Reading Approaches For An EFL Classroom


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  • integrated phonic instruction (analytic and synthetic) Use and practice the letters through meaningful context: stories. Can you think of any other ideas yourself?
  • Looking at your cards, which level do you think this approach is at? Which theory does it support? Words are learnt as a whole, without too much attention to individual letters. I like…
  • This is at the word level, moving towards the sentence level.
  • Looking at your cards, which level do you think this approach is at? Which theory does it support?
  • Looking at your cards, which level do you think this approach is at? Which theory does it support?
  • Looking at your cards, which level do you think this approach is at? Which theory does it support?
  • Looking at your cards, which level do you think this approach is at? Which theory does it support?
  • Referred to as the reading wars – a clash between two beliefs systems e.g. skills based and whole language (holistic approach to teaching reading).Often it is a subconscious process that is focilized based on our previous learning experiences, known as the apprenticeship of observation (lortie). Schemata reflects prior knowledge, experiences, concleptual understandings, attitudes, values, skills, personality, ability to accommodate new approaches. Schema describes how we organize our thoughts and construct meaning. Different beliefs, different instructional decisions. The rest of this presentation will discuss the different instructional approaches to EFL reading that we can present to student teachers. Once student teachers have the knowledge of different approaches, then then combine these with their beliefs about reading to adapt instructionThe bottom-up model emphasizes reading as decoding from letter/sound, to word, to sentence, to paragraph, to text. Reading schemes follow a step by step bottom up model of reading that focus on phonics and sight words. They also recycle and add to this vocabulary from level to level.The top-down model emphasizes comprehension of larger chunks of meaning. Meaning is deduced from context. The reader scans the text based on previous knowledge (schemata), focuses on graphic information (print) and also uses syntactic, semantic and phonological input from his own mind to make predictions about the text. The whole language approach is an example of a top-down approach to reading.EFL readers may not recognize key words, may not have schemata to predict and therefore rely more on graphophonic information, deal with text as it comes, need a context to aid understanding, May not recognize a miscue and may be unable to correct itInteractionist Model: Reading is viewed as an interaction between the text, the reader and the context and prior knowledge. It merges bottomup and top down, focusing on both meaning and phonics.I could give another presentation on this but today am going to focus on more practical applications of approaches to reading in an EFL context.Phonics and skills based approaches – bottom-up beliefs about reading; a whole language orientation is associated with top-down beliefs. A teacher who enacts a phonics curriculum is likely to hold different beliefs than one who enacts a whole language curriculum.
  • Looking at your cards, which level do you think this approach is at? Which theory does it support?
  • Children may add to shared writing by adding a few extra lines themselves. Acquiring a reading vocabulary that is “personally meaningful and immediately useful” (Dixon & Nessel, 1983).
  • Sentence level? Extra slides for your reference.
  • Changing curriculum – ADEC indicators too broad, first language focus, genre based approach to writing as children have difficulty writing; extensive writing; phonics based approach to reading. PPP/Model schools doing this.
  • Theories - approaches – strategies towards freerer readingAdd theories in Diagram p.45 MariaDepending on your reading orientation, you will support different theories of reading: bottom-up; top-down or interactive. However, in the EFL classroom, you will probably need a combination of all types as each one has its advantages. Will need to develop word attack skills; using contextual clues to get meaning; picture cues; high frequency words. The mechanics of reading.Also depending on your reading orientation, students will develop at the word, sentence and text levels.
  • Using formal reading records may be unrealistic.
  • So I think it differs from a situation to another. Being a teacher in a flexible school where they are open minded to try and apply different strategies guided reading will work for them. Schools which are very restrict to traditional teaching and covering curriculums will not gain the results. Moreover , trying the strategy for more than once and setting it as part of the routine for example applying it once a week for a whole semester will gain results more than applying it for two or three times.
  • Example: www.readinga-z.comReading A-Z is a complete online guided reading program with downloadable leveled books, lesson plans, worksheets, and reading assessments. The scheme aims to teach guided reading, phonics, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, reading fluency, alphabet, and vocabulary.
  • If how we teach is as important as what we teach, then its important to be a model of good practice. Try to practice what you preach. The curriculum will be changing, rather than complain about it, encourage student teachers to embrace new policies and curricula, giving them experience to adapt, become life long learners and critical thinkers. Give them scenarios. Korthagen’s realistic model of teacher education. Seen primarily as the inculcation of knowledge and skills, the potentially powerful effects of teacher educators’ teaching styles on student teachers’ practices have mostly remained unrecognized and unexamined to date, (Korthagen et al, 2001, Kane, 2002; Russell, 2001; Lunenberg et al, 2007), let alone in an Arabic context (McNally et al, 2002;Taha-Thomure, 2003). engage student teachers in different contexts of teaching, including those that are sheltered and involve limited risk, like micro-teaching or guided practice or those involving monitored apprenticeships or team teaching in the school environment (Fosnot, 1989; Freeman, 1989). Other contexts may challenge previous conceptions of teaching and learning, as in problem-based learning. Through the interaction, reflection and critical thinking involved in problem-based learning, students actively resolve complex problems in realistic teaching situations. Bruner (1986) and Vygotsky (1978) Vygotskian approach to teacher education is one of ‘assisted performance’ (Bodrova & Leong, 1996). As highlighted in section 1.2.1, the area between “maximally assisted performance and independent performance lies varying degrees of partially assisted performance” (Bodrova & Leong, 1996, p.35), is known as the zone of Proximal development (ZPD). Based on a small body of available literature, four forms of modeling were identified by Lunenberg et al (2007, p.597) as potentially shaping student teachers’ beliefs and practices, despite contextual differences between universities and schools: implicit modeling of attitudes; explicit modeling; explicit modeling and transfer to student teachers’ own teaching practices; connecting exemplary behavior with theory. The teacher educator may discuss his/her thinking behind the lesson, using the example lesson as an opportunity to connect the approach back to theory or to expose the underlying rationale using the ‘think aloud approach’ (Loughran, 1996). However, Lunenberg et al (2007) state, that student teachers often don not extensively learn from the examples of their teacher educators, because they do not recognize those examples. However, if student teachers are invited backstage (Grossman, 1991) as in the concept of cognitive apprenticeship (Collins, Brown & Holum, 1991) in which they can dissect, discuss and reflect on the meaning of this modeling and how it can scaffold their own teaching practices, then student teachers may be better able to recognize those examples and shape their own practices accordingly. Drawing on Rogoff; Bodrova and Leong,Vygotsky, Bruner. Meaningful collaborative activities that engage, extend student teachers, challenge and acknowledge. Reflect on their values and respect them e.g. if a teacher values order, the their classroom will probably be orderly.
  • Examine the pamplet, in pairs. Teachers in schools say – great ideas but without resources, difficult to implement approaches or it takes a year to order resources. I have put together a list of some publishers, suppliers of literacy resources in the Middle East, Conferences, foundations and libraries. What could you ask student teachers to do with this pamplet?
  • Two sides of the room. EFL students need a combination of reading approaches to help them develop as competent readers.Principled eclectic instruction allows teachers to use approaches and strategies that are associated with different curricular perspectives.
  • Looking at your cards, which level do you think this approach is at? Which theory does it support? This is at the sound/letter level aiming to move towards words.Which level – sound, word, sentence, text?
  • Published phonics programmes include: Jolly phonics (It teaches the letter sounds in an enjoyable, multisensory way, and enables children to use them to read and write words; learning the irregular or 'tricky words' such as said, was and the. Together with these materials you should also use storybooks; Learning the letter sounds 2. Learning letter formation 3. Blending 4. Identifying sounds in words 5. Spelling the tricky words ), Each sound has an action which helps children remember the letter(s) that represent it. As a child progresses you can point to the letters and see how quickly they can do the action and say the sound. One letter sound can be taught each day. As a child becomes more confident, the actions are no longer necessary. Children should learn each letter by its sound, not its name.Letterland: relate sounds to characters, accompanying stories, adventures, hats. Friendly letter characters provide strong visual memory clues (or mnemonics) so your children learn and retain phoneme/grapheme correspondences Daily blending and segmenting activities make word-building fast and effective Focused multi-sensory activities appeal to all learners and activate all learning channels.teacher's guides, readers, software, posters and audio CDs.Phonographix, an American programme (Drill and practice programme, segmenting and blending sound pictures) all teach the above in different order, using different methods.
  • Zainab’s paper
  • Reading Approaches For An EFL Classroom

    1. 1. Reading Approaches for the EFL Emirati Classroom Fíodhna Hyland ADWC
    2. 2. Presentation Outline Reading Orientations 1. EFL Reading Approaches 2. Role of the Teacher Educator 3.
    3. 3. What is your Reading Orientation? Questionnaire  Bottom up Interactive Top Down
    4. 4. Reading Continuum
    5. 5. Reading Approaches for the EFL Classroom Phonics Approach  Look-Say  Choral reading  Reading aloud  Shared reading  Reader‟s theatre  Sustained silent reading  The language experience approach  In pairs, decide whether these approaches involve reading ‘to’, ‘with’ or ‘by‟ children.
    6. 6. 1. The Phonics Approach
    7. 7. The Phonics Approach This approach aims to consolidate children‟s  phonemic, phonological and morphological awareness. It involves working out sound/letter  correspondences to develop „word attack‟ skills. It highlights the recognition of individual  sounds and sound blends so that words can be „sounded out‟.
    8. 8. Phonics instruction Initial Consonants – c, b, d etc.  Consonant blends - bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, br, cr,  dr, gr, pr, tr, st, sk Consonant diagraphs - two consonants  which combine to make one sounds – ch, sh, ph, th, gh, Vowel Sounds – oo, ea, ee etc. 
    9. 9. Think, Pair, Share! “Children will find it more natural to start from sounds and learn which letters make them, since they are moving from experience with the spoken language to the new words of written letters and words.” (McGuiness 1997 in Cameron, 2001, p.149) Discuss the place of phonics instruction for young Arabic EFL students.
    10. 10. Ideas for teaching Phonics Sound of the week –set up a „b‟ Writing: forming the letter, make   table. Children bring in objects your own dictionary, write a story about „Clever cat‟ using word charts beginning with that sound. and consonant boxes. Feel the letter and say the sound -  using cutout sandpaper letters. Make an alphabet frieze.  ‘Sound hats’ – wear the sound hat Sing songs with that sound, e.g.   Annie Apple says „a‟ in words. and say a word that begins with that letter. Children highlight sounds on word  Phonic games: e.g. Sound Bingo, I cards.  spy, match the sound to the word Making letters from playdoh.  Mini-booklets/flashcards with key  sound highlighted in colour– students Art activities, e.g. printing „b‟ on  practice reading at home blankets for baby bear‟s bed. Read stories based on one sound,  Sorting toys into sound baskets.  e.g. „Bouncy Ben goes to the park‟.
    11. 11. 2. The Look Say Approach
    12. 12. The Look-Say Approach Focuses on whole word recognition of the  most common words, such as „the‟, „he‟ and „went‟ so that reading becomes automatic. Emphasizes building up a sight vocabulary  of high frequency words Sight words may be difficult to sound out and  are therefore learned by heart. Develops lexical knowledge, i.e. that certain  words collocate or go together, e.g. at the seaside.
    13. 13. Think, Pair, Share! “Build up a sight vocabulary from classroom labels, class-made books and wall stories, the children’s own writing, and written versions of songs and poems which are already know already”. (Gibbons, 1991, p.77) Why do EFL Learners have difficulty learning lists of isolated words?
    14. 14. Ideas for using the Look-Say Approach Word wall – including new words of the week  Word games e.g. pass the ball, when the music stops, choose a  high frequency word and read it. Divide words into categories, e.g. colours, animal words. Ask  children questions like “Can you find your favourite animal?” Snap, dominoes, word searches.  Use word cards – write a word on the front and a related  sentence on the back Cut up known sentences into words, pairs reorder them. 
    15. 15. 3. Choral Reading
    16. 16. 3. Choral Reading Reading aloud together as a group/whole  class where students scaffold each others reading. It provides practice for students to read with  appropriate expression. It develops confidence by giving every  student the chance to participate as a group.
    17. 17. 4. Reading Aloud
    18. 18. Reading Aloud “Read-alouds are absolute musts! Different  than shared reading, they allow children to simply sit back and hear the flow and rhythm and magic of good literature without having to struggle with the text themselves” (Combs,1996, p.144). Through read-alouds, EFL children are  provided a „model of what skilled oral reading sounds like‟.
    19. 19. The Fish who had a Wish Using the story ‘The fish who had a wish’,  take turns reading aloud. Try to: •Encourage active listening •Connect the illustrations as you read •Read with expression •Encourage prediction •Follow with discussion
    20. 20. 5. Shared Reading
    21. 21. Shared Reading is… An enjoyable, co-operative, interactive  reading activity based on the bedtime story experience. Ideally the text is a big book version. Shared reading can be conducted as a whole  class, in groups or in pairs.
    22. 22. Holdaway’s Methodology Holdaway‟s (1979) four stages of shared  reading: Demonstration 1. Participation 2. Practice 3. Performance 4.
    23. 23. 7 Essential Techniques Big book technique   Pointing  Masking  Cloze procedure  Resource techniques  Innovation on structure  Musical techniques
    24. 24. EFL Reading Techniques in practice Choose one of the seven techniques presented in the leaflet „Shared Reading Tips for Teachers‟ and practice with your partner, using the text provided.
    25. 25. Working my Robot When I press this button, my robot starts to talk. When I press this button, my robot starts to walk. When I pull this lever, he starts to turn around When I pull this lever, he makes a bleeping sound When I click this little switch, his lights begin to flash. Oh! He’s falling over……. Clink! Clank! Crash!
    26. 26. Innovation on Structure Good night, Mr. Beetle, Good night, Mr. Fly, Good night, Mr. Ladybug, The moon’s in the sky. Good night, Miss Kitten, Good night, Mr. Pup, I’ll see you in the morning, When the sun comes up.
    27. 27. Sing a Rainbow Red and yellow and pink and green, purple and orange and blue I can sing a rainbow, sing a rainbow, sing a rainbow too. Listen with your eyes, listen with your eyes and sing everything you see. You can sing a rainbow, sing a rainbow, sing along with me.
    28. 28. 6. Reader’s Theatre
    29. 29. Reader’s Theatre Reading and dramatizing a script from a  story, “an excellent activity for beginning second language readers ..” (Peregoy and Boyle, 253)
    30. 30. It’s time to act! Using the text of „Little Red Riding hood‟, in groups, act out the dialogue.
    31. 31. 7. Sustained Silent Reading
    32. 32. Sustained Silent Reading An independent reading time set aside during  the school day for students to silently read self-selected books. Also know as „Drop everything and read‟  (DEAR); „Our time to enjoy reading‟ (OTTER); „Read in bed, it‟s terrific‟(RIBIT)
    33. 33. Think, pair, share! How can EFL teachers develop Sustained Silent Reading in government schools?
    34. 34. 8. The Language Experience Approach
    35. 35. The language Experience Approach This approach is based on oral accounts of  the students‟ experiences, which are written down by the teacher (Shared writing). Students are then encouraged to read the  story. Individual words and vocabulary are  discussed and learned.
    36. 36. Methodology 1 - Whole class The teacher scribes an interesting event dictated by one or more student and writes it on the board to build up a text e.g. „I went to the doctor yesterday‟/We went on a trip to…
    37. 37. ‘Breakthrough to Literacy’ – Methodology 2- Individual/Group A commercial version widely used with children in Britain for first language literacy and South Africa for first and second languages. Children compose sentences, with their teacher, from a set of  word cards. They physically move the word cards by pacing them into a  plastic tray to make the sentence and placing a full stop at the end. The sentence is then read back to the teacher.  The child copies it down in his/her book.  Gradually, the child builds up a collection of words that are  known and moves to making several sentences. Once the sight vocabulary is established, small books are  introduced. (Cameron, p.147)
    38. 38. Key features for the EFL classroom Stories are personal, meaningful and culture-specific –it‟s their own  words Children are reading and writing at the „sentence level‟.  Children and teacher together compose sentences.  Print conventions and punctuation is taught from the start e.g.  directionality of print, spaces between words, capital letters and full stops. Words can have a physical reality, as the child moves words and puts  them together to make a sentence. The integration of speaking, writing and reading helps children to see  how texts are composed. (Cameron, p. 147)
    39. 39. Applicability to the EFL classroom “The most meaningful words for children are likely to be those they use in their own spoken and written language” (Gibbons, P. 1993, p.81). In light of the above quote, in groups, evaluate the 1. potential effectiveness of the Language Experience Approach in teaching reading in a foreign or second language. Brainstorm how would you deal with challenges of 2. time, large classes, mixed ability levels and classroom management when implementing this approach?
    40. 40. 9. Guided Reading
    41. 41. Guided Reading aims to… “Teach the skills and strategies that successful readers need using an organized program that includes grade-level reading selections, workbook practice, assignments and frequent testing” (Tompkins, G. 2006).
    42. 42. Guided Reading Video
    43. 43. Application to an EFL setting In groups, discuss the applicability of a Graded Reading Program to an EFL setting. Consider:  Implementation of a core reading scheme  Bottom-up approaches  Cultural, contextual and political considerations  Time constraints  Accessibility of materials/using alternative resources  The Eclectic Approach to reading
    44. 44. Ways to manage graded reading programs Set aside a weekly reading time  Devise ability groups  Engage in guided reading with groups of children,  rather than individually Change books regularly  Have book discussions/shares  Devise an informal record system.  Integrate with other approaches, e.g. independent  reading. Involve parents – notes, workshops. 
    45. 45. Graduate Perspective “I believe that guided reading is a great way to develop students reading and can help them be good readers. Teachers with good preparation, materials and enough time to apply the strategy shouldn‟t have problems applying the strategy”. Al Sada, M., (2008)Email correspondence
    46. 46. Graduate Perspective “However, this strategy might be bit unrealistic to be used in government schools, where teachers have to complete and cover a whole new curriculum which focuses on other things, for example, grammar, phonics, writing and vocabulary”. Al Sada, M., (2008) Email correspondence
    47. 47. Strengths Textbooks are aligned with grade-level standards.  Teachers teach strategies and skills in a sequential  program. Students learn how to read by practicing phonic and  word identification skills. Vocabulary is controlled.  Supports differentiation.  The teacher‟s guide provides ideas on teaching  reading. Assessment materials are included. 
    48. 48. Limitations Books may be too difficult for some EFL  students and too easy for others. Written in stilted and unnatural language -  may lack the authenticity of good literature. Vocabulary is controlled.  Many workbook assignments included.  Main focus is on skills, i.e. phonics, word  recognition, rather than on fluency.
    49. 49. Example Graded Reading Programs Oxford Reading Tree:   Sound Start  I,2,3, and Away  Ginn  New Way 
    50. 50. The Role of the Teacher Educator
    51. 51. The Role of the Teacher Educator Be a model of good practice  Use the „Think Aloud‟ technique  Make college learning realistic, contextualized and  meaningful Connect to the ADEC strands and indicators  Engage student teachers in systematic microteaching  Engage student teachers in problem-based learning  Connect to their previous learning experiences  Scaffold experiences through assisted performance,  guided participation and collaboration
    52. 52. Using Literacy Resources in the UAE: Publishers  Suppliers  Conferences  Foundations  Libraries  How could you use these resources to enhance your teacher education classes?
    53. 53. What type of text for EFL learners? Predictable   Rhythmic  Repetitive  Interactive  Visually attractive  Short and simple  Electronic
    54. 54. Think, Pair, Share. The teaching of EFL reading needs to adopt a balanced approach that incorporates bottom-up, top-down and interactive approaches. What are the practical implications of applying this in an EFL classroom? How can the teacher educator influence student teachers‟ beliefs, knowledge and practices?
    55. 55. Balanced Instruction Belief Systems and the Search for Balance Curriculum Perspectives Skills-Based Curriculum Whole Language Curriculum Instructional Approaches Phonics Reading Aloud Look-Say Shared Reading Choral Reading Language-Experience Reader‟s Theatre Guided Reading Achieving a Balanced Literacy Program
    56. 56. Conclusion
    57. 57. References Combs (1996) in Soderman, A.K., Gregory, K.M. & O‟ Neill, L.T. (1999) Scaffolding Emergent Literacy: A Child-Centred Approach for Preschool through Grade 5, Allyn & Bacon Publications, p.107-108. Gibbons, P. (1991) Learning to Learn in a Second Language. Primary English Teaching Association, Australia, ch. 7 „Reading in a Second Language‟. Harker, J. (2005) „Tea with the big bad wolf‟, Child Education, September, Scholastic, pp.28-29. Hyland, F. (2005) Shared reading tips for teachers leaflet. Peregoy, S. F. & Boyle, O. F. (2000) Reading, Writing, and Learning in ESL: A Resource Book for K-12 Teachers, 3rd ed. New York: Longman, p.253. Tompkins, G.E. (2006) Literacy for the 21st Century: A balanced approach, fourth edition, Pearson Publications, pp.338-352. Tierney, R.J. & Readence, J.E. (2000) Reading Strategies and Practices: A Compendium. Allyn & Bacon, pp.458-461.