smells, blowing
f uses, t ripping circuit breakers or
f rayed or cracked cords. Check
caref ully any appliances t hat display a
warning sign, and repair or replace.
Don' t run ext ension cords across
doorways or where t hey can be walked
STOP, DROP, AND ROLL
I f your clot hing cat ches on f ire, remember:
STOP: Don' t run. Running f eeds oxygen t o
t he f ire and makes it worse.
DROP: I nst ead, drop immediat ely t o t he
ROLL: Cover your f ace wit h your hands and
roll over and over t o smot her t he f lames. Cool
t he burn wit h cool wat er f or 10 - 15 minut es.
Call f or help.
TEST DOORS BEFORE OPENI NG
You can easily be overcome by heat , smoke
or f lames when you open a door t o an area where
a f ire has spread.
DON' T LOCK SAFETY
GATES ON WI NDOWS
Fumbling f or a key or
combinat ion during an
emergency will reduce t he
opport unit y f or a saf e exit .
Unattended cooking equipment
Improper discarding of cigarette butts
Improper wiring system
Octopus connection – overloading of circuit.
Unattended electric iron
Unattended children playing matches Mosquito coils near combustible rugs
Fire trapped window grills
Never leave a warm or hot iron
unattended. An unattended
iron that is on will scorch
fabric and may cause a fire.
Never leave food on a stove or in an
oven unattended. Keep cooking
areas free of flammable objects such
as potholders, towels and curtains.
Never disable or remove the battery
from a smoke alarm. Frequently test
smoke alarms and make sure that you
replace batteries regularly.
Burning candles should never
be left unattended. Keep
flammable items like fabric and
paper away from candles.
newspapers and other
from sources of flame.
Keep air conditioning unit on a
level surface away from fabric
and other flammable items.
The fire safety plan is a very
important part of the overall fire and life
safety program within the building.
Its purpose is to prevent potential
injuries and deaths and to protect your
residential and/or company from damage
or loss due to fire.
If a fire starts in your
home you will be scared,
but try very hard to stay
Having a Fire Escape
Plan, so you know what to
do if there is a fire, could
Stay calm. Wakeup all themembersof your family.
Makeyour way out together, through thenearest exit.
Do not open any other doors.
If adoor feelshot, DO NOT open it.
If you are woken up by the sound of your smoke alarm
or by thesound of what you think isafire, remember:
FIRE PLAN PART 1
When everyone is safely outside call the Fire
Service from a public telephone or a
DO NOT GO BACK TO THE HOUSE for any
reason until the Fire Service tells you it is
safe to return.
If the fire is blocking your way or you cannot
use the stairs for any reason, you must use
the second part of your Fire Escape Plan.
In fires, there is sometimes a lot of smoke. This can kill you. If
you have to go through a smoke - filled hallway or room, get down
on your handsand kneesand crawl under it.
Get all the family into a room from where it would be safest
to drop from awindow, onto aflat roof or into thegarden.
ALWAYSpasschildren down first. Never leavechildren until
Remember – never jump!
Lower yourself to armslength and then drop.
When everyone is out safely, find a telephone and
If you are trapped by smoke and cannot escape through a window, use
part three of your Fire Escape Plan.
If you are trapped in a room by smoke or fire, you need to try to
stop smokegetting into theroom.
Block any gaps into the room. Use towels, blankets or spare
If thereisatelephonein theroom dial 1122.
If thereisno telephone, go to thewindow and shout for help.
Once you know you have been heard and help is on the way,
stay near to the floor by the window. Smoke and heat rise so you are
safer near to theground.
If your windows are double glazed, use a heavy object and hit the
window in a bottom corner. Make any jagged edges safe with a towel or
Every business establishment
should have a fire safety plan, which
should be reviewed with all new
employees when they begin their job
and with all employees when the
plan is changed.
All ignition sources (i.e., open flames, cutting torches,
spark producing equipment, electric motors, heating
equipment, etc.) should be controlled and contact with
combustible and flammable materials must be avoided.
Keep all combustible materials at least five feet from such
ignition sources and all flammable liquids at least twenty
Extensive use of electrical extension cords should be
avoided. Any damaged or frayed electrical wiring,
equipment cords, extension cords, etc. should be removed
from service immediately and replaced or repaired.
THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME GENERAL FIRE
BUILDING FIRE EXITS:
Each area of the building shall have at least two means
of escape remote from each other that are to be used in a
fire emergency. The location of exits and the path of egress
should be shown on maps posted throughout the building.
Fire exit doors must not be blocked or locked to prevent
emergency use when employees are within the building.
Exit routes from the building must be clear and free of
obstructions. All exits are marked with signs designating
exits from the building.
Every area in the building should have a full
complement of the proper type of fire extinguisher for the
fire hazards present.
The fire extinguishers should be inspected annually
by a fire protection equipment company and tagged with the
date of inspection. If a fire extinguisher is used or
discharged for any reason, it must be removed from service
and replaced with another properly charged extinguisher
while it is being recharged.
Employees who are expected or anticipated to use fire
extinguishers should be instructed on the hazards of fighting
fires, how to properly operate the fire extinguishers available,
and what procedures to follow in alerting others to the fire
These employees will attempt to extinguish only small
incipient fires. If a fire cannot be immediately and easily
extinguished with a fire extinguisher, the employees will
evacuate the building rather than try to fight the fire.
All employees who are not trained and designated to
fight fires are to immediately evacuate the building at the first
sign of fire or initiation of the fire alarm and are prohibited
from using an extinguisher.
If any employee discovers a fire or smoke, the
employee should immediately pull the nearest fire alarm
If there is time and it is safe to do so, the employee
will also call the front office receptionist to report the fire.
If the fire does not involve the office, the
receptionist will call 1122 and report the fire to the nearest
fire department. The receptionist will then make an
announcement over the public address system that there
is a fire, give the location of the fire and instruct all
employees to evacuate the building. The receptionist will
then exit the building.
When the fire alarm sounds or a fire is otherwise
announced, all employees (except those designated and
trained to use fire extinguishers) are expected to
immediately exit the building by proceeding to the nearest
exit in an orderly fashion.
If the nearest exit is blocked by fire or smoke, the
employees should proceed to an alternate exit. There
should be no running, shouting, pushing, etc. A calm
orderly evacuation is the safest for all concerned.
Upon exiting the building, all employees are to proceed
to the designated meeting area(s) so that they are away
from the building, are not hampering access by fire
fighters, and can be counted and accounted for. The
designated meeting area(s) for our building is (insert the
location(s) where employees are to meet outside the
building). Supervisors and managers will account for all of
their employees to ensure that no one is still in the
building and unaccounted for.
Where needed, special procedures for helping
physically impaired employees will be established. This
will be done on a case by case basis when the employee
is first hired or when the physical impairment first occurs.
All new employees should receive fire prevention and
emergency evacuation training when they are hired. All
employees should receive a refresher training and a review
of this plan on an annual basis.
Fire drills, to include a practice evacuation of the
building should be conducted at least annually. These drills
will be used to evaluate employee response and behavior
and will help us determine where more training is needed.
Those employees who are designated and authorized to
use fire extinguishers to fight small fires will receive training
in the proper use of extinguisher, how to extinguish a fire,
the hazards involved in fighting fires, and when not to fight a
fire and evacuate the area instead.
THE FOLLOWING SECTIONS SHOULD BE
ESTABLISHEDWITHIN THE FIRE SAFETY PLAN.
Map the complete layout of the building, verifying all the
exit locations, occupied rooms, offices, incorporating the
property lot and building size measurements, highlighting
street access and names, noting any other vital fire fighter
Document the locations of the onsite fire extinguishers,
fire hoses, standpipe stations, fire alarm system & detection
devices, emergency lighting, fire pumps, sprinkler risers etc.
Describe fire alarm system specifications, including the
operation sequence of the control panel and layout of all fire
detection devices (i.e. heat and smoke detectors, fire bells,
pull stations, also any auxiliary shuts downs, door releases
and monitoring agency functions and information).
THE FOLLOWING SECTIONS SHOULD BE
ESTABLISHEDWITHIN THE FIRE SAFETY PLAN.
Outline the preventative maintenance program, including servicing
requirements, monthly inspections and tests, performance details, and fire
logging methods pertaining to the audit of all the fire protection equipment
within the building.
Provide sample signage indicating overall floor plans, each exit
within the building and the location of the fire extinguishers, fire hoses and
stations, fire alarm & devices, emergency lighting, sprinkler systems,
emergency gas and water shut off valves and electrical disconnect
Outline fire drill intervals, occupant emergency evacuation
procedures and alternative measures in fire emergency situations.
Indicate of all on-site fire hazards and measures to be taken by the
supervisory staff and fire wardens.
Although extinguishers can vary in size, color and
type of extinguishing agent, all devices operate basically
the same way.
If the fire is small and heavy smoke is NOT present
and you have an exit available to you for evacuation
purposes, grab the nearest appropriate extinguisher and
the P-A-S-S procedure.
- PULL the pin located in the extinguisher's
A - AIM the nozzle, horn or hose at the base of the
fire. Aim the discharge toward the base of the
flames. Do not aim the fire extinguisher directly onto
the source, as it may spread the flames. Begin
discharging 8-10 feet away from the fire source.
SS - SQUEEZESQUEEZE or press the handle.
- SWEEP from side to side at the
base of the fire until it is out.