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The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
The Wines Of France
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The Wines Of France


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  • 1. The Wines of France
    Some of the World’s Best
  • 2. The Bordeaux Connection
    The Soul of the Wine Industry
  • 3. Classification System
    Napoleon III called for classification before 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris
    Promoted by the Gironde Chamber of Commerce
    Bordeaux Wine Brokers' Union
    Only part of region was classified
  • 4. The Implications
    Set certain Bordeaux wines apart from others
    Set Bordeaux as the premiere wine production area
    Limits potential for up and coming vineyards
    Maintains control by a select few
  • 5. French Wines Laws
    Vin de Table
    Vin de Pays
    Vin Délimite de Qualité Supérieure
    Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée
  • 6. Vin de Table
    Primarily the southern regions
    Produced using safe procedures
    No quality standards
    12% of total production
  • 7. Vin de Pays
    Conversion from vin de table
    Higher price and demand for better wines
    Removal of less desirable vines
    Regional tasting panel approval
    Grown in region from recommended varieties
    Regions, departments, zones like….
    New England, New Hampshire, Seacoast
    Roughly 33% of total
  • 8. Vin Délimite de Qualité Supérieure
    VDQS wines roughly 3% of total
    Produced from slightly higher yielding vines that AOC
    A step toward AOC classification
  • 9. Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée-(Controlled Naming of Origin)
    Roughly 52% of total
    Region, district, village, single vineyard
    Grapes grown within the names area
    Grapes approved for that area
    Reach a set alcohol level
    Meet yield per acre standards
    Maintain specific viticulture practices
    Tested by taste and chemical analysis
    Also crus designations
  • 10. Terroir
    These four elements combine to produce the unique character that goes into each wine
  • 11. Bordeaux in Brief
    Fermented by lot
    Blended to yield best potential wine of that vintage
    Cabernets strong on left bank
    Merlots strong on right bank
    A typical offerings when one variety fails
    Cabernet Franc grown minimally
    Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc primary whites
    Second labels offer great value
  • 12. Top Players
    St. Julien
    St. Estephe
    St Emillon
  • 13. Margaux
    Châteaus in all 5 cru classifications
    1 first growth
    4 second growth
    Château Margaux
    75% cab 25% merlot
  • 14. St Julien
    St. Julien
    5 second growth
    Deep-rooted vines
    balance of opulence and austerity
    Château Ducru Beaucaillou
    75% cab, 20% merlot, 8% cab franc
  • 15. Pauillac
    3 First growth
    2 second growth
    Classic rich flavor
    black current and cassis
    pencil box
    Château Lafite Rothschild
    70% cab, 20% merlot, 10% cab franc
    Château Mouton-Rothschild
    76% cab, 13% merlot, 9% cab franc, 2% petit verdot
  • 16. St Estephe
    St. Estephe
    2 second crus
    Very deep rooted vines
    high tannin but softening of late
    longer to soften
    Chateau Cos d’Estournel
    60% cab, 38% merlot, 2% cab franc
  • 17. St Emillon
    Gravel and limestone
    Higher merlot content
    Drinkable young or cellar
    Château Cheval Blanc
    60% cab franc, 40% merlot
  • 18. Pessac-Leognan
    better graves
    minerally reds
    Chateau Haut Brion
  • 19. Pomerol
    deep clay
    creamy & seductively rich
    Chateau Pétrus
    Average vine over 40 yrs.
  • 20. Sauternes
    Dry or sweet
    one vine= one glass
    three pressings
    >20 degrees sugar
    10 years
  • 21. Alsace & Loire
  • 22. Alsace- On the border of Germany
    The geography and turns of historical events shape the wines of this region
  • 23. History
    1870 End of Franco Prussian War… Alsace becomes German territory
    1918 End of WWI…Alsace becomes French
    1945….German again
    Always a French flare for wine making and matching with cuisine
    Increasing move toward dryer wines
  • 24. Alsacian Wine Region
    70 miles long, avg. 1 mile wide
    vines hang on eastern slope of Vosges
    600-1500 ft. elevation
    slow ripening...low heat summation
    influenced by Rhine river
    extension of German Pfalz
    wines more vinous than German cousins
  • 25. Alsace- A Single AOC
    Strong German Influence
    Typically, label carries grape variety
    Sparkling=Cremant d’Alsace
    10% Pinot Noir
    90% White
    Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Pinot blanc
  • 26. Alsatian Wine
    Dry yet fruity Muskat
    Rieslings dryer than Germany
    Gewurtztraminer that’s spicy, light bodied, & slightly sweet
    Pinot blanc in small quantities
    Some Tokay
  • 27. Loire Valley Region
  • 28. Loire
    Grape Varieties
    Chenin Blanc
    Cabernet Franc (red)
    Four Regions
    Western (Nantes)
    Central (Anjou & Saumur)
    Upper (Touraine)
    Jura & Savoie
  • 29. Nantes
    ~1635 Burgundians introduced Melon grape
    Survived –20C temps in 1709
    Became known as Muscadet
    First appellations
    Muscadet de Sèvre et Maine
    Muscadet des Coteaux de la Loire
    1972 compulsory tasting instituted to grant or deny use of appellation
  • 30. Anjou & Saumur
    Vineyards begun in middle ages
    Monks played major role
    Canalization of tributaries important for trade
    Anjou known for rose wines
    Different grapes in each sub region
    Cabernet in Cabernet d’Anjou
    Grolleau in Rosé d’Anjou
  • 31. Anjou & Saumur
    Saumur is known for….
    Sparkling wines made from red (primarily cabernet franc) and white (primarily chenin) grapes
    Campigny made from cabernet franc
    Reds from cab and cabernet franc
    Whites primarily from chenin blanc grape
  • 32. Touraine
    Most credit to monks in 300’s AD
    Numerous sub-areas-
    Chinon= primarily red from cab franc, deep red
    Vouvray solely from chenin grape to produce a dry to semi-sweet wine
    Touraine primarily gamay from reds and sauvignon for whites
  • 33. Centre
    Evidence to the first century
    Major development in 12th century
    Sancerre best known sub-region
    Sancerre grape for white
    Some pinot noir for rose
  • 34. Burgundy
  • 35. Burgundy in Brief
    100 miles SE of Paris..225 miles long
    6 major districts
    111,000 acres of AOC wines
    27+ million cases each year
    15% of France’s AOC output
    Great Wine….Montrachet
    Popular Wine….Beaujolais
  • 36. Labeling of Wines
    Small vineyards
    Bottling & distribution primarily by negociant-eleveur
    Self-bottlers = domains or clos
    e.g. Mis en Bouteille au Domaine
    Limited quantities, high prices
    Best wines carry name of vineyard
  • 37. Labeling of Wines
    Single vineyard= Grand Crus
    Best communes= Premiere Crus
    Communal level= Village names
    Regional level=
    Bourgogne, Bourgogne Ordinaire, Bourgogne Passe-Tous-Grains
    Grape variety= major distinguishing feature
  • 38. By the Sub-Regions
    7 grand crus, 17 premier crus
    Chablis, Petit Chablis
    northern location, limestone, south facing vineyards
  • 39. Continuing South
    Cote de Nuits-3.2%
    Gevrey Chambertin, Nuits St. George
    25 grand crus
  • 40. Further South
    Cote de Beaune-6.9%
    15 Grand crus
    Beaune, Pommard, Puligny-Montrachet
    Cote Chalonnaise-2.1%
    increased plantings since 1980
    primarily pinot noir and chardonnay
    Vlgs- Mercurey, Montagny
  • 41. Still further South
    white equivalent of Beaujolais
    68% chardonnay, 25% gamay, 7% pinot noir
    Vlgs- Pouilly-Fuisse, Macon-Villages
  • 42. Most Southern
    largest area in Burgundy
    14.8M cases red, 98K cases white
    gamay grape country
    half of the production is consumed domestically
  • 43. Beaujolais- 35 m. long 5-10 wide
    Haut Beaujolais…including
    Crus Beaujolais= 25% of total
    39 Beaujolais Village=25%
    Bas Beaujolais….
    Beaujolais Superieur total of 50%
    Beaujolais Nouveau 3rd Thursday of November each year
  • 44. The Rhone
    From Avignon to Vienne
  • 45. A Bit About the River
    Much of the river is canalized
    Agriculture and industry share the shore
    Dozens of medieval cities line its banks
  • 46. The Region
    Divided into
    Northern Rhone
    Single varietal wines (Syrah)
    Temperate climate, fair rainfall
    Southern Rhone
    Blended wines
    Mediterranean climate
    Côte du Rhone term used throughout
    Côte du Rhone Village reserved for defined area
  • 47. Northern Rhone
    Top appellations:
    Condrieu, Cornas
    St. Joseph
  • 48. Northern Rhone
    Syrah grape predominates
    Some viognier
    Marsanne and Roussanne for white Hermitage
  • 49. Southern Rhone
    Top appellations:
    Cotes du Rhone
    Cotes du Rhone Village
    Grenache grape predominates
    Syrah and Mourvedre used for blending
    Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulenc are the primary white grapes
  • 50. Chateauneuf-du-Pape
    A favorite that feel from grace in the 1980’s
    Now staging a comeback
    Primarily grenache but blended with up to 13 other wines
    320 domains produce this wine today
  • 51. Vermouth
    Red or White
    Originally aged in casks at sea
    Now aged in seaside courtyard
    Barrels left loosely corked
    Speeds aging
  • 52. Vermouth
    Herbs and other botanicals blended with wine to impart subtle flavor
    White vermouth as aperitif or mixed in martini
    Red vermouth in Manhattan or on the rocks
  • 53. Champagne
    We cover Champagne in a separate presentation along with sparkling wines