Introduction to Wines of theIntroduction to Wines of the
WorldWorld
Sherry, PortPort, and Fortified Wines
SHERRY PRODUCTIONSHERRY PRODUCTION
Spain
THE WORLD WINE PRODUCING AREASTHE WORLD WINE PRODUCING AREAS
EQUATOR
50N
30N
30S
50S
Wine Producing Areas
AUSTRALIA
NEW
ZE...
France Germany Italy Spain Portugal
QUALITY WINES (QWPSR)
Appellation d’Origine
Contrôlée
(AC/AOC)
Qualitätswein mit Prädi...
SherrySherry
In the southwest of Spain in the province of
Andalusia,- land of Tapas
Influenced by the Phonecians in 1100...
Sherry, Xeres, JerezSherry, Xeres, Jerez
Sherry, also listed as Xeres, or Jerez can all be
labeled on Sherry bottles and ...
Palomino, MoscatelPalomino, Moscatel
and Pedro Ximenezand Pedro Ximenez
Palomino is the main
grape variety,
comprising ab...
SoilsSoils
The soil plays an important role in the quality and
characteristics of the wine
3 types of soil in Jerez:
1. ...
Palomino
grape
cluster
Pedro
Ximenez
grapes
Moscatel Grapes
Soil Samples from Jerez DO
Harvesting the GrapesHarvesting the Grapes
 Mediterranean climate summer heat often above 100ºF
- moderated by Atlantic O...
FermentationFermentation
Initial fermentation is about a week to ten days
– very tumultuous – fermented to dryness
Light...
FlorFlor
A yeast called "flor" (flower) develops on the
surface of the Sherry resting in the casks
Flor grows on the win...
SoleraSolera
The solera is formed by multiple rows of
600 liter old American oak barrels- butts
The stack is four or fiv...
Soleras and CriaderasSoleras and Criaderas
 The solera system oak casks rest in bodegas
 Bodegas are high-roofed buildin...
Only 30 PercentOnly 30 Percent
Sherry is not the product of any one
year, the solera system ensures that and
by law only ...
Fino and ManzanillaFino and Manzanilla
Fino and Manzanilla - dry styled sherries
are made by allowing the flor to bloom i...
AmontilladoAmontillado
Amontillados - Fino sherries fortified to
17% then into another solera without flor
Amber-colored...
OlorosoOloroso
Made with slightly higher alcohol fortified so
that flor could not exist
Amber to mahogany in color, with...
Palo CortadoPalo Cortado
A bright mahogany-colored wine, with a bouquet
suggestive of hazelnuts and a dry palate.
specia...
Cream Sherries &Cream Sherries &
Pedro XimenezPedro Ximenez
Olorosos that are sweetened up to 15
percent with Pedro Ximen...
MARSALAMARSALA
Vin Santo
MarsalaMarsala
Marsala Sicily’s fortified wine
DOC in and around the seaside town of
Marsala
Dry to sweet styles
Quali...
GrapesGrapes
White grape varieties:
a) Grillo
b) Catarratto Bianco
c) Inzolia
d) Damaschino
Red grape varieties:
a) Perr...
Oro, Ambra, RubinoOro, Ambra, Rubino
Three colors of Marsala
oro (golden)
ambra (amber)
rubino (red) – the rarest
Eac...
Types of MarsalaTypes of Marsala
Fine: 17° alcohol, aged 1 yr
Superiore: 18° alcohol, aged 2 years
Superiore Riserva: 1...
Marsala PairingsMarsala Pairings
Marsala was traditionally served between
the first and second courses.
It is now also s...
Vin SantoVin Santo
Vin Santo – Tuscany’s fortified wine
Some comes from the surrounding
regions
“Holy Wine” – discovere...
GrapesGrapes
White varieties:
a)Malvasia
b)Trebbiano
c)San colombano
Dried grapes fermentedDried grapes fermented
More than three months (usually January,)
good, unmolded grapes are selected...
MADEIRAMADEIRA
Portugal
MadeiraMadeira
Madeira - a small, island and province of
Portugal
375 miles west of Morocco and about
500 miles from Por...
EstafugemEstafugem
Estafugem - process Madeira goes
through to produce it’s unique character
Method involves heating the...
Oxidative QualityOxidative Quality
Allowed to oxidize as it heats up - head
space left in each barrel
May be aged for 20...
Grape VarietiesGrape Varieties
Red grapes:
a)Tinta Negra Mole
White grapes
a)Sercial
b)Verdelho
c)Bual
d)Malmsey (Malvas...
Styles of MadeiraStyles of Madeira
 Sercial, the driest, is made from grapes of the same
name that are grown in the coole...
Quality LevelsQuality Levels
Bulk, - usually 1 -2 years old
Rainwater – 3 years old
5, 10 and 15 year old - solera made...
Port
PortPort
Portugal is the home of port, although the firms
that produce port were started and run by the
British. The town...
Oporto city
PortPort
Port comes form only one region
70 mile-long Port region in the Douro River
valley
More than 83,000 vineyard p...
GrapesGrapes
Touriga National: deep color, tannic, strong
black fruit character - High quality
Touriga Francesa: lighter, ...
FermentationFermentation
 Rapid extraction of color, still traditionally done by
treading, but now more commonly done by ...
MaturationMaturation
 Following the next spring, wine
is transferred to the shipper’s
lodges inVila Nova da Gaia
 The mi...
Barcos RabelosBarcos Rabelos
 Oporto in northern Portugal is well known for its
characteristic wine sailboats, the "Barco...
Styles of PortStyles of Port
There are 10 different styles of port,
although all port falls into one of two
major categor...
Port Styles are divided into two categories:Port Styles are divided into two categories:
Bottle aged and Wood agedBottle a...
Young Ruby PortsYoung Ruby Ports
Ruby ports is the least complex style of
the reds and the least expensive as well
Also ...
Aged Ruby PortsAged Ruby Ports
 Late Bottled Vintage Traditional : from a
single vintage, bottled unfiltered at four year...
Young Tawny PortsYoung Tawny Ports
Young tawny ports like ruby ports are
less than three years old and
uncomplicated. The...
Aged Tawny PortsAged Tawny Ports
Aged tawny ports are designated on the label
as, either 10, 20, 30 or 40 years old
Agin...
Vintage PortVintage Port
Vintage port represents only 2 to 3
percent of the total production and is
make only in very goo...
Crusted PortCrusted Port
Crusted Port is named because of the
heavy crust or sediment in the bottle.
Blends of 3 or 4 ye...
Understanding LabelsUnderstanding Labels
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

2,666 views
2,477 views

Published on

1 Comment
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • From Madeira Island, lets not forget one of the best fortified wines of all; Madeira Wine. So lets have some Madeira my dear!
    www.madeirawine.info
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,666
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
74
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
211
Comments
1
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ports Sherries And Fortified Wines

  1. 1. Introduction to Wines of theIntroduction to Wines of the WorldWorld Sherry, PortPort, and Fortified Wines
  2. 2. SHERRY PRODUCTIONSHERRY PRODUCTION Spain
  3. 3. THE WORLD WINE PRODUCING AREASTHE WORLD WINE PRODUCING AREAS EQUATOR 50N 30N 30S 50S Wine Producing Areas AUSTRALIA NEW ZEALAND SOUTH AFRICA RUSSIA CHINA NORTH AFRICA EUROPE CANADA NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA CALIFORNIA CHILE BRAZIL ARGENTINA
  4. 4. France Germany Italy Spain Portugal QUALITY WINES (QWPSR) Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée (AC/AOC) Qualitätswein mit Prädikat (QmP) Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) Denominación de Origen Calificada (DOCa) Denominação de Origem Controlada (DOC) Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) Denominación de Origen (DO) Vin Delimités de Qualité Supérieure (VDQS) Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiet (QbA) Vinhos de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica (VCIG) Indicação de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR) TABLE WINES Vin de Pays (VdP) Landwein Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) Vino de la Tierra (VdlT) Vinho Regional (VR) Vin de Table (VdT) Tafelwein Vino da Tavola (VdT) Vino de Mesa (VdM) Vinho de Mesa (VdM)
  5. 5. SherrySherry In the southwest of Spain in the province of Andalusia,- land of Tapas Influenced by the Phonecians in 1100 BC Xera, the Phonecian name for the region where the modern city of Jerez in Spain is now located. 711 AD - Moorish occupation of Spain began and lasted for 5 centuries History of trade with England Fortified wine for storage and travel
  6. 6. Sherry, Xeres, JerezSherry, Xeres, Jerez Sherry, also listed as Xeres, or Jerez can all be labeled on Sherry bottles and all refer to the wine known in English as Sherry Jerez is the D.O. (Denomination of Origin) Fortified wine - sherry’s alcoholic level is raised to between 15 and 22 percent with the addition of neutral spirits Allowed to oxidize to varying degrees depending on the type of the wine being made Flavors can vary from very dry to ultra sweet
  7. 7. Palomino, MoscatelPalomino, Moscatel and Pedro Ximenezand Pedro Ximenez Palomino is the main grape variety, comprising about 95 percent of all sherries Pedro Ximenez, a sweeter grape, also made into a sherry by the same name Moscatel (Muscat) also used
  8. 8. SoilsSoils The soil plays an important role in the quality and characteristics of the wine 3 types of soil in Jerez: 1. Albarriza – (alba – white from Latin) 2. Barro – Clay 3. Arena – Sand The amount of calcium carbonate is the difference The higher the calcium carbonate present the better the soil is for the wine The richest deposits of calcium carbonate are found in the Albarriza zone Calcium carbonate can range from 30% to 80%
  9. 9. Palomino grape cluster Pedro Ximenez grapes Moscatel Grapes Soil Samples from Jerez DO
  10. 10. Harvesting the GrapesHarvesting the Grapes  Mediterranean climate summer heat often above 100ºF - moderated by Atlantic Ocean westerly breezes  Palomino and Pedro Ximenez grapes thrive in this climate  Roots search deep into the earth for water from spring rains  Hot climate produces massive clusters of grapes  Concentrated sugars by picking late
  11. 11. FermentationFermentation Initial fermentation is about a week to ten days – very tumultuous – fermented to dryness Lightly fortified and racked into casks Three basic types of Sherry – a) Fino b) Amontillado c) Oloroso The Cellar master will taste each wine looking for “attributes” to classify it
  12. 12. FlorFlor A yeast called "flor" (flower) develops on the surface of the Sherry resting in the casks Flor grows on the wines destined to become Finos, leaving the wine very dry and crisp Flor grows less fully on the Olorosos and Amontillados After maturation(usually one or two years), wines are placed in a solera for aging
  13. 13. SoleraSolera The solera is formed by multiple rows of 600 liter old American oak barrels- butts The stack is four or five rows of barrels high The solera may contain as many as fourteen rows
  14. 14. Soleras and CriaderasSoleras and Criaderas  The solera system oak casks rest in bodegas  Bodegas are high-roofed buildings, quiet and cool, where the wines have time to slowly mature  When wine is needed for bottling, a little is drawn off from the oldest casks called the "soleras"  The soleras are topped-up with wine drawn from the next oldest casks  Each row of criaderas is re-filled from the one above it  "running the scales" - "canoe" and "sprinkler"  - protecting the flor  The wine in barrel begins to “Educate" the Sherry added to it
  15. 15. Only 30 PercentOnly 30 Percent Sherry is not the product of any one year, the solera system ensures that and by law only 30percent of the solera can be drawn off each year
  16. 16. Fino and ManzanillaFino and Manzanilla Fino and Manzanilla - dry styled sherries are made by allowing the flor to bloom in the barrels Required alcohol content is 15% - 19% abv (up to 18% in Finos) Finos are made inland where it is drier Manzanillas must be made on the humid coast in Sanlúcar de Barrameda
  17. 17. AmontilladoAmontillado Amontillados - Fino sherries fortified to 17% then into another solera without flor Amber-colored - aromas of hazelnut, mildly tangy, soft fruit and full in the mouth, - alcohol content of between 16º and 22º
  18. 18. OlorosoOloroso Made with slightly higher alcohol fortified so that flor could not exist Amber to mahogany in color, with a strong aroma reminiscent of walnuts, full-bodied, with an alcohol content of between 17º and 22º. Oloroso sherries go through the solera more slowly – developing deep caramel flavors May be dry, or it may be lightly sweetened with a bit of the juice from Pedro Ximenez wine
  19. 19. Palo CortadoPalo Cortado A bright mahogany-colored wine, with a bouquet suggestive of hazelnuts and a dry palate. special style – comes from an early transition from development under flor to oxidative After a few months development under flor, it is fortified to 18-20% abv - halfway between Amontillado and Oloroso A Palo Cortado is recognized by an aroma similar to Amontillado - body more like Oloroso high content of malic acid leads to a malolactic fermentation - lactic quality in this style Alcohol content varies between 17º and 22º.
  20. 20. Cream Sherries &Cream Sherries & Pedro XimenezPedro Ximenez Olorosos that are sweetened up to 15 percent with Pedro Ximenez are known as cream sherries Richer - with sweet dried fruit intensity and thicker bodies Pedro Ximenez - another type of Oloroso made from Pedro Ximenez grapes - can be as sweet as late harvest or ice wines and thicker in texture
  21. 21. MARSALAMARSALA Vin Santo
  22. 22. MarsalaMarsala Marsala Sicily’s fortified wine DOC in and around the seaside town of Marsala Dry to sweet styles Quality Marsala is labeled “superiore” or “vergine”  Usually fortified to 17 or 18% abv Made in a Solera
  23. 23. GrapesGrapes White grape varieties: a) Grillo b) Catarratto Bianco c) Inzolia d) Damaschino Red grape varieties: a) Perricone b) Calabrese c) Nerello d) Mascalese e) Nero d’Avola 
  24. 24. Oro, Ambra, RubinoOro, Ambra, Rubino Three colors of Marsala oro (golden) ambra (amber) rubino (red) – the rarest Each can be made with all the different levels of sweetness each is fortified to 17 or 18 percent
  25. 25. Types of MarsalaTypes of Marsala Fine: 17° alcohol, aged 1 yr Superiore: 18° alcohol, aged 2 years Superiore Riserva: 18° alcohol, aged 4 years Vergine Soleras: 18° alcohol, aged 5 years  Vergine Stravecchio - highest level allows no cotto, and a minimum of 10 years of wood aging
  26. 26. Marsala PairingsMarsala Pairings Marsala was traditionally served between the first and second courses. It is now also served, chilled, with Parmesan (stravecchio), Gorgonzola, Roquefort and other, spicy cheeses
  27. 27. Vin SantoVin Santo Vin Santo – Tuscany’s fortified wine Some comes from the surrounding regions “Holy Wine” – discovered in 1439 It’s full bodied, but still light, and is classically combined with biscotti or fruit
  28. 28. GrapesGrapes White varieties: a)Malvasia b)Trebbiano c)San colombano
  29. 29. Dried grapes fermentedDried grapes fermented More than three months (usually January,) good, unmolded grapes are selected and pressed Liquid - put in small barrels out of cherry, oak or chestnut wood- 'caratelli' Filled up to 75% - sealed with cement allows high pressure to develop during fermentation Fermentation is slow - three years high alcohol content of approximately 16% abv
  30. 30. MADEIRAMADEIRA Portugal
  31. 31. MadeiraMadeira Madeira - a small, island and province of Portugal 375 miles west of Morocco and about 500 miles from Portugal Fortified wine usually 17 to 20 % abv Neutral grape spirits are added to the wine before it is finished fermenting
  32. 32. EstafugemEstafugem Estafugem - process Madeira goes through to produce it’s unique character Method involves heating the fortified wines to an average temperature of 105 degrees F for three to six months The best Madeiras will age this way for 25 years or more - only about 3 percent of all Madeiras
  33. 33. Oxidative QualityOxidative Quality Allowed to oxidize as it heats up - head space left in each barrel May be aged for 20 years or more after the heating process but before blending and bottling. Some Madeiras are 40 years old or more
  34. 34. Grape VarietiesGrape Varieties Red grapes: a)Tinta Negra Mole White grapes a)Sercial b)Verdelho c)Bual d)Malmsey (Malvasia) Grape names are also used to designate various styles of Madeira
  35. 35. Styles of MadeiraStyles of Madeira  Sercial, the driest, is made from grapes of the same name that are grown in the coolest vineyards at high altitudes  Verdelho, the medium-dry style is made from verdelho grapes grown in warmer vineyards. The style is more full-bodied than the sercials  Bual is a medium-rich style that comes from the bual grapes grown in warmer vineyards, these produce concentrated madeiras with rich sweetness  Malmsey, the richest, sweetest style coming from malvasia grapes that are grown in the warmest locations closest to sea level
  36. 36. Quality LevelsQuality Levels Bulk, - usually 1 -2 years old Rainwater – 3 years old 5, 10 and 15 year old - solera madeiras Vintage madeiras.
  37. 37. Port
  38. 38. PortPort Portugal is the home of port, although the firms that produce port were started and run by the British. The town of Oporto is where port derives it’s name. This major port City on the Atlantic and at the mouth of the Douro River was a perfect export city for centuries. Wine needed to be fortified by neutral grape spirits in order to be transported by ships throughout the 15th, 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. This led indirectly to the discovery of Port.
  39. 39. Oporto city
  40. 40. PortPort Port comes form only one region 70 mile-long Port region in the Douro River valley More than 83,000 vineyard properties in the Douro, owned by about 28,500 growers Divided into three sub-zones, from west to east a) Lower Corgo b) Upper Corgo c) Douro Superiore Better quality ports come from the Upper Corgo and the Douro Superiore which extends to the Spanish border.
  41. 41. GrapesGrapes Touriga National: deep color, tannic, strong black fruit character - High quality Touriga Francesa: lighter, refined and fragrant Adds softness and roundness Tinta Roriz: fresh, lighter color, adds structure and length, red cherry aroma Tinta Barroca: deep color, high sugar content Tinta Cao: fine flavor, adds structure for age ability
  42. 42. FermentationFermentation  Rapid extraction of color, still traditionally done by treading, but now more commonly done by robotic treading or punch down  Quick fermentation to between 6-9 degrees of alcohol  Fortification with grape spirits  Results in a stopped fermentation with about 10% residual sugar and finished alcohol of around 20%
  43. 43. MaturationMaturation  Following the next spring, wine is transferred to the shipper’s lodges inVila Nova da Gaia  The milder and damper climate is better suited for ageing  Based on the quality of the base wine, length of barrel maturation and optional filtration a variety of styles are available
  44. 44. Barcos RabelosBarcos Rabelos  Oporto in northern Portugal is well known for its characteristic wine sailboats, the "Barcos Rabelos" used to ship Port downstream from the vineyards.  The journey was dangerous, but even despite the introduction of the Port train in the late 1800's, the Barcos Rabelos continued to be used for transporting Port until the 1960's.  These days, the famous boats are used for an annual race, held in Oporto in June every year.
  45. 45. Styles of PortStyles of Port There are 10 different styles of port, although all port falls into one of two major categories: Ruby : bottled aged ports Tawny : wood aged ports
  46. 46. Port Styles are divided into two categories:Port Styles are divided into two categories: Bottle aged and Wood agedBottle aged and Wood aged
  47. 47. Young Ruby PortsYoung Ruby Ports Ruby ports is the least complex style of the reds and the least expensive as well Also known as fine ruby these ports are almost never aged in bottle and are released immediately
  48. 48. Aged Ruby PortsAged Ruby Ports  Late Bottled Vintage Traditional : from a single vintage, bottled unfiltered at four years. Requires ageing.  Vintage Port: only in exceptional years, highest quality Port (less than 2% of all Port production) Bottled after two years in cask, requires long (15-20 years) ageing  Single Quinta: similar to vintage but from a single vineyard. Produced in years when a full vintage declaration is not sought
  49. 49. Young Tawny PortsYoung Tawny Ports Young tawny ports like ruby ports are less than three years old and uncomplicated. They are usually not in contact with the skins of the grapes for very long and some are blended with white ports.
  50. 50. Aged Tawny PortsAged Tawny Ports Aged tawny ports are designated on the label as, either 10, 20, 30 or 40 years old Aging in oak for the average of the amount of time listed on the label Colheita: Vintaged Tawny - matured in cask for a minimum of eight years
  51. 51. Vintage PortVintage Port Vintage port represents only 2 to 3 percent of the total production and is make only in very good years Shippers declare a vintage - aged for 2 years in barrel and then in bottle by the shipper and the consumer The first vintage ports were listed around 1734
  52. 52. Crusted PortCrusted Port Crusted Port is named because of the heavy crust or sediment in the bottle. Blends of 3 or 4 years and bottled unfiltered.
  53. 53. Understanding LabelsUnderstanding Labels

×