Wine Production In Depth


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Wine Production In Depth

  1. 1. Equator 10°C (----) and 20°C (---) annual isotherms
  2. 2. Area of the world vineyard Area of the world vineyard Total in 1997: 7.8 10 hectares Total in 1997: 7.8 1066 hectares Europa not UE UE at 15 1 620 (21%) 3 259 (45%) Asia 1 448 (19%) America Oceania 799 (10%) 98 (1%) Africa 320 (4%) Source OIV:106 hectares
  3. 3. World wine production by country in hectoliters in 1999 Country rank Production 1999 % 32. NEW ZEALAND 601 966 0,214 Hectoliters 33. AZERBAIJAN 599 960 0,214 34. CYPRUS 554 957 0,198 1. FRANCE 60 230 251 21,439 35. SLOVAKIA 513 965 0,183 2. ITALY 58 068 448 20,670 36. MOROCCO 492 958 0,175 3. SPAIN 32 676 435 11,631 37. TUNISIA 467 977 0,167 4. UNITED STATES 20 210 424 7,194 38. ALGERIA 421 952 0,150 5. ARGENTINA 15 886 743 5,655 39. CANADA 370 968 0,132 6. GERMANY 12 295 043 4,376 40. TURKEY 277 970 0,099 7. AUSTRALIA 8 510 345 3,029 41. TAJIKISTAN 195 003 0,069 8. SOUTH AFRICA 7 967 387 2,836 42. KAZAKHSTAN 190 991 0,068 9. PORTUGAL 7 805 389 2,778 43. LEBANON 188 001 0,067 10. ROMANIA 6 503 501 2,315 44. LUXEMBOURG 183 989 0,065 total 230 153 965 81,924 45. BELARUS 182 967 0,065 11. CHINA 5 199 606 1,851 46. TURKMENISTAN 179 977 0,064 12. CHILE 4 806 609 1,711 47. LITHUANIA 150 000 0,053 13. GREECE 3 679 701 1,310 48. PERU 126 003 0,045 14. HUNGARY 3 338 749 1,188 49. LATVIA 114 004 0,041 15. BRAZIL 3 189 733 1,135 50. ALBANIA 104 996 0,037 16. BULGARIA 2 943 784 1,048 51. PARAGUAY 92 997 0,033 17. AUSTRIA 2 802 793 0,998 52. MADAGASCAR 90 991 0,032 18. RUSSIA 2 139 850 0,762 53. ISRAEL 90 007 0,032 19. CROATIA 2 093 824 0,745 54. ARMENIA 79 977 0,028 20. MOLDOVA 1 899 843 0,676 55. BOSNIA - HERCEG 54 012 0,019 21. UZBEKISTAN 1 499 882 0,534 56. MALTA 35 011 0,012 22. MEXICO 1 426 869 0,508 57. EGYPT 26 987 0,010 23. YUGOSLAVIA 1 399 882 0,498 58. BOLIVIA 19 985 0,007 24. SWITZERLAND 1 309 913 0,466 59. KYRGYSTAN 18 017 0,006 25. JAPAN 1 300 905 0,463 60. UNITED KINGDOM 12 983 0,005 26. MACEDONIA 1 226 908 0,437 61. ESTONIA 9 992 0,004 27. URUGUAY 1 049 921 0,374 62. BELGIUM 2 006 0,001 28. GEORGIA 829 937 0,295 COUNTRY TOTAL 280 909 907 99,991 29. CZECH REPUBLIC 749 960 0,267 OTHER COUNTRIES 24 981 0,009 30. UKRAINE 727 931 0,259 31. SLOVENIA 687 962 0,245 WORLD TOTAL 280 934 888 100,000
  4. 4. World wine production (source OIV 2000) Oceania Asia 3% America 3% 18% Africa 3% Europa 73%
  5. 5. World wine imports (source OIV 2000 ) Oceania 1% Asia Africa 4% 2% America 13% Europa 80% Country thousands of Hl % Germany 12 024,00 19,99 GB 9 631,00 15,56 France 5 583,00 9,28 USA 4 615,00 7,67 Russia 3 768,00 6,26 Netherlands 3 388,00 5,63 Belgium 2 210,00 3,67 Canada 2 194,00 3,65 Switzerland 1 817,00 3,05 Denmark 1 677,00 2,79 world total 60 166,00
  6. 6. World wine exports (source OIV 2000) Asia America 1% 10% Oceania Africa 5% 2% Europa 82% Country thousands of Hl % Italia 17797 27,49 France 15,85 23,3 Spain 8651 13,36 USA 2973 4,59 Australia 2849 4,4 Chile 2697 4,17 Germany 2537 3,92 Portugal 2100 3,24 Moldavia 1524 2,35 South Africa 1395 2,15 total world 64744
  7. 7. Total Wine Consumption (source OIV 2000) Asia America Oceania 4% 21% 2% Africa 3% Europa 70% Country thousands of Hl % France 32 900,00 15 Italia 30 800,00 14,04 USA 21 400,00 9,76 Germany 19 565,00 8,92 Spain 14 500,00 6,61 Argentina 12 749,00 5,82 GB 9 146,00 4,17 China 5 535,00 2,52 Russia 5 500,00 2,51 Romania 5 215,00 2,38 total world 219 357,00
  8. 8. Wine Classification 1. Classified by Fermentation Process 1.1 Natural Wine, 10-14 % alcohol (v/v) 1.2 Fortified Wine, 15-21 % alcohol (v/v) 1.2.1Sweet wine White wine : Muscatel, white port Rose wine: California tokay, tawny port Red wine: port, black muscat 1.2.2 Sherry Aged types, Flor sherry types, Baked types 1.2.3 Flavoured wines : Vermouth
  9. 9. Wine Classification(2) 2. Classified by Carbondioxide 2.1 Still wine, Table wine 2.2 Sparkling wine: Champange, Carbonated wine 3. Classified by Sweetness 3.1 dry wine 3.2 semi-dry wine 3.3 sweet wine
  10. 10. Wine Classification(3) 4. Classified by Colour White wine: Chablis, Chardonnay, Pinot blanc, Rhine wine, Riesling, Sylvaner, Treminer Rose wine: Rose, Vinorosso Red wine: Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Claret, Carnelian, Gamay, Pinot noir, Pinot St. George, Zinfadel
  11. 11. Wine Classification(4) 5. Classified by Place of Production 5.1 Classified by country : American wine, Australian wine, French wine, Italian wine 5.2 Classified by region: Bordeaux, Burgandy, California, Chablis
  12. 12. Grapes Family : Vitaceae Genus : Vitis European grape: Vitis vinifera 5000 cultivars Amirican grape: Vitis labrusca 2000 cultivars “Foxy” flavour or methyl anthranilate Vitis rotundifolia
  13. 13. Grapes (2) 1.Vitis vinifera 1.1 Muscat flavour White wine: Muscat blanc, Gold, Malvasia, Gianea, Muscat otonel,Orange muscat Red wine: Muscat
  14. 14. Grapes (3) 1.2 Flavour related to grape cultivars (except Muscat) White wine: White Riesling, Chadonnay, Emerald Riesling, Helena, Melon, Muller-Thurgau, Sauvignon blanc, Sylvaner Red wine: Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carnelian, Merlot, Nebbiolo, Durif, Shiraz, Pinot St. George, Ruby Cabernet, Tinta Madiera, Tinta Cao, Zinfadel
  15. 15. Grapes (4) 1.3 Flavour unrelated with grape cultivar White wine: Aligater, French Colombard, Green Hangarian, Grillo, Palomino, Thomson seedless, Veltliner
  16. 16. Exemples of Interspecific Varieties Baco noir Extremely vigorous variety which is best grown on heavy soils. Excessive vigor often occurs on light soils,. The fruit is usually high in acid and produce wines of good quality which are usually deeply pigmented but low in tannin content. Cascade is a productive and moderately hardy variety.. Wines are generally light in color and body with low acidity. Chambourcin is a late ripening grape which may produce a highly rated red wine when fruit fully matures. It requires a long growing season and a site less subject to low winter temperatures.
  17. 17. Exemples of Interspecific Varieties Chancellor was once widely planted in France for table wine production. It is moderately cold hardy and productive. In terms of wine quality, Chancellor is among the better French-American varieties. Chelois wine quality ranks highly among the French-American hybrids.. Chelois is suitable for blending with other red hybrids . Vines are healthy, vigorous and productive, De Chaunac is a very productive and vigorous variety.. Wine is only fair in quality and the vine is subject to soil borne virus problems. Because of shrinking demand, acreage has declined dramatically in recent years.
  18. 18. Exemples of Interspecific Varieties Maréchal Foch is a very early ripening black grape with small berries that produce a fruity light red table wine. The vines are hardy and medium in vigor and production. Maréchal Foch should be grafted on a resistant rootstock to ensure adequate vigor. Rougeon The wine is of high color and is used primarily for blending Villard noir is a late ripening, productive variety which, on favorable sites, produces good quality red wine. For best performance, choose a site with moderate winter temperatures and a long growing season. Grafted vines are recommended to improve vigor, especially on heavy soils.
  19. 19. Examples of Interspecific Varieties Vincent was released in 1967 by the Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario (HRIO) at Vineland, Canada. The vine is medium in vigor, very productive and ripens late. This dark blue grape produces a very dark juice that is useful for blending with varieties with low pigment content. Aurore is the most widely planted non-labrusca grape in New York. Processors have used Aurore to extend the harvest season since the fruit matures in late August and early September, before most other varieties are ripe.Wine quality is poor and it is being replaced by interspecific varieties of higher quality. The major use has been for bulk wine production, frequently blended with V. labrusca varieties.
  20. 20. Exemples of Interspecific Varieties Cayuga White, is one of the most productive and disease resistant varieties grown in New York. Its wine has been highly rated, having medium body, and good balance. An important positive attribute is its versatility; it lends itself to making semi-sweet wines emphasizing the fruity aromas, and is also made as a dry, less fruity wine with oak aging. When harvested early, it may produce a very attractive sparkling wine with good acidity, good structure, and pleasant aromas. Vidal blanc is a heavily productive white wine grape which produces good quality wine when the fruit reaches maturity. It requires sites with long growing seasons and moderate winter temperatures. Small berries are borne on very large, compact. Chardonel (Plant patent 7860) was named by Cornell University in 1990 due to superior performance. This cross of Chardonnay produces an excellent wine when fully ripened, with fruit aromas characteristic of Chardonnay and Seyval.
  21. 21. Vitis vinifera : Approximately 5000 Types of grape-varieties are described in the literature. However, about fifteen types of wines only are able to produce excellent wines almost everywhere in the world. •cabernet sauvignon •gamay •syrah •grenache noir •malbec •merlot •pinot noir •cabernet franc •chardonnay •gewurztraminer •sémillon •sauvignon • riesling • muscat • pinot gris Pinot noir
  22. 22. Concurrently to these grape-varieties exceptional, a few tens of others, excellent on their local soil (terroir), are not acclimatized easily elsewhere. Among the best of them, they are : •mourvèdre •nebbiolo •sangiovese •tempranillo •zinfandel •chenin •Furmint •palomino fino Pinot noir and chardonnay
  23. 23. Red cultivars : Cabernet sauvignon : Is associated with the finest European red wines like Bordeaux wines. The wine produce from this grape-variety is known as one of the world's finest red wines, with its depth of complexity and richness of flavour. Red Bordeaux wines are created with Cabernet Sauvignon, often blended with Cabernet Franc and Merlo.
  24. 24. Gamay noir : It is the primary black grape of France's Beaujolais region, where the wines are typically fermented, spared from aging, and consumed young to appreciate their fresh, fruity qualities, with more tang than tannin. Varietal aroma and flavours are similar to fruit (cherry, strawberry, raspberry) and floral ( violet, rose ). The wine produce by Carbonic Maceration have aroma and flavours like banana, bubblegum, cotton candy (spun sugar). After aging in oak barrel (rarely) : vanilla, coconut, sweet wood, oak, smoke, toast, tar flavours develop.
  25. 25. Nebbolio : It is the wine of the Piemont hills in the Northwest of Italia. It is the base of the Barolo's, the Barbaresco and several other Italian superquality wines . The wine will reach a deep and intense ruby red colour. This is a full body wine, with flavours of raspberry and violet and even liquorice.
  26. 26. Pinot noir : It is a "light red" wine, first planted by the Gauls, before the Roman invasion. The Pinot Noir grape is the main grape used in much of Burgundy, Champagne, and red Sancerre wine . A Pinot Noir's colour can be any of a range of colours from cherry red to puple red and even brown as the wine ages. Typical flavours include earth, leather, vanilla (from the oak), and jam. The fruity flavours of the jam often taste like raspberry, strawberry, and plum
  27. 27. Sangiovese : It is the primary grape used in Northern Italy in the region of Tuscany, to make Chianti and also for Brunello di Montalcino. Sangiovese produces wines that are spicy, with good acid levels, smooth texture and medium body. The flavour profile of Sangiovese is fruity, with moderate to high natural acidity and generally a medium-body ranging from firm and elegant to assertive and robust and a finish that can tend towards bitterness. The aroma is generally not as assertive and easily identifiable as Cabernet Sauvignon, but can have strawberry, blueberry, faintly floral, violet or plummy character.
  28. 28. Syrah : It is the only grape used to make the famous Rhône wines of Côte Rotie and Hermitage, but also forms the backbone of most Rhône blends, including Chateauneuf du Pape in the south of France. Syrah forms intense wines, with deep violet, nearly black colour, texture and richness, and often alcoholic strength, with aromas that tend to be more spicy than fruity. Varietal Aromas/Flavours: Fruit: black currant, blackberry Terroir: musk, civet, truffle, earth Floral: grass Herbal: sandalwood, cedar Processing Bouquets/Flavors: Oak (light): vanilla, coconut, sweet wood Spice: black pepper, licorice, clove, thyme, bay leaf Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast, tar Bottle Age: cedar, cigar box,
  29. 29. Tempranillo : It is originated in Spain, Rioja region. Also grown in Argentina and Portugal. Young Temparanillo has a distinctive strawberry and cherry flavour. When aged, tends to have a plummy spiciness overlaid with hints of vanilla oak.
  30. 30. Grenache : Grenache noir is the world's most widely planted grape used to make red wine, sometimes made into a stand-alone varietal, frequently as a rosé, but most often as a backbone of red blends. It is one of the primary grapes of Chateauneuf du Pape and used nearly exclusively for Rhône rosés and as a major component in many red Rhône blends in France. Varietal Aromas/Flavours : Fruit: black currant, blackberry Character: rustic, fleshy, sweet, dusty. Processing Bouquets/Flavors : Oak (light) vanilla, sweet wood. Oak (heavy) oak, smoke, toast, tar. Bottle Age: tobacco, dried apricot, cigar box.
  31. 31. Malbec : Malbec is popular in Argentina and Chile. While it once was also grown in Bordeaux, it is rarely used here in modern years. Malbec is now the dominant red varietal in the Cahors (France) area. The Appellation Controlée regulations for Cahors require a minimum content of 70%. In Argentina it is almost the most-planted red grape, and is the third most planted in Chile. This black grape creates a rustic, mid-bodied wine, but is most often used in blending with other wines. One of the traditional "Bordeaux varietals", Malbec has characteristics that fall somewhere between Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. A midseason ripener, it can bring very deep colour, ample tannin, and a particular plum-like flavour component to add complexity to claret blends.
  32. 32. Merlot : It is by far the most widely planted grape of the entire Bordeaux region and third, behind carignan and grenache as the most planted black variety in France. It is the basis of the wines of St. Emilion and Pomerol. Château Petrus (most expensive Bordeau) is over 90% Merlot. Merlot usually plays a supporting role in typical Medoc blends with Cabernet sauvignon and Cabernet franc. It is to the American wine consumer in the 1990s as "burgundy" was in the 70s. Less than 2,000 acres existed in California in 1985; there are over 12,000 acres today. Varietal Aromas/Flavours : Fruit: currant, black cherry, plum . Spice: caramel, clove, bay leaf, green peppercorn Herbal: bell pepper, green olive Floral: violet, rose Processing Bouquets/Flavours: Bottle Age: truffle, mushroom, earth, coffee,leather, cedar, cigar box. Oak (light): vanilla, coconut, sweet wood. Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast, tar.
  33. 33. Cabernet franc : Recent studies in ampelographyhave determined that Cabernet franc is one of the genetic parents of Cabernet sauvignon (the other is sauvignon blanc). Both Cabernet varieties are among the five major grapes of Bordeaux. There are Cabernet franc vineyards in Romania, Hungary, the Balkans, north eastern Italy). New in Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina. In the United States, Cabernet franc is planted in Long Island, New York, and in Washington state. California has about 2,000 acres, mostly planted since 1980. Varietal Aromas/Flavours: Fruit: raspberry, cherry, plum, strawberry. Floral: violet . Herbal: bell pepper, stems. Processing Bouquets/Flavours: Oak (light): vanilla, coconut, sweet wood. Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast, tar. Bottle Age: musk, mushroom, earth, cedar, cigar box.
  34. 34. White cultivars : Chardonnay : Is ther most well-known wthite cultivars. Its popularity comes from its consistent production of an appealing fruit fragance. Chardonnay also produce Champagne, the finest sparkling wines and the finest Burgundy wines like Meursault. Varietal Aromas/Flavours: Stone Fruits: apple, pear, peach, apricot. Citric Fruits: lemon, lime, orange, tangerine. Tropical Fruits: pineapple, banana, mango, guava, kiwi. Floral: acacia, hawthorn. Terroir: flint, mint. Processing Bouquets/Flavours: Malolactic: butter, cream, hazelnut Oak (light): vanilla, sweet wood, coconut Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast, lees, yeast.
  35. 35. Gewürztraminer : It is one of the most pungent wine varietals, easy for even the beginning taster to recognize by its heady, aromatic scent. It is one of the major vareities used for Alsace wines in France near Germany, bout also in Germany and in Italy's Tyrollean Alps. Varietal Aromas/Flavours: Floral: rose petal, gardenia, honeysuckle. Fruity : lychee, linalool, peach, mango. Aggressive: spice, perfume. Processing Bouquets/Flavours: Petroleum: terpene, diesel. Wood: oak (not usually) Late Harvest: Botrytis, honey, sweet cabbage.
  36. 36. Semillon : It is the majority white variety in Bordeaux, Graves, and Sauternes,There are more in Chile than anywhere else on earth. Early in the viticultural development of Australia, Semillon dominated as the major white variety. Semillon grapes make up 80% of the blend in the most expensive and famous late-harvest wine in the world, Château d'Yquem. It seems the favorite foil of Botrytis Cinerea, the noble rot which concentrates the sugars, flavours and aromas of Sauternes wines in France (Bordeaux). Varietal Aromas/Flavours: Fruity: fig, lemon, pea.r Spice: saffron. Herbal: grass, weeds. Vegetal: bell pepper, asparagus. Processing Bouquets/Flavours : Botrytis: apricot, quince, peach, honey, pineapple, vanilla, candy. Malolactic: butter, cream. Oak (light): vanilla, sweet wood. Oak (heavy): oak, smoke, toast.
  37. 37. Sauvignon : Is the major white cultivar in bordeaux and the upper Loire valley in France.It is popular in California and New Zeland. Although, it often shows green peeper and herbaceous odours, better clones possess subtil floral character.
  38. 38. Riesling : Because of both its cellar longevity and its ability to maintain varietal identity while reflecting the individuality of its terroir, Riesling may be the best of all the white wine grapes. Its homeland is Germany. Finest Late harvest wines are produced (noble rot) in Germany : Trockenbeerenauslese. The best German vineyards on the Mosel River produce riesling wines that are unique in their low alcohol, powerful aroma, and high extract. This grape also is very successful in Alsace (France), California, Washington and Oregon, but also Australia, South Africa, Chile, Austria, Switzerland, Russia, Yugoslavia, and Italy. Varietal Aromas/Flavours: Floral: woodruff, rose petal. Stone Fruits: apple, pear, peach apricot. Tropical Fruits: (not usually). Growing & Processing Bouquets/Flavours: violetPetroleum: terpene, diesel. Mineral: flint, steel, gun metal .
  39. 39. Muscat : Muscat is a very ancient variety and, with its strong and distinctive perfume, was probably one of the first to be identified and cultivated. Nearly every Mediterranean country has a famous wine based on Muscat and varying from light and bone dry, to low-alcohol sparkling versions, to very sweet and alcoholic potions. Varietal Aromas/Flavours: Perfume: terpine. Spice: coriander. Fruit: peach, orange. Processing Bouquets/Flavours: (best if not aged in wood)
  40. 40. Pinot gris : probably is the best-known "white" variant- clone of Pinot Noir. Ripe pinot gris grapes may be described as having colours from bluish grey to light pinkish brown. The main base of Pinot gris appreciation is Alsace in France and Friuli in Italy. In Alsace, the Pinot gris grape is called tokay d'Alsace (no relation to the Hungarian Tokay). Riesling is produced also in California and Oregon. Varietal Aromas/Flavours: Floral: (vague) Fruit: apple, pear. Processing Bouquets/Flavours: Oak: vanilla, sweet wood, smoke. Malolactic (unusual): butter, cream.
  41. 41. Grapes (5) 2. Vitis labrusca “Foxy” flavour or methyl anthranilate White wine: Niagara, Diamond, Dutchess, Elvira, Missouri, Riesling Noah Red wine: Concord, Agawam, Black pearl, Campbell’s early, Catawa, Clinton, Delaware, Diana, Iona, Isabella, Ives, Niabell, Steuben, Vergennes
  42. 42. Grapes (6) 3. Vitis rotundifolia fruit flavour and muscadine flavour White wine: Scuppesviong, Topsail, Willard Red wine: Burgaw, Eden, Hunt, James, Thompson 4. Hybrid grapes White wine: Verdelet, Vidal blanc, Vigonoles Red wine: Baco noir, Beta Cascade, Chombourcin, Chancellor, Colobel, Landal, Rosette, Royalty, Salvador
  43. 43. Harvest method : Manual : •traditional method preserves the fruit integrity. Some cultivars (Semillon, Muscat) are crushed so easily that unacceptable juice loss occurs during mechanical harvesting. •possibility to sort good berries specially for botrytised late harvest grape. •In France,few appellation control wines (Champagne), mechanical harvest is forbiden.
  44. 44. Mechanical : Advantages : •1 - one machine works equivalent to 80 workers. •2 - fruit harvest under almost any weather conditions or any time of the day can save a crop, when conditions demand rapid harvest. •3 - grape can be quickly deliveried to the winery for processing without deterioration of the fruit, especially, in hot and humid conditions (fungi, bacteria) Disadvantages : •1 - the most important is that leaves are present in the harvested grape gives undesirable herbaceous flavours, bitterness, and astringent wines. •2 – impossible sort.
  45. 45. Two movements are possible According the type of Harvester. Horizontal vibration Vertical vibration
  46. 46. Grape after mechanical harvest
  47. 47. Yeast • Wild Yeast -Candida colliculosa -Candida pulcherrima -Hansennula anomala -Kloeckera apiculata • Wine Yeast -Saccharomyces carlsbergensis -Saccharomyces cerevisiae -Saccharomyces capensis or fermentati
  48. 48. Fermentors • Open Fermentor • Close Fermentor • Materials of Fermentor Cement Pond with Glazed Tiles Wood Barrel Fiber Glass Barrel Stainless Barrel Glass Bottle
  49. 49. Raw material Preparation Grape Stemming Add KMS 100 ppm (0.01%) Crushing & Pressing Must Fermented Must & Pressed Fermented White Wine Rose wine & Red wine
  50. 50. Crushing and stemming harvest stalk Crushed and stemmed grape
  51. 51. Crushing
  52. 52. stemming
  53. 53. Pressing
  54. 54. Fermentation Grape must & pressed Bottling 10% Starter Improve quality Ferment for 3-5 days (Soluble Solid: 5-6 obrix) Wine KMS 50 ppm (0.005%) Sediment Separation Separation (filtration, Centrifugation, Siphon) Maturing (1 Month) Lees, Sediment Wine KMS 50 ppm (0.005%) fermentation 2 weeks Sediment Separation Precipitated
  55. 55. Alcoholic fermentation sugars Carbon dioxide + Ethanol 180 g 88 g Carbon dioxide + 92 g Ethanol glucose fructose Microorganism : Saccahromyces cerevisiae Note : •They are few (102 UFC/g) or no yeast cells on ripe fruits, perhaps, they are air contaminant or carried by insects. •The inocculum appears to be the winery. Strains isolated from wine are typically identical to that isolated from equipment in winery.
  56. 56. Fermentation : Spontaneous fermentation produces different wines in relation with the diversity of indigenous yeast strains. Advantages of using selected yeast strains : •Rapid fermentation with limitation of spoilage by undesirable yeasts, bacteria or moulds (killer) •Total consumption of sugars •Standardization of the process and the wines •Resistance to high level of alcohol •Low level of sulfur dioxide synthesis •No synthesis of malate •No or few foaming production •Good viability after drying
  57. 57. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Microscopic fungi : •Aerobic or anaerobic •Optimal growth temperature : 28° C •Haplo-diplobiontic •Weak Pasteur effect (inhibition of the fermentation by oxygen) •Strong glucose effect (repression of the respiration,[glucose<1g/l])
  58. 58. Conclusions O2 pressing White cinnamic acids must Must enzymatic oxidation browning extraction cinnamates whine flavanols browning stilbènes O2 Skin maceration
  59. 59. Macération : red musts Maceration for a long time at 24 to 27° C Higher O°C increase extraction of phenolic compounds (pigments, tanins, aromas) essential for red wines characters Fermentation begin during macération : ethanol is the major solvant for pigment and tanin extractions
  60. 60. Performances of the turbo-pigeage
  61. 61. Macération : red musts Maceration and fermetation occurs in conjunction CO2 produced from the fermentation process is traped as little bubbles in the mass of stems and grape skins, eventually making them float to the surface, creating a cap, or “chapeau” in French. chapeau Once float to the surface, the juice is no longer in contact,therefore, the necessary colours and flavours are no longer extracted.
  62. 62. Macération : red musts There are seven different methods of vinifying red wine to have the best extracting colour, aromas and tannins from the grape skins : •1 - The traditional french pigeage or punching the cap down, consists of stamping the grapes with the feet. Today, many equipments exist like turbo-pigeage.
  63. 63. Macération : red musts •2 -. Submerged cap process : the juice is placed in a tank below a stainless steel screen that will keep the skins and stalks below the surface of the juice. The best version of the submerged cap incorporates a chimney in the middle of the screen, allowing the gas to escape and keeping the skins and stalks free.
  64. 64. Macération : red musts •3 - :pumping over : the juice is pumped out from the bottom of the vat and sprayed into the top onto the skins and stalks. The juice extracts colour as it falls through the cap. pump
  65. 65. Macération : red musts • 4 Autovinificator: Algeria in the 1950s, there was often no power in the far reaches of the countr., It resembles a big box with three layers inside. The top layer is a trough with a tube where juice comes out and another where it falls back in. The middle layer is where the grape stalks and skins are placed, and where the tube allowing juice back in stops. The bottom layer is where all the fermenting juice is placed. As the carbon dioxide gas pressure from fermentation increases, juice is sent up the tube that empties into the trough at the top until the juice level falls below that of the gas escape tube. The pressure drops and the juice that is now in the trough falls back through, onto the cap and back into the fermenting juice, and the process continues.
  66. 66. Macération : red musts •4 Autovinificator: While, this is an extremely efficient method, it does not allow for temperature control and there is also a risk of oxidation for the juice. It is frequently used in Portugal to make Port, where extracting as much colour as possible in a very short time is necessary to the best quality of the final wine.
  67. 67. Macération : red musts • 5 rotary fermenters : Similar to a cement truck, rotary fermenters are vats with paddles inside. Turning the fermenter in one direction uses the paddles to mix the juice and grape skins, and turning ito the anther direction will empty the fermenter . These fermenters tend to be very good with difficult grapes, such as Pinot Noir, that has relatively smaller amounts of colour pigments found in the skin.
  68. 68. Macération : red musts •6 thermovinification : - It easy to extract colour by heating up the juice and skins to 60 to 75°C for about 20 minutes. -It used to improve colour extraction from pale colour grape varieties. - Thermovinification favours rapid fermentation - The must is pressed immediately after heating up and only the juice is fermented. -The negative side of this process is the prodcution of a cooked flavour and bluish tint to the colour
  69. 69. Macération : red musts •7 Carbonic maceration (Beaujolais nouveau) :is used during primary fermation to produce light red wines with low tannins, intense colour, and fresh, fruity flavours and aromas should be consumed early. • Two fermentations take place during the carbonic maceration process, temperature is about 30° - 32°C. First inside the grapes themselve, anaerobic metabolism of berries is favoured. Second the usual fermentation by yeast.
  70. 70. The carbonic maceration process begins by dumping whole bunches of freshly picked, uncrushed grapes into the large vats filled with carbon dioxide and selected yeast. In this process : The bottom grapes are crushed by the weight of the grapes above them, and fermentation begins with the exuded juice Fermentation develops more carbon dioxide gas, which envelops the upper layers of uncrushed grapes and blocks the air exposure that normally would occur. Fermentation begins within the whole grapes, and in free run juice. . Finally, the whole batch is pressed, and fermentation is finished in a usual way.
  71. 71. Transformations during carbonic maceration : 20% of the fruit may be ruptured to release juice. During the initial phase, autolysis of cellular structures leads to 35 – 55% ruptured fruits. Alcoholic content in berry (alcoholic fementation) increases to reach 2.5 % that stop all berry metabolisms (after 6 to 8 days) Activation of the shikimic acid patway occurs with accumulation of aromatic phenolic compounds such as, ethyl cinnamate, benzaldehyde, vinyl benzene and esters, salicyclic acid, eugenol, ethyl or methyl vanillates, guaiacols, phenols Increase in ammonium content and availability of amine acids explain rapid inception and complétion of alcoholic fermentation
  72. 72. Carbonic maceration…. Second phase occurs at low temperature (18 to 20 °C ) To preserve fruity flavour of wines. Alcoholic fermentation usually complete within 48 hours. Advantages of carbonic maceration : 1 - Development of a unique fruity bouquet and mild taste (when transform grape with little unique varietal aroma). Carbonic maceration enhance the expression of varietal aromas such as Syrah or Marechal foch 2 - Early maturing character of the wines. Wines are enjoyable only a few weeks after production (vins primeurs in french are consumed in November, 2 months after harvest.
  73. 73. Carbonic maceration…. Disadvantages of carbonic maceration : 1- Rapid loss of the fruity aroma that chracterize the process. Shelf life is only about six months to a year. 2 - Need to harvest manually 3 - Tie up fermentor space at harvest time.
  74. 74. Pressing : Pressing separates the juice or partially vinified wine from seeds and skin of the must. Batch press : vertical or horizontal, requires repeated cycle of filling, pressing and dumping. Continous press : more efficient and more rapid than batch press. They run without interruption. Juice is added at one end and pressed pomace is ejected at the other end. Advantages Disadvantages : - High pressure is usualy required in continous-press operation, often extract excessive amounts of suspensded solids. - 0.1 to 0.5% suspended solid favours rapid and complete fermentation, but higher level leads to add high level of sulfite and difficult to clarify.
  75. 75. Pressing : To achieve better control of the levels of suspended solids, most premium wine producers use either horizontal or pneumatic presses. This press applies pressure more uniformly over a large surface, permitting the use of lower pressure. During pressing, they are several cyles, each is separated by a crumbling. Crumbling breaks up the pressed pomace and permits easier extraction of the entrapped juice/wine. Note : -The individual pressed fraction is often kept for individual fermentation. - in red wine making, the latter pressing fractions contain the highest concentration of pigments and tanins. -It is possible to blend these different wines to produce desired wine.
  76. 76. Pressing : In Champagne traditional vertical presses are used. One batch presses about 4,000 Kg of grape. Three batches yield 1,666 l of must. Horizontal Press Vertical Press
  77. 77. Continous Press Designed as a traditional Champagne Press
  78. 78. New pneumatic vertical press (firm Coquard, Champagne) with out crumbling Special feature : a perfect,very fast break-up of the grape marc due to the rotating perforated tray
  79. 79. Horizontal pneumactic press firm Willmes (Germany) go back
  80. 80. Post fermentation practices Maturation in Oak Heating oak staves over an open fire soften the wood and ease stave bending
  81. 81. Post fermentation practices Maturation in Oak The firing induces the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses and converts sugars released from hemicelluloses in furan aldehydes such as furfural, 3- (hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde Note : because of the considerable expensiveness associated with barrels and maintenance, one option is the use of long oak stips.
  82. 82. Post fermentation practices Maturation in Oak Wine maturation in new oak cooperage is often used to add elements of flavour complexity ( boisé in Franch )
  83. 83. Post fermentation practices Maturation in Oak : •White oak species : Quercus alba, Q. robur, Q. sessilis, they are different in aromatic and tanin compositions among these different species. •More than 200 aromatic constituents have been isolated. •Two thirds of the compounds those dissolve into wine are phenolic compounds.
  84. 84. Post fermentation practices Maturation in Oak : Phenolic compounds are : •Ellagitanins : polymer of gallic acid / glucose dimers. •Ferrulic and p-coumaric acids •Lignins : (with wine) break down to release a wide range of phenolic aldehydes such as : vanillin, syinaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde. (vanilla fragrance associated with prolonged aging in oak)
  85. 85. Post fermentation practices Maturation in Oak : •Other compounds are : •Oak lactones : isomers of 3-methyl-g-octalactone and γ-nonalactones.
  86. 86. Colour Change in Wine ๏ Red colour of Anthocyanins - Vitis vinifera : monoglucoside - Vitis rotundifolia: 3, 5 diglucoside Factors that effect colour in red wine 1. Period of colour extract 2. Oxygen ( Not over 40 mg. / L. -year ) 3. Temperature 4. Acidity & Basidity 5. Period of maturation ( 3 year in barrel or bottle will lost Anthhocyanins about 50% )
  87. 87. Turbidity in wine • Suspended substant • Microorganisms • Tannin • Protein ( Molecular weight: 40,00-200,000; pl 4.8-5.7 )
  88. 88. Wines Appellation Control Law in France : L'INAO (National Institute of the Labels of Origin), Is a public etablishment instituted by the law of July 30, 1935. Its missions : recognition of the labels of Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC), and labels of origin of higher quality, Vins De Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) the different labels or designations are: AOC : Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée AOVDQS : Appellation d'Origine : Vin délimité de Qualité Supérieure Vins de pays Vins de table In E.U there are two classifications of wine : VQPRD : Wine of quality produced in determined region Vins de table
  89. 89. AOC :'Verified Place of Origin' these wines are the finest, and are scrupulously regulated. They are typical and specific wines whose characteristics are linked to : geographical origin (french term=terroir) grape variety viticultural practices maximum yield by hectare techniques of winemaking minimum alcohol content physico-chemical analysis tasting Today : 90,000 wine growers have their activity based on AOC production. The surface production is of 459,740 Ha, ie 51% of the whole French vineyard. Volume production is 3 billion bottles, 41% of the total production The sales of AOC wine exceeds 61 Billion francs, export exceed 30 billion francs.
  90. 90. Cork
  91. 91. Questions??
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