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I D E O Design Manual

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  • 1. hear Book 1 of 3
  • 2. Designing meaningful and innovative solutions that serve your customers begins with gaining deep empathy for their needs, hopes and aspirations for the future. The Hear booklet will equip the team with methodologies and tips for engaging people in their own contexts to delve beneath the surface. Goals of this book are to guide: » Who to talk to » how to gain empathy » how to capture stories hear: goals Toolkit for Human Centered Design 1
  • 3. hear: outputs At the end of the Hear phase, you’ll be prepared to go into the field to conduct design research by completing the worksheets in your Field Guide: » Recruiting Plan » Research Schedule » Identity, Power & Politics » Group Interview Guide » Individual Interview Guide Outputs of the Hear Phase are: » Farmer stories » observations of farmer reality » Deeper understanding of needs, barriers, & constraints Toolkit for Human Centered Design 2
  • 4. hear: theory Qualitative design research methods enable the design team to gain deep empathy for people they are designing for, to question assumptions, and to inspire new solutions. At the early stages of the process, design research is generative — used to inspire imagination and inform intuition about new opportunities and ideas. In later phases, these methods can be evaluative—used to learn quickly about people’s response to ideas and proposed solutions. What will qualitative research methods do? Qualitative research can uncover deeply-held needs, desires, and aspirations. It is particularly useful in early-stage research to test assumptions about the world, and when we cannot assume that the researchers already know the entire universe of possible answers, beliefs, and ideas of the participants. Qualitative methods can help unveil people’s social, political, economic, and cultural opportunities and barriers in their own words. Qualitative research can also be powerful for analyzing and mapping the relational dynamics between people, places, objects, and institutions. This is possible because phenomena in the social world tend to be internally related (that is, they are mutually-dependent and co-constituted). By examining the extreme ends of a set of phenomena, the entire universe of relationships can be illuminated since every other instance will fall somewhere on the map of relations and links. Once a set of relationships are identified, they can be interrogated using interpretive methods or further refined for quantitative testing. What will qualitative methods not do? Qualitative methods will not determine “average” behaviors/attitudes or answer questions such as: “Are people in X region more likely to do this than in Y region?” This is because qualitative methods do not cover a sample large enough to be statistically significant. Deep understanding, not broad coverage, is the strength of qualitative research. In later phases of the design process, quantitative research becomes a good complement to understand, for example, the breadth of potential adoption of a new solution. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 3
  • 5. h C D Facilitator notes time: 1-1.5 Hours Difficulty: Step 1: Work with leadership to identify a list of criteria for the challenge. (i.e. Does iDentiFy a it need to fit into a certain timeframe? Design Challenge Does it need to have a geographical or The foundation of HCD is a concise Design Challenge. This topical focus? Does it need to fit into challenge will guide the questions you will ask in the field an existing initiative? resesarch and the opportunities and solution you develop Does it need to explore later in the process. A Design Challenge is phrased in a new opportunities?) human-centered way with a sense of possibility. For example: Step 2: With leadership “How can we empower first-time vegetable farmers through or the design team, the right mix of products, services and know how?” make a list of the challenges your organization is facing. The Design Challenge can be decided by leadership or can Step 3: Re-frame those be developed through a team-based approach. In either case, challenges from the begin by identifying challenges your organization is facing or farmer’s point of view and broader context. tip springboard off opportunities you are interested in exploring. #1 Narrow this list down to one specific design challenge. Step 4: Vote or select the top two or three challenges based on your criteria. The challenge you choose may be related to technology adoption by farmers. This might lead to framing a design Step 5: Narrow to one challenge that is technology- or organization-focused, such challenge with input from key stakeholders. WatCh as “How can we get farmers to adopt artificial insemination?” out Instead, to act as a springboard to the innovation process, Step 6: Write a succint, the challenge should be re-framed in a more human-centered one sentence Design way, such as “How can we support farmers in expanding their Challenge to guide the design team. breeding practices?” Toolkit for Human Centered Design 4
  • 6. iDentiFy a Design Challenge a good Design Challenge should be: » Framed in human terms (rather than technology, product, or service functionality) tip #2 » Broad enough to allow you to discover the areas of unexpected value » Narrow enough to make the topic manageable Start the design challenge with an action verb such as “Create”, “Define”, “Adapt”, etc. Or phrase the challenge as a question starting with: “How can...?” try Toolkit for Human Centered Design 5
  • 7. h C D iDentiFy a Design Challenge h In Ethiopia, the design challenge was defined through a series of different Case stuDy steps. First a small core team – the country director and IDE corporate staff — determined a set of criteria and short list of important challenges. Armed with this information, the country director and design team developed a set of criteria for the design challenge. This criteria was: » Limited enough to complete the challenge in 3-4 days » Focused on farmer needs » Broad enough discover what is desirable to farmers Next, the team listed all the challenges they wanted to pursue. The country director then gave the team some information about the conversation between the core team which helped to focus the choices. Referring back to the criteria the team developed, the challenges were narrowed through a democratic vote. The top three were: » What can we offer farmers who don’t have enough rainwater access? » What are the best ways to communicate IDE offerings to farmers? » What makes farmers say yes? The team discussed the possibilities and decided that the second and third were actually closely related. So the team re-phrased the Design Challenge to become: “Define the appropriate approach for reaching a larger number of smallholder farmers with IDE offerings.” After more discussion and a final vote, this challenge was selected. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 6
  • 8. h C D Facilitator notes iDentiFy people time: to speak With 30-60 mins. Difficulty: Recruiting appropriate and inspirational participants is critical. Attention to gender, ethnicity, and class balance is crucial for research. Step 1: Develop the spectrum along For research meant to inspire new opportunities, it is useful to which to recruit. Generate several find people who represent “extremes.” Extreme participants options (i.e. High help to unearth unarticulated behaviors, desires, and needs of income to low income, the rest of the population, but are easier to observe and identify early adopter to because they feel the salience of these issues more powerfully risk averse, large than others. By including both ends of your spectrum as well as landholder to landless). Individually some people in the middle, the full range of behaviors, beliefs, or collectively narrow and perspectives will be heard even with a small number of to one or two relevant participants. Including this full range will be important in the spectrums to make later phases, especially in constructing robust frameworks and sure “extremes” are covered in the providing inspiration for brainstorming. research. Step 2: Identify the Some communities may be resistant to male NGO staff relevant locations to recruit participants. interviewing women. Make sure female staff help recruit & Ask stakeholders to interview women. list good areas genDer conducive for this research. Pick 2-5 field sites that vary from one another (i.e. a dry and a wet site or a site One-third of participants should be “model farmers”: those in a central district and one more remote). who are successful, adopt new technologies quickly, and/or exhibit desirable behaviors. Step 3: tip Select appropriate One-third of participants should be on the opposite extreme: community contacts those who are very poor, resistant to new technologies, and/or to help arrange exhibit problematic behaviors. community meetings and individual One-third of participants should be somewhere in between: those interviews. Make sure who the researchers believe represent more “average” farmers. community contacts include men & women. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 7
  • 9. h C D iDentiFy people to speak With Group sessions are a great springboard to identify participants for the individual interviews. However, communities often want to showcase only model farmers or male farmers WatCh to NGOs. out To satisfy the economic spectrum from the more well off to the very poor, you might ask: » “Can you introduce me to a family who cannot afford tip to send their children to school?” » “Who has not been able to afford maintenance or repairs to their home?” » “Who has experienced a recent setback (medical problems, bad harvest, etc)?” Refer to the Field Guide (p. 3) to help guide your recruiting. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 8
  • 10. h C D Choose researCh methoDs Design research is useful to not only understand individuals but also frame individual behaviors in the context and community that surrounds them. Therefore, it will be important to employ many methods of research. In addition to the methods described in this book, secondary sources and quantitative data can be supplemented to understand income or asset variances across different regions. Three qualitative methods described here are: » Individual Interview » Group Interview » In Context Immersion Facilitator notes time: 60-90 mins. methoD: inDiviDual intervieW Difficulty: Individual interviews are critical to most innovation research, Step 1: After your since they enable a deep and rich view into the behaviors, team has written reasoning, and lives of people. If possible, arrange to meet the Interview the participant at his/her home or workplace, so you can see Guide (see Step 4), them in context. In-context interviews give the participant practice the greater ease and allow you to see the objects, spaces, and individual interview by partnering in people that they talk about in the interview. teams of two. One person plays the role of the interviewer and the other the If there are many people on the research team, no more interviewee. Ask the than three people should attend any single interview so as teams to go through to not overwhelm the participant and/or create difficulty in a “practice interview” WatCh accommodating a large group inside the participant’s home. with their partner. out Step 2: Ask the team what they learned through this exercise. Are there any topics Refer to the Step 4: Develop an Interview Approach to create or questions that a set of questions for your individual interviews. are missing? Toolkit for Human Centered Design 9
  • 11. h C D Choose researCh methoDs The interview should be conducted without an audience, since the presence of neighbors, friends, or others can sway what the person says or what they are able to reveal. Privacy tip can often be difficult to accomplish, however. One tactic to #1 accomplish privacy is to have one person on the research team pull the observer(s) aside and engage them in a parallel conversation in a place where the primary interview cannot be heard. assign the following roles so that each person has a clear purpose visible to the participant: » one person to lead the interview tip #2 » a note taker » a photographer Toolkit for Human Centered Design 10
  • 12. Choose researCh methoDs Facilitator notes methoD: time: 1.5-2 Hours group intervieW Group-based interviews can be a valuable way to learn Difficulty: about a community quickly. Group interviews can be good for learning about community life/dynamics, understanding Step 1: After the team general community issues, and giving everyone in a develops a Group Interview Guide community the chance to voice their views. (see Step 4), have the team partner in Group interviews are not good for gaining a deep groups of two for a understanding of individual income streams, uncovering practice interview. Ask what people really think, or understanding how to change the interviewers to commonly-held beliefs or behaviors. develop an approach for including women and quieter members of the group. Ask guidelines for group meetings: them also to develop strategies for asking Size: 7-10 people from diverse economic backgrounds people who may Place: Meet on neutral ground in a shared community space be dominating the tip conversation to #1 that all people have access to (regardless of age, gender, allow other people status, race). to answer. Gender: Mixed or same-sex groups depending on the Step 2: Have the team customs in that community (if men and women should meet share “best practices” separately, two facilitators can run the groups in parallel). for including quieter members of the group Age: Mixed groups of parents and teens/children, depending and redirecting the on the topic and local context. conversation away from people who are dominating the conversation. Are the viewpoints of men and women equally valued in this community? If not, it may make sense to have two meetings, one with women only and one with men only. WatCh out Are political heavyweights (such as chiefs, local administrators, etc) present? If so, their opinions may hamper the ability of others to speak freely. Does the community view your NGO as a source of funds, gifts, or charity? If so, their interactions may be influenced by the desire to access potential benefits; it may be helpful to prepare an introduction that makes the purpose of the interview clear and state that nothing will be given away. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 11
  • 13. h C D Choose researCh methoDs NGOs can sometimes unintentionally send a message of separateness by wearing branded NGO clothing and creating spatial distance between themselves and the participants. tip It’s important to lessen these barriers and to disrupt common #2 hierarchical perceptions of benefactor/researcher and recipient/participant. Here are some tips: » Sit at the same height level as the participants » If there is more than one researcher, don’t sit together; stagger yourselves throughout the group » Try not to wear organization-branded clothing that signifies your status as benefactor or researcher » Emulate the same status of clothing as participants (note: this does not mean wearing “traditional dress” if this is not your heritage) Refer to the Step 4 : Develop an Interview Approach to identify questions for the group. Toolkit for Toolkit for Human Centered Design Human Centered Design 12 12
  • 14. Choose researCh methoDs Facilitator notes time: 2-4 Days Difficulty: methoD: in Context immersion Step 1: To plan a homestay, identify Meeting people where they are and immersing yourself in their farmers willing to context reveals new insights and unexpected opportunities. host a researcher for one-to-three nights Human-Centered Design works best when the designers in their home. understand the people they are designing for not just on Depending on local an intellectual level, but also on an experiential level. Try to customs, level of do what your customers do and talk to them about their safety, and language barriers, team experience of life in the moment. members can stay in homes individually or partner up in groups of two to three people. On a project in rural India, people said that cultural tradition prevented women from touching men who are not immediate Step 2: Make sure the family members. However, by spending several days in a team understands genDer village, the team observed that there were many instances that the goal of this exercise is to see how in which trained or uniformed women doing specific jobs farmers live day-to- were able to touch men without any serious problems. These day. Advise your team gaps between what people say and what they do are not not to bring elaborate bad. In fact, seeing these differences may highlight new gifts, food, or alcohol to the homestay. opportunities; for example, designing a new medical service Of course, a small offering that could be provided by uniformed women. gift of ordinary household supplies or help with normal family expenses is perfectly fine. Work alongside Step 3: Tell Spend a few hours to a few days working with a farmer. teammembers to By experiencing the business and activity firsthand, you participate with try may gain better understanding of their needs, barriers, the family in their #1 and constraints. normal routines. Ask the team to spend time with and talk to the men, women, and children Family homestay in the household. It’s important to see Ask a farming family to host 1-2 team members for a few how the household nights in their home. Staying for a few nights allows the family works from all these try to gain comfort and act naturally. After the second night, different perspectives. #2 very few people can maintain a “show” for guests, and the understanding and empathy the team will gain will increase the longer you stay in one place. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 13
  • 15. h C D Choose researCh methoDs What people say (and think) they do and what they actually do are not always the same thing. With no intent to mislead you, people often have strong beliefs about what they do on a daily basis that differs from what they actually do. The goal is not to correct or point out the misperception, but rather to understand the difference. putting yourself in someone’s shoes enables you to get beyond what people say to what they think and feel. Being in-context means gaining true empathy through being with people in their real settings and doing the things they normally do. This kind of deep immersion gives us Informed Intuition that we take back with us to design solutions. We begin to take on the perspective of the interview participant which enables us to make design decisions with their perspective in mind. Of course, we always go back into the field and get feed-back from the source to see if our Informed Intuition led us to the right choices. Deep immersion shows commitment and staying power Working with a farmer for a day in his or her field, living with a family for a few days or helping them bring their products to market are ways of showing your deep interest in the day-to-day lives of your participants. Trust is built over time and people feel at ease sharing their plans and hopes for the future. Many NGOs gain this depth of connection over many months of relationship building. Some techniques like the overnight stay described in the case study on the next page can accelerate this trust building. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 14
  • 16. Choose researCh methoDs h ov e r n i g h t s tay i n t h e F i e l D Case stuDy The design team stayed overnight in Arsi Negelle, Ethiopia, where they plowed the family’s fields the next morning. The overnight enabled the team to get beyond ‘the script’ and learn about one farmer’s most itimate plans for the future. They visited a farmer named Roba the first evening and once again the next day. When they first met Roba, he portrayed an overall sense of hopelessness. He described things that happened TO him, in particular the government’s recent land redistribution. Some farmers received land in the irrigated area near the lake. Some did not. He was in the latter group. The next day, he was shocked to discover that the team was still there. His demeanor had changed completely. He knew the team was committed. This time, he shared that in fact he did have a plan for pulling his family out of poverty. If he could secure a $200 USD loan, he would first buy an ox so he wouldn’t have to trade two days of his own labor to borrow a neighbor’s. Then he’d rent a piece of land in the irrigated territory and purchase improved seed...He no longer viewed the team as a wealthy NGO who was there to provide a free gift, but rather a partner in how he could take command of his own future. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 15
  • 17. h C D Develop an intervieW approaCh Interviewing is an art that balances the dual needs of getting relevant information from the customer and engaging with them as a curious and empathetic friend. Intentionally developing your strategy for interviewing is key to managing this balance. Here we include three interview methods that may help you to develop the interview approach right for you: » Interview Gude » Sacrifical Concepts » Interview Techniques methoD: Facilitator notes intervieW guiDe time: The semi-structured interview is a key method of enabling 1-2 Hours dialogue and deep engagement with participants while retaining focus on a particular topic. Thoughtful structuring of Difficulty: the interview questions will take the participant on a mental journey from the specific to the aspirational to the actionable. Step 1: Generate a list of topics related to your design challenge Create your own in your Interview Guide at the back of your to cover in field research. Field Guide based on model below. Step 2: Sort the topics based on what are the main categories and ope n speCiFiC sub-categories. Warm up the participant with questions they are Step 3: Identify if comfortable with. any topics are tip 1. Farm demographics specific to male or 2. Who does what in the household? female activities. 3. Stories of recent past Step 4: Break into g o B r oa D groups of two. Take Prompt bigger, even aspirational, thinking that they each main category and assign a group may not be accustomed to on a daily basis. to generate a list of 4. Aspirations for the future questions to ask in 5. System-based questions the field based on the topics listed in p r o B e D e e p the main category. Dig deeper on the challenge at hand & prompt Step 5: Have each with ‘what if’ scenarios. group present their 6. Income sources questions to the larger 7. Questions specific to innovation challenge team and add any 8. Sacrificial Concepts additional questions that may be missing. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 16
  • 18. Develop an intervieW approaCh Begin by brainstorming the topical areas you’d like to cover during the interviews, like » sources of livelihood try #1 » sources of information » financing models Use post-its to capture questions that respond to these topics. For ‘sources of information,’ one might ask: » When you have a setback on your farm, who do you try #2 go to for advice? » Have you heard about new ways of farming in the past year? How have you heard about them? Move the post-its around to sort the questions into a logical flow based on the sequencing of START SPECIFIC, GO BROAD then PROBE DEEP. try #3 Toolkit for Human Centered Design 17
  • 19. h C D Develop an intervieW approaCh Facilitator notes time: 30-60 mins. Difficulty: Step 1: Based on your Design Challenge, identify an abstract methoD: question you would saCriFiCial ConCepts like to know the answer to. Pose the Scenario-based questions or Sacrificial Concepts can help abstract question to make hypothetical or abstract questions more accessible. your partner, and note A sacrificial concept is an idea or solution created to help the response. understand the issue further. It is a concept that doesn’t have Step 2: Now turn the to be feasible, viable, or possible since its only purpose is abstract question into deeper understanding. a concrete scenario with two options. Pose your scenario-based question to your Abstract concepts difficult to answer for many partner. people include: Step 3: Now change » Questions about risk, insurance, and guarantees a few of the variables tip in your scenario and » Questions about trade-offs pose the question again. » Questions about return on investment What kinds of information did you learn from the different ways of questioning? Toolkit for Human Centered Design 18
  • 20. Develop an intervieW approaCh make a question less abstract by creating a sacrificial Concept: Instead of asking: “How much would you pay to reduce the risk try of purchasing new technology?” Propose two scenarios for the participant to choose from: “If you had a choice between two new technologies that could improve your farm output. The first technology costs 1,000 and comes with no guarantee. The second costs 1,500 and comes with a guarantee that by the second harvest, your farm output will double or else we will come back, take the technology away, and give you back your 1,500. Which option would you prefer?” Toolkit for Human Centered Design 19
  • 21. h C D Develop an intervieW approaCh h s aC r i F i C a l C o n C e p t Case stuDy Often a sacrifical concept can shake our assumptions about what is and is not desirable to people. For example, Shashu, an Ethiopian divorcee with two children, said that she had to sell her only calf for 600 Birr and borrow 100 Birr from family members in order to purchase a 700-Birr treadle pump for vegetable irrigation. She said she was ‘fed up with poverty’ and was willing to take this risk to get out of poverty. Our assumption was that 700 Birr was already a hardship and we could not possibly ask a higher price. However, we used a sacrifical concept of an imaginary Offering B. We asked, “if you had the following two options, which would you chose and why:” A: 700-Birr treadle pump with no guarantees. B: 1000-Birr pump that came with a written guarantee to double your income in one year. If it did not double your income, your money would be returned to you and the pump would be taken away. Shashu chose option B. She said the guarantee of knowing she would be okay in a year was worth the extra amount. Furthermore, she added that she would find a way to pull together the money somehow. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 20
  • 22. Develop an intervieW approaCh Facilitator notes time: 20-40 mins. Difficulty: Step 1: Have the team split into groups of two, at least one person (Person A) methoD: in each team should have a mobile phone intervieW teChniQues with them. Through telling stories, human beings reveal important issues and opportunities in our daily experiences. We have found Step 2: Ask Person A to take out their that what people say they do and what they actually do are mobile phone and often not the same thing. This is why we don’t just rely on explain to their partner asking straightforward questions in an interview. Here are a (Person B) how they few techniques for collecting rich stories in an interview. enter a new contact into the phone. Step 3: Have Person B use the Show Me Begin with a simple example, like how someone uses a mobile technique with phone. Partner up and ask your partner to begin with a SHOW Person A. ME of how they entered the last contact into their address try book. Next move on to the FIVE WHYS technique with your Step 4: Have Person B use the Five Whys partner. Ask them to tell you about the last contact they technique with entered into their phone book and then five consecutive Person A. Why? questions. Step 5: Ask the team to come back together and ask: “What kind of information did Compare and contrast the type of information you get from you get from using the different techniques. Let this inform your questioning Five Whys?” Then techniques in the field. ask: “What kind of information did DisCuss you get from using Show Me?” Toolkit for Human Centered Design 21
  • 23. h C D s h oW m e If you are in the interviewee’s environment, ask her to show you the things they interact with (objects, spaces, tools, etc). Capture pictures and notes to jog your memory later. Or have them walk you through the process. D r aW i t Ask participants to visualize their experience through drawings and diagrams. This can be a good way to debunk assumptions and reveal how people conceive of and order their activities. 5 Whys Ask “Why?” questions in response to five consecutive answers. This forces people to examine and express the underlying reasons for their behavior and attitudes. t h i n k a l o u D As they perform a process or execute a specific task, ask participants to describe aloud what they are thinking. This helps uncover users’ motivations, concerns, perceptions, and reasoning. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 22
  • 24. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 23
  • 25. h C D Facilitator notes time: 20-40 mins. Difficulty: Develop your minDset Step 1: Ask the design team to look The exercises listed under this step are valuble to put you in the right frame at the photo and of mind for research. It is often difficult, but very important, for experts identify what stands and professionals to put aside what they know when they conduct research. out to them. Note when people explain Keeping an open mind without denying your existing knowledge takes behaviors based on practice. The two exercises here can provide you with this practice before personal assumptions you go into the field: (i.e. “The man in the white lab coat seems » Beginner’s Mind to be the manager”). » Observe vs. Interpret Step 2: Ask what past experience led to this explanation. minDset: Step 3: Use ‘opposite Beginner’s minD logic’ to question Beginner’s Mind is critical when entering a familiar the assumption the person has made environment without carrying assumptions with you that (i.e. “Wouldn’t those are based on prior experience. This is often very hard to wearing lab coats do since we interpret the world based on our experience need to be most and what we think we know. This lens of personal experience sterile and therefore working closest with can influence what we focus on and can make us unable to the machinery, not see important issues. supervising?) Step 4: Ask how the interpretation would Here is one exercise to learn how to see the world through change if a new piece the eyes of a Beginner. Look at the photo on the opposite of information were page and answer the following questions: introduced (i.e. “What try if I were to tell you that » What stands out to you? What is happening? in this place white is the color that servants » What personal experience did you draw on when you wear? How would looked at the picture? you view this scene differently?”). » How could you look at the photo as a Beginner, without Step 5: Ask the design making assumptions about what is happening? team what they have » What questions would you ask if you knew nothing about learned from this exercise. the context or activity of the people in the photo? Step 6: Stress the importance of going into research with a “Beginner’s Mind” and Remind yourself frequently of the need to approach your asking questions that Design Challenge with Beginner’s Mind, especially when you think you might you are in the field conducting research. already know the answers to, because WatCh you may be surprised out by the answers. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 24
  • 26. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 25
  • 27. h C D Develop your minDset Facilitator notes minDset: time: 20-40 mins. oBserve vs. interpret Building empathy for the people you serve means Difficulty: understanding their behavior and what motivates them. Understanding behavior enables us to identify physical, Step 1: Ask the team “What do you see cognitive, social and/or cultural needs that we can meet happening in this through the products, services and experiences we create. image?” Listen for This exercise helps us differentiate between observation responses that have and interpretation of what we see, revealing our biases and built-in interpretations lenses through which we view the world. and remind people to describe only what they see at this point. Step 2: Ask “What Use the photo on the opposite page to practice making the might be the reason distinction between observations and interpretations. for this behavior?” and have the try team generate at least five different interpretations about why this might be happening. W h at D o yo u s e e h a p p e n i n g i n t h i s i m ag e ? If people are stuck, Describe only what you see, don’t interpret yet. throw out an idea like : “This person is displaying her clothes to her neighbors as a sign of wealth by hanging them in a public space.” h at i s t h e r e a s o n F o r t h i s B e h av i o r ? W Step 3: Ask “What List five different possible interpretations for why questions would you this person’s behavior. ask to find out the real answer?” and make a list of the questions that would help your team discover the right interpretation for an oW Wo u l D yo u F i n D o u t t h e r e a l a n s W e r ? h observation. List five questions you could ask her to determine which interpretation is correct. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 26
  • 28. CREATE Book 2 of 3
  • 29. To move from research to real-world solutions, you will go through a process of synthesis and translation. This requires a mode of narrowing and culling information and translating insights about the reality of today into a set of opportunities for the future. This is the most abstract point of the process where concrete needs of individuals are transformed into high-level insights about the larger population and system frameworks are created. With defined opportunities, the team will shift modes into a generative mindset to brainstorm hundreds of solutions and rapidly make them tangible through prototyping. During this phase, solutions are created with only the customer Desirability filter in mind. Goals of the Create Phase are: » aking sense of data M » dentifying patterns I » efining opportunities D » reating solutions c create: goals Toolkit for Human Centered Design 1
  • 30. create: outPuts At the end of the Create phase, the team will have generated the following: » opportunities » solutions » rototypes P Toolkit for Human Centered Design 2
  • 31. create: theory There are three key activities in the Create phase: synthesis, brainstorming, and prototyping. Synthesis is the act of making sense of what we’ve seen and heard during the observations. synthesis takes us from inspiration to ideas, from stories to solutions. By aggregating, editing and condensing down what we’ve learned, synthesis enables us to establish a new perspective and identify opportunities for innovation. Brainstorming with rules like Defer Judgment and Build on the Ideas of Others is a proven method for coming up with unexpected innovations. Brainstorming makes us think expansively and without constraints. The practice of generating truly impractical solutions often sparks ideas that are relevant and reasonable. It may require generating 100 ideas (many of which are mediocre) in order to come up three truly inspriational solutions. Prototyping is a methodology for making solutions tangible in a rapid and low-investiment way. It’s a proven technique for quickly learning how to design an offering right and for accelerating the process of rolling out solutions to the world. Prototyping is about building to think, acknowledging that the process of making ideas real and tangible helps us to refine and iterate the ideas very quickly through feedback. Creating many different prototypes that highlight different aspects of your product or service not only enables people to give honest feedback, but also prevents the team from getting attached to an idea prematurely. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 3
  • 32. h c D Facilitator Notes time: 4 Hours-Days Difficulty: Step 1. Gather the design team together share storIes in a room with plenty of wall space. Optimally, the team should be sitting in a circle. Story sharing is about transforming the stories we heard during research into data and information that we can use Step 2. Distribute to inspire opportunities, ideas and solutions. Stories are post-it notes and markers to each framed around real people and their lives, not informational member of the team. summaries Have a flip chart or large sheets of paper Stories are useful because they are accounts of specific nearby, as well as events, not general statements. They provide us with concrete tape to attach these details that help us imagine solutions to particular problems. sheets to the wall. Step 3. Tell the team to capture their It’s best to share stories soon after research so that details notes, observations, and thoughts on the aren’t lost. One team member should tell the story of the post-its as they speak. person(s) they met, while the rest of the team takes notes Everything that is said tIP on post-its. Notes should be small pieces of information (no during story sharing #1 longer than a sentence) that will be easy to remember later. should be captured in a note: life history, As a group you should be thinking, “What does this new household details, information mean for the project?” Some tips on storytelling income, aspirations, are below. barriers, quotes, observations, etc. Be specific Talk about what actually happened. It helps to begin stories Step 4. Ask each team with “One time…” or “After such and such happened…” member to share the story of Be Descriptive the person(s) they met. Go through the Use your physical senses to give texture to your description. stories one by one. Follow reporting rules Step 5. Affix all the Cover the following topics: who, what, when, where, post-it notes to the why, and how. flip chart or large pieces of paper on the wall. Use one large sheet per story. When try to avoid: the story is finished, hang it on the wall » Generalizing with all the post-its attached and move » Prescribing (they should, would, could…) Watch on to the next story. out » Hypothesizing At the end of Story Sharing, you will » Judging have many sheets lined up on the wall » Evaluating or Assuming with hundreds of post-it notes. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 4
  • 33. share storIes Story sharing makes turns the information that lives in a team member’s head into shared knowledge that can be translated into opportunities and solutions. tIP #2 Some techniques for effective sharing include: » Gather your notes, photos, and artifacts prior to story sharing. If possible, print the photos and display them on the wall to refer to. » Tell stories person by person, one at a time. Group meetings can be told as the story of a particular community. » Split information into small pieces to make it memorable. Make each piece no longer than this sentence. » Use vivid details and descriptions. This is not the time to generalize. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 5
  • 34. h c D IDeNtIFy PatterNs Making sense of your research is accomplished by seeing the patterns, themes, and larger relationships between the information. This process can be messy and difficult at times, but ultimately very rewarding. Seeing the patterns and connections between the data will lead you quickly toward real-world solutions. There are several steps listed here to take you through the process for you use selectively based on the subject matter. » Extract Key Insights » Find Themes » Create Frameworks Facilitator Notes MethoD: time: 45-60 mins. extract key INsIghts Uncovering insights is about bringing visibility and clarity to Difficulty: previously hidden meaning. Step 1. Ask the team W h at I s a N I N s I g h t ? to go to the wall with » Insights are the revelations – the unexpected all the stories and things that make you sit up and pay attention. choose 5 key post- its (stories, quotes, » Insights extrapolate individual stories into observations) that overarching truths. are most surprising, interesting, or » Insights allow us to see our design challenge provocative. in a new light. Step 2. Group these For example, a combination of an observation and quote into related thoughts. from an interview yielded the following sample insight: Step 3. Write a succinct Insight Observation: Farmers rely on farming information from their statement on a friends and neighbors, though they know this knowledge is new post-it for limited. each grouping that summarizes the Quote: “If the Privatized Extension Agent lived outside big takeaway. my area, I would want to visit his farm so I could see his Step 4. Post these production.” Insight post-its Insight: Trust-building and knowledge sharing happens where all can see. through ‘seeing is believing.’ Toolkit for Human Centered Design 6
  • 35. IDeNtIFy PatterNs select key information Look across the information in the stories. Edit out the details that are not important – this is the time to let go of some of tIP the detail. Choose the information that you find surprising, #1 interesting, or worth pursuing. aggregate big thoughts Are some of the thoughts linked? If so, aggregate them. Take several related pieces of information and re-write them as tIP one big Insight. #2 Work at the same level Check that the insights sit at the same level--that they are all big thoughts. If you find you have some lower level insights, tIP consider whether they might be reframed at a higher level. #3 If they need to be dropped a level, they may be best talked about as customer needs that inform and support the Insight. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 7
  • 36. h c D IDeNtIFy PatterNs case stuDy e x t r ac t k e y I N s I g h t s In Ethiopia, the IDE team looked over the information from the Story Sharing exercise and extracted over 20 key insights. About half of these came directly from the post-its that were written in Story Sharing, and the other half were written based on the information the team heard during Story Sharing. Some of the insights the team identified were: » School is a key channel for distributing information » There is a strong need for an alternative to borrowing oxen » Buying on credit is the default » Mass media sells water pumps Toolkit for Human Centered Design 8
  • 37. IDeNtIFy PatterNs Facilitator Notes time: 30-60 mins. Difficulty: MethoD: Step 1. Have the FIND theMes team go to the wall Finding themes is about exploring the commonalities, or board where they the differences and the relationships between pieces have placed their key story & insight of information. post-its and select the 5 most interesting look for categories and buckets quotes, observations Sort your findings into categories or buckets. Which ideas and/or insights. are related? Cluster together the findings that belong together into themes. Step 2. On a new board, sort these consider the relationship between categories into theme. Look for patterns and tensions in the way your themes relate Step 3. Check to make to each other. Are they on the same level? Or are they talking sure the themes are about different kinds of things? at the same level. If a theme is too specific, group and re-group prompt the team to Slice and dice the data in different ways to find meaning. find the bigger idea. If Try moving the post-its around to form new groups. a theme is too broad or has too many get input from the team different ideas under Explain the early buckets and themes to a broader group. it, ask them to break it down into several Learn from their input and try alternative groupings. buckets. Step 4. When finished sorting, give each try the P.o.I.N.t. technique theme a title on a Translate the Problems and Needs identified in storytelling new post-it. Make into Insights (see previous Method) and Themes. sure there is enough try space between or P = Problems below the different O = Opportunities theme categories to facilitate the next I = Insights step of opportunity N = Needs identification. T = Themes Toolkit for Human Centered Design 9
  • 38. IDeNtIFy PatterNs Creating themes can be an engaging and rewarding experience, as you start to group and transform the data before your eyes. Some good techniques for doing this are: tIP » Work together as a team to decide how to create buckets and themes. » Arrange and re-arrange the post-its on the wall until the team is satisfied with the groupings. » If there is a theme that contains almost all the post-its, break it out into several smaller themes. Try to see not just the connections, but also the relevant differences between the information. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 10
  • 39. IDeNtIFy PatterNs Facilitator Notes time: MethoD: 1-2 Hours create FraMeWorks Difficulty: Frameworks allow you to begin putting the specific information from stories into a larger system context. Not all design What is a framework? challenges will yield or require A framework is a visual representation of a system. frameworks. If the It shows the different elements or actors at play team does not feel and highlights the relationships between them. that this step is required for your using your framework challenge, skip it. A good framework will help you see the issues and Step 1. Listen for relationships in a clearer and more holistic way. Discuss moments in story what the framework implies for farmers, for value chain sharing when the actors, and for your organization. Use the framework to topic fits into a larger develop or build upon key insights. Capture those insights system or is linked to and add them to your growing list . another piece of information. Step 2. When team members start In many cases, it will make sense to create two different to suggest larger frameworks: one for female farmers and one for male systemic structures farmers. To understand whether you need to dedicate or relationships attention to the different needs of women and men, ask between things, ask geNDer yourself these questions: them if they can draw what they are saying. » How do women’s stories differ from those of men? Consider the example framework types » Is gender itself a theme? described here. » Do women’s stories tell a different story about household Step 3. Allow some activities, income opportunities and barriers, and market time for your team to play with re-drawing relations than the stories obtained from men? their framework several times until If you answered yes to these questions, think about creating they feel it represents two different frameworks that will yield different sets of what they want to say opportunity areas for women and men. in a robust way. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 11
  • 40. h c D If you are having trouble visualizing your own frameworks, here are some common types of frameworks that recur again and again. tIP Venn Diagram Process Map relational Map two-by-two Matrix Toolkit for Human Centered Design 12
  • 41. h c D create oPPortuNIty areas Once you have pulled out the themes and patterns from Facilitator Notes what you heard, you can start creating opportunity areas. time: The process of translating insights into opportunities is 40 mins.-2 Hours about moving from the current state to envisioning future possibilities. Opportunities are the springboard for ideals Difficulty: and solutions. W h at I s a N o P P o r t u N I t y a r e a? Step 1: Prepare your team to begin defining » An opportunity area is a stepping stone to idea generation. opportunity areas by telling them that this » An opportunity is a rearticulation of problems or needs in a is where they will start generative, future facing way. to shift from analysis of information to » An opportunity area is not a solution. Rather, it suggests creating new ideas. more than one solution. It defines a space of possibility in which to generate solutions. Step 2: Distribute post-it notes and F r a M I N g o P P o r t u N I t y a r e a s markers to everyone Opportunities start with the phrase “HOW MIGHT WE...?” in the team. Ask the team to start to suggest a mindset of possibility. their opportunities with the phrase “How Might We…?” If your opportunity sounds like a specific solution, back it up Step 3: Spend at by asking yourself “why would we want to offer this solution?” least 15 minutes or “what user needs are answered by this solution?” on each theme try Here is an example: area generating Opportunity Insight Statements for each theme. Place Trust building and knowledge sharing happens through the post-its next ‘seeing is believing.’ to the theme area. solution Step 4: If the team A training course and best-practice sharing on a local farmed gets stuck, read the plot of land might come to mind. This is a solution. insights from each theme area as a way to jolt the creativity Ask yourself: What needs are answered by this solution? of the team. For example, for each Answer: The need to expand the knowledge of community insight posted, ask members through local information aggregators. the team to come up with at least one “How Might We…” opportunity statement. How might we better educate and inform local knowledge aggregators? or How might we support new technology experimentation by local knowledge aggregators? Toolkit for Human Centered Design 13
  • 42. h c D Start each statement with “HOW MIGHT WE...?” and abbreviate on post-its to “HMW.” tIP #1 Use different color post-its for your opportunity statements than you used for insights. This will help to visually separate insights from opportunities for the next step. tIP #2 Go for quantity, not quality at this point. tIP #3 When narrowing down the opportunity statements to 3-5 HMW statements to use in brainstorming, select some that are intentionally outside of your current projects or tIP capabilities. At this point, filter based on Desirability to #4 customers, not Feasibility to the organization. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 14
  • 43. h c D Facilitator Notes time: 45-60 mins. Difficulty: Step 1. Prepare 3-5 “How Might We...?” opportunity statements from those generated previously. BraINstorM NeW solutIoNs Place each statement on a separate wall Brainstorming gives permission to think expansively and or board. Give each person a pad of post- without any organizational, operational, or technological it notes and a marker. constraints. Step 2. Remind Some people think of brainstorms as undisciplined people of the rules conversation. But conducting a fruitful brainstorm involves of brainstorming. a lot of discipline and a bit of preparation. Tell people to be very specific about The practice of generating truly impractical solutions often the ideas they are sparks ideas that are relevant and reasonable. It may require proposing. Use markers (not pens) generating 100 ideas (many of which are silly or impossible) so everyone can see in order to come up those three truly inspriational solutions. what the idea is. One idea per post-it. Step 2. Begin by s e V e N B r a I N s t o r M I N g r u l e s asking the group to generate a list » efer judgment D of barriers related There are no bad ideas at this point. There will be plenty to the opportunity tIP statement (i.e. if of time to judge ideas later. the topic is “HMW » ncourage wild ideas e get MFIs on farmer time?” a barrier It’s the wild ideas that often provide the breakthroughs. might be “once- It is always easy to bring ideas down to earth later! a-year harvests” or “lack of regular » uild on the ideas of others B communication.”) Think in terms of ‘and’ rather than ‘but.’ If you dislike someone’s idea, challenge yourself to build on it and Step 3. Protect all participants by make it better. enforcing the Rules » tay focused on topic s of Brainstorming. If ideas slow down, You get better output if everyone is disciplined. prompt the group to think about one » e visual B of the barriers listed Try to engage the left and the right side of the brain. during the warm-up. Or share a story from » ne conversation at a time o the research to spark Allow ideas to be heard and built upon. thinking (i.e. “So what ideas would help » o for quantity g Shashu stay regular Set an outrageous goal for number of ideas and surpass it! with MFIs?”) Remember there is no need to make a lengthy case for your Step 4. When they idea since no one is judging. Ideas should flow quickly. really slow down, switch opportunity area. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 15
  • 44. h c D Brainstorming warm-up Use this activity to get the team in an open-minded and energetic mindset for brainstorming. try Pair up with a partner. Person A will come up with lots of ideas about a potential businesses he or she wants to start. (Alternatively, one could plan an event such as a family vacation and pose ideas of places to go.) round 1: Person A comes up with one idea after another. Person B must say NO to each idea and give a reason why it wouldn’t work. Do this for 2-3 minutes. round 2: Now Person B comes up with business or event ideas, one after another. Person A must say YES to each idea and build on it to make it bigger. Do this for 2-3 minutes. As a group, discuss how these two different experiences felt. The Round 2 experience is the environment the team will want to create for a successful brainstorm. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 16
  • 45. h c D Facilitator Notes time: 45-60 mins. Make IDeas taNgIBle Difficulty: Prototyping is about buiding to think - whatever it takes to Step 1. Ask teams communicate the idea. Prototyping allows you to quickly to partner in teams and cheaply make ideas tangible so they can be tested and of 2-4. Small teams help everyone to evaluated by others - before you’ve had time to fall in love have a role. with them. Step 2. Ask teams What is prototyping? to pick one » BUILD TO THINK: Prototypes are disposable tools used solution from the throughout the concept development process, both to brainstorming boards. You may validate ideas and to help us generate them. Prototypes choose to offer a are a powerful form of communication and force us range of criteria: to think in realistic terms about how someone would two teams working interact with our concept. on solutions they’re “most passionate » ROUGH, RAPID, RIGHT: Prototypes are not precious. about,” one group They should be built as quickly and cheaply as possible. on “most readily implementable” and » ANSWERING QUESTIONS: It is essential to know what one on “furthest out.” question a prototype is being used to answer, whether Step 3. Prompt teams about desirability, usefullness, usability, viability, or to spend no more than feasibility. 30-45 minutes making their chosen solution Why prototype? tangible, using one of » To develop a deeper understanding of what an the prototyping forms idea means and to reveal questions the team needs to described here or creating new. answer. Step 4. Give each » To help you have both an internal dialogue about team 5 minutes to how the concept works and external communication share their idea back about the concept. the the larger group to get initial feedback. Encourage teams to include an enactment Imagine the Value Proposition of the experience of use, even if they For each prototype, answer these questions to start building have a paper-based the value of the idea: prototype. Prompt try groups to identify » Who will benefit from this idea? What is the value to the what customer needs end customers? their prototype addresses and what » How much is this benefit worth to them? key questions they have outstanding » How much would they be willing to pay for this benefit” out it. » How might this payment be collected? Toolkit for Human Centered Design 17
  • 46. h c D tIP c o M M o N P r o t o t y P e F o r M s Models: A physical model of a product, shown above, makes a 2-dimensional idea come alive in 3 dimensions. Using rough materials allows you to quickly mock up low-fidelity prototypes. storyboards: Imagining the complete user experience through a series of images or sketches. roleplay: The visceral experience with a product or service is sometimes best expressed by acting it out with team members taking on the role of the customer. Diagrams: Mapping is a great way to express a space, process, or structure. Consider how ideas relate to each other, and how the experiences change over time. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 18
  • 47. h c D Facilitator Notes time: 1-1.5 Hours Difficulty: gather FeeDBack Step 1. Ask team members to prepare After solutions have been generated, it’s time to take them how to present their solutions through the back out to participants to gather feedback. customer’s lens. It’s not necessary to give behind-the-scenes organizational Don’t invest too much time perfecting the ideas before information to them. feedback – the point of re-engaging customers is to change the solutions, not to validate them. The best feedback is Step 2. Have teams Watch that which makes you rethink and redesign. practice presenting out solutions to the rest of the group— enactment is especially effective. Invite others to help how to solicit feedback simplify and clarify A great way to get honest feedback is to take several the presentation executions out to people. When there is only one concept and identify focus available, people may be reluctant to criticize. However, questions to be answered in research. when allowed to compare and contrast, people tend to speak more honestly. Step 3. Ask teams to standardize a script Whose feedback to solicit about the solution Speaking to new participants in a different region from where so it is delivered you did your research is a way to explore the generalizability consistently at each of a solution. You may choose to speak to a mix of both new feedback session. Write down key people and to those you have spoken with before. questions to ask in follow-up. Try to include all stakeholders who would touch the concept; in addition to the end user, include manufacturers, installers, Step 4. When service providers, distributors, retailers, etc. introducing the feedback session What questions to pursue to the customer For each prototype, identify 3-4 questions you’d like answer group, explain about desirability or use case during the feedback session. you want honest feedback—even Keep careful notes of the feedback, both positive and if negative—and that the team has negative, and the new questions the team needs to answer spent minimal time about the solution. prototyping. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 19
  • 48. h c D The goal is to solicit honest feedback, even if it is negative. It’s better to know early on before much investment has been made that a solution is not desirable. Therefore, there tIP are a few tips in presenting yourselves and your solutions to participants: Don’t be a saleman. Present solutions with a neutral tone, highlighting both pros and cons of a solution. Vary group size. Begin with a large group (10-15) to present the solution, then break into smaller groups, one per solution for a more intimate conversation. adapt on the fly. If it becomes clear that there is one aspect of the solution that is distracting people from the core idea, feel free to eliminate this piece or change it. ask participants to build on the ideas. If a participant asks a question like, “Can this service be purchase by the community or just an individual.” Ask the question back to them: “ Should the service be purchased by the community or individual?” Toolkit for Human Centered Design 20
  • 49. DELIVER Book 3 of 3
  • 50. Once the design team has created many desirable solutions, it is time to consider how to make these feasible and viable. The Deliver phase will catapult your top ideas toward implementation. The activites offered here are meant to complement your organization’s existing implementation processes and may prompt adaptations to the way solutions are typically rolled out. In the Deliver Phase, your team will: » identify required capabilities » Create a model for financial sustainability » Plan an innovation pipeline » iterate prototypes & plan pilots deliver: goals Toolkit for Human Centered Design 1
  • 51. deliver: outPuts In the Deliver phase, you will produce: » Feasibility assessment » viability assessment » innovation pipeline » implementation plan Toolkit for Human Centered Design 2
  • 52. deliver: theory By making solutions tangible early in the design process, prototyping can help you get feedback and roll out solutions at a rapid pace. This might fit well with the way your organization currently works, or it may challenge you to stretch you out of your comfort zone by engaging customers in feedback or partners in collaboration earlier than usual. delivering solutions starts with creating low-investment, low-cost ways of trying out your ideas in a real-world context. The team can design a handful of mini-pilots that precede and inform the full pilot program. Mini-pilots might engage actors who are different from the group of stakeholders for the envisioned final implementation. For example, in a mini- pilot, the NGO or social enterprise might play certain roles that will ultimately be held by partners in order to gain a deeper understanding of how the system should work and to be more informed when soliciting and training partners. Mini-pilots can also enable the design team to test and understand different aspects of Desirability, Feasibility and Viability before bringing them all together. It is possible to isolate specific issues, for example around distribution mechanisms or pricing models, by varying prototypes. implementation is an iterative process that will likely require many prototypes, mini-pilots and pilots to perfect the solution and support system. Protoyping an idea before it goes to market not only allows you to understand the solution better, but also helps you identify what it will take for your organization to deliver that idea to the market. Every organization is optimized to achieve what it currently gets. If you want to achieve different outcomes, you often need to do things differently than you know and do right now—whether it is about finding new talent, developing new skills, building new external partnerships, or creating new processes. The Human-Centered Design process doesn’t limit the solution by the current constraints of the organization. this process invites you to work in the belief that new things are possible, and that you can evolve both the solutions that you deliver and the way your organization is designed, simultaneously. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 3
  • 53. h C d develoP a sustainable revenue model Facilitator notes The long-term success of solutions depends upon the time: intentional design of a revenue stream that can sustain 30-45 mins. the offering over time. Let the value provided to the end difficulty: customer be your entry point as you design the support systems around the solution. For this Viability Assessment, answer the following questions for each solution: Focus on one solution at a time and take the team through the following 1. Customer value Proposition exercise. Alternatively, the larger team can » What is the value proposition for the end customer? Refer be split into smaller back to prototypes and customer feedback, highlighting teams of two or tiP the aspects customers found most important. three, with each smaller team » How much is this worth to the end customer? focusing on one solution. 2. revenue sources » Is the solution a product, a service or both? Step 1: On a board or flip chart, write » How much do customers pay? “Customer Value.” Ask the team to » How do customers pay: in cash, in kind, in labor, in other? identify how each solution will provide 3. stakeholder incentives value to the end » How does this solution deliver value to each stakeholder customer. Write involved? everything down. Ask the team to » What are the stakeholders’ incentives to participate? answer the question: What are challenges or disincentives? How might we “How much is this worth to the end adapt the solution to avoid these disincentives? customer?” Write down the figure on the chart. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 4
  • 54. develoP a sustainable revenue model Step 2: On a separate board or flip chart, write “Revenue Sources.” Ask the team to identify who will pay for the product or service. How much will each actor pay? How will the payments be received? Use the example fee models in the “Try” text box to help. Step 3: On another board or flip chart, write “Stakeholder Incentives.” Ask the team to identify all stakeholders or players in the value chain who will be affected by the solution. Go through each actor Consider the following fee models to inspire your thinking. and ask: “What is this One exercise is for the design team to go down the list of group’s incentives models and ask: to participate in or help this solution?” If try “What would our solution look like if it were offered by: …?” there is a group that » Membership/Subscription has a disincentive to participate in the » Gift it, Share the income produced solution, ask: “How » Give the product, sell the refill might we adapt the » Subsidize solution to encourage » Give the product, sell the service their participation?” » Service only Step 4: If the team » Pay-per-use has split into smaller teams, have the group come back together to share. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 5
  • 55. h C d develoP a sustainable revenue model For the Today’s Market prices solution, the design team identified the Case study desirability of payment-in-kind options through customer feedback: Customer value Proposition » Connection to privatized extension agent with real-time market pricing to inform where to sell large-quantity crops. » Connection to traders who collect from farms and sell crops at selected markets. revenue sources » Payment in kind per use (price deducted from sales of crop at each collection) » Mobile phone provided a no cost (through phone donation program) » Free calls to designated number of Privatized Extension Agent stakeholder incentives » Privatized Extension Agent receives fee per information request » Crop Collector expands his farmer clientele and receives a % from crops sold » Mobile provider is paid for calls made to PEA numbers; expands potential customer base for calls/SMS sent outside the free number Toolkit for Human Centered Design 6
  • 56. h C d Facilitator notes time: 30-45 mins. difficulty: Focus on one solution at a time and take the team through the following exercise. Alternatively, the larger team can be split into smaller teams of two or three, identiFy CaPabilities required For delivering with each smaller team focusing on one solution. solutions Step 1: Write “Distribution” on a board or flip chart. The capabilities of your organization and partners will help Have the team identify inform the feasibility of solutions. Begin by thinking about all the possible actors the experience of the end customer—where and how the who could deliver this farmer or end-user will purchase or experience this solution. solution. Write each Then identify the range of capabilities required for making actor on a post-it note. Ask the team this real. A challenge for the design team is to identify a to list the pros and multiplicity of possible models for delivery that leverage cons of each of the different partners and channels. To identify the capabilities different delivery required to make each solution feasible, answer the following possibility. questions for each solution: Toolkit for Human Centered Design 7
  • 57. h C d identiFy CaPabilities required For delivering solutions Step 2: Write “Capabilities” on a separate board or flip chart. List the human, manufacturing, financial, and technical 1. distribution capabilities that will » Where, when, how, and why might the customer experience be required for each this solution? solution. Indicate if the capability » Which actors and channels will touch the solution? exists in your local organization, if it » What other channels could be used to reach customers? exists somewhere else in your network, or » What is the range of possible ways could this whether you will have solution be delivered? to partner. 2. Capabilities required Step 3: For the » What human, manufacturing, financial, and technological solutions that you will need to partner, capabilities are required for creating and delivering create a list of this solution? potential partners. Narrow to a smaller » Which of these capabilities do we have in our country set of partners. Ask location? Which do we have in our international location? the team to list the And which capabilities will need to be found in partners? first step they would take to pursue the top » Would we need to grow any capabilities on this list? partners identified. 3. Potential Partners Step 4: If you have What organizations or individuals have capabilities that we do split into smaller groups, ask the teams not? What is our relationship with them currently? How might to come together to we reach out to them and show the value of engaging with share their thoughts. our organization on this solution? Toolkit for Human Centered Design 8
  • 58. identiFy CaPabilities required For delivering solutions In Cambodia, the design team created a solution called “Today’s Market Case study Prices,” real-time market crop price information to farmers. The team identified one model to deliver this to customers involving two key partners: Privatized Extension Agents and Crop Collectors. distribution » Centralized information gathering & distribution » Information distributed by Privatized Extension Agents (PEAs) upon request of the farmer » Farmer requests info by mobile phone provided with free calls to PEA » Crops & fee collected by Crop Collector Capabilities required » Market price information collection daily (or multiple times a day) » Market price information aggregation & distribution to Privatized Extension Agents » Communication channels between farmers & PEAs via mobile phone » Crop collection & sales » Fee collection Potential Partners » Government market information sources » Privatized Extension Agent » Mobile phone donor program » Mobile service provider » Crop Collector Toolkit for Human Centered Design 9
  • 59. h C d Facilitator notes Plan a PiPeline time: 30-45 mins. oF solutions difficulty: To understand how new solutions will move and grow your organization, map each solution to the matrix provided. Step 1: Draw the As you are mapping solutions, ask whether each solution matrix on a large is targeted at your current customer group or whether it sheet of flip-chart expands the group of customers you serve. paper. Step 2: Write each solution on a post-it note and place in the This refers to the category of customers, such as $1-2 per day appropriate position farmers vs. greater than $2 a day farmers, not $1-2 per day on the matrix. farmers who are current customers of your organization vs. WatCh $1-2 per day farmers who are not yet customers. Step 3. Analyze if out the team is happy with the distribution of solutions from Incremental to Revolutionary. Determine whether the solutions extend or adapt an existing offer, or create a new offer. Analyze this information from the Step 4. If the team context of your investment strategy, mission, priorities and wants to add appetite for risk. Also identify which solutions fit naturally into solutions to one of the quadrants, develop programs already underway within your organization. a HMW...? statement and brainstorm new solutions. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 10
  • 60. Plan a PiPeline oF solutions New Users e vo l u t i o n a ry r e vo l u t i o n a ry Existing Offerings New Offerings i n C r e m e n ta l e vo l u t i o n a ry Existing Users The lower left quadrant represents Incremental innovation as these solutions build on existing offerings with familiar users. Evolutionary innovation is about extending into either new offerings or new users while holding the other constant. Revolutionary innovation means tackling both new users and new offerings. Look at the spread of solutions to reveal the gaps in your pipeline of solutions. Are parts of the matrix blank and others full? If so, determine if it is desirable for your organization to tiP go back to Brainstorming in order to develop solutions that will intentionally fill that gap. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 11
  • 61. h C d Plan a PiPeline oF solutions In Cambodia, the design team noticed that most of the solutions fell on Case study the the “existing user” side of the matrix since the organization has a highly defined target group. Yet the solutions spanned the range from those that fit within current projects and programs to new areas of offerings. The team also identified solutions that would start in the lower left corner with adaptations to existing solutions with existing customers, but over time would help the organization migrate into the other quadrants. While many organizations are initially attracted to the idea of “Revolutionary” innovations, in reality an innovation pipeline that focuses on existing capabilities or target customers can be the strongest strategy for the near term. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 12
  • 62. h C d Create an imPlementation timeline Facilitator notes Map solutions to a timeline of implementation, with those in the Incremental innovation category early in the timeline and time: 15-30 mins. Revolutionary innovations further out. Look at relationships of solutions to see whether initiating difficulty: one solution will build the relationships and partners needed for another solution. You may also need to take into account Step 1: Create post-it which solutions can be explored within the scope of currently notes for timeline (such as 2 weeks, 1 funded programs and which solutions suggest the proposal months, 3 months, of new grants. 6 months, 1 year) and post them along a large blank wall in your office or Assigning an individual within your organization as a erasable surface. champion for each solution will help maintain momentum Step 2: Post the and increase the likelihood of implementation. Feasibility tiP Assessments or post-it notes for each solution along the timeline. Break each solution down into a series of steps that build Step 3. Assign toward implementing the final solution. Challenge the team to champions to pursue do something toward implementing each solution in the next the next steps. try two weeks. For some solutions, a pilot can be launched in two weeks. For others, two weeks might be the amount of time required for further study or for the first steps to connecting with partners. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 13
  • 63. h C d 2 W e e k s Create an imPlementation 1 m o n t h timeline 3 m onth s 6 m o n t h s 1 y e a r Toolkit for Human Centered Design 14
  • 64. h C d Facilitator notes time: Plan mini-Pilots & iteration 45-60 mins. For each solution in your pipeline, it is important to identify difficulty: simple, low-investment next steps to keep the ideas alive. One way to keep iterating and learning is to plan mini-pilots Step 1: Get into small before large-scale pilots or full-scale implementation. groups per solutions and fill out the For each mini-pilot, ask three questions: worksheet on the next page. » What resources will I need to test out this idea? Step 2: Cross-share » What key questions does this mini-pilot mini-pilot plans with need to answer? the team and give each other feedback. » How will we measure the success of this Step 3. Identify who mini-pilot? will enact the most immediate next steps and establish the first check-in date. When planning mini-pilots, pilots, and implementation plans, it often makes sense to understand how these may differ by gender. By understanding these differences early on, gender the solution can be iterated or transformed to make sure that the roles and needs of both men and women are being appropriately addressed. For example, in planning the mini- pilot, consider how women’s roles in implementation might differ from men’s. For each solution, ask how women could play a role as: » client » resource » beneficiary » partner Do any of the answers differ in the ways women would play these roles versus men? If so, iterate your solution to incorporate this finding. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 15
  • 65. h C d Plan mini-Pilots & iteration use the mini-pilot worksheet to plan next steps for each solution. After each mini-pilot, it is important to reconvene the try design team to understand what went well and where there was customer dissatisfaction or system obstacles. Use the worksheet provided to continuously iterate the mini-pilots, trials, and success measures. See the full-size worksheet on the next page. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 16
  • 66. Toolkit for Human Centered Design 17
  • 67. intRo: fielD CheCKliSt This Field Guide brings together the tools you’ll need to lead successful group meetings and individual interviews. Included in the Guide are exercises to complete before going into the field, tips » C o m p l e t e t h e f o l l ow i n g : for successful interviews, and a place to capture highlights from the interviews Worksheet: Recruiting Plan while they are still fresh in your mind. Worksheet: Research Schedule Worksheet: Identity, Power & Politics Worksheet: Group Interview Guide Worksheet: Individual Interview Guide » fA m i l i A R i Z e Yo U R S e l f w i t h : Tips: Observation Tips: Conversation Tips: Documentation Exercise: Community Characters Exercise: Resource Flow Exercise: Factors & Forces Exercise: Journey Of An Offering » B R i n g w i t h Yo U : Picture Cards Camera Video Camera (optional) Pens & Markers Gifts for participants (optional) 1
  • 68. wo R K S h e e t: ReCRUiting Recruiting the right participants is critical to success. Remember to recruit extremes and balance ethnic, class, and gender considerations. Keeping track of the people you speak with can also be challenging. Use the For female participants, interviewers may need permission from male family members worksheets to help keep a list of who you have spoken with and who you plan or community leaders. genDeR to speak with next. » gRoUp meeting loCAtionS » i n D i V i D UA l pA R t i C i pA n t t Y p e S : Example Group Meeting Location: Example Participant Types: Village 1: Ansoung Commune of Kg Trabek District Model Farmer Unique Characteristic: Seasonal Flooding Average Farmer Poor Farmer Large family with farming land far from home Village 1: Female headed household Unique Characteristic: Participant types: Village 2: Unique Characteristic: Village 3: Unique Characteristic: 2
  • 69. wo R K S h e e t: ReSeARCh There are many things to juggle when you’re out in the field. The more you plan ahead of time, the more smoothly the process will go. However, be prepared to adjust quickly; for example you might need to increase the number of facilitators if you show up and the group is twice as large as expected. » DAt e » AC t i V i t Y » teAm leADS » D e tA i l S Example: 7 June / 8:00 - 10:00 (including setup) Village 1 Group Meeting 2 Teams: Kan & Kimsan 2 groups of 10 farmers / mixed gender 3
  • 70. tipS: oBSeRVAtion The in-context interview is a lengthy conversation (often 1.5+ hours) that explores the values, desires, frustrations, and aspirations of your interviewee. The conversation should: Be long enough to make your interviewee feel like they are really being heard, and that allows them to go past their rehearsed “script” tip Be focused enough so that you feel you are getting useful information to address your design challenge During observations, look for: Be general enough so that it feels like an open-ended conversation that can lead to unexpected insights » things that prompt shifts in behavior generate a true back-and-forth so that it feels like a conversation and puts » work-arounds and adaptations the interviewee at ease » Body language make the interviewee feel that the conversation is about them, not about the product, service, or organization you are representing » things people care about » Anything that surprises you » Anything that questions your assumptions about how the world works » Anything that you find “irrational” 4
  • 71. tipS: ConVeRSAtion The things people say and what they actually do are often not the same thing. In-context observations are often useful for getting beyond what people say to understand what people do and feel. In-context means being with people in their real settings, doing the things they normally do. tip The stories that emerge from these encounters in the field show us new opportunities and inspire new solutions. » Ask open-ended questions, or It is often very powerful to experience a process first-hand. Whenever possible, questions that require a longer put yourself in the shoes of a customer and experience their activities directly. explanation than one word. For example: » listen and be attentive, even if » Work with a farmer for a day in his or her field. taking notes at the same time » Live with a farming family for a few days. » have a dynamic conversation, » Help a farmer bring his or her product to market. don’t interview from a script » Allow long pauses » Ask naïve questions (even if you’re the expert) to hear the explanation in their words » Don’t correct people; understand their perceptions and why they may perceive things differently than you 5
  • 72. tipS: DoCUmentAtion Capture everything you see, hear, smell, feel, and taste during the observation. It’s important to capture the experience to bring back with you to the office and to share with team members who were not present. Document the conversation with notes, photos, and/or recordings. In addition to your Field Guide, bring a digital camera and, if possible, a video camera or tip voice recorder. Write down first interpretations of what’s going on at the moment it happened; this critical information is often lost and difficult to remember later. when documenting capture: Immediately after the interview (or within 24 hours), jot down immediate big » personal details (family size, picture takeaways from the conversation using the Highlights page. The longer acreage, crops, location) you wait, the more details and specifics may be lost. » Direct, unfiltered quotes (and your immediate interpretations) It’s often helpful to work with a partner—one person responsible for leading the interview while the other is capturing and documenting. Compare the » the expressions and feelings of experiences, perceptions, and interpretations of the two people, and feel free the person, not just their words to switch roles every day or so. » ways they interacted with others and things in the environment » things they care about most » moments or things that elicited emotional responses, positive or negative 6
  • 73. wo R K S h e e t: iDentitY, poweR & politiCS Research with communities and individuals often involves issues of identity, power, and politics. To help think through these issues, answer the following questions: » R AC e & e t h n i C i t Y » genDeR » Cl ASS & inCom e » t h e D i S e m p ow e R e D » the elite Are ethnic, racial, and/or tribal Do women and men have unequal Are communities divided along Are any groups of people Who are the political or economic distinctions important in this status in this context? class or income lines? disempowered in this community elites in this context? community? (i.e. landless, children, disabled, What activities within and outside How might income and class etc)? How might their influence affect How might these issues affect the the household do men and women divisions affect the research and the research or design challenge? research and design challenge? do differently? design challenge? How might the perspectives of these groups affect the research How will you mitigate the How will you deal with these issues How might gender inequality affect How will you deal with these issues and design challenge? influence of elites in research? in research? the research and design challenge? in research? How might the research take into How will you deal with these issues account the perspectives of the in research? disempowered? 7
  • 74. noteS Everyone has a unique style of notetaking. Here, we provide a column at the right to capture realtime interpretations, questions to follow up on later in the interview and keywords to help you your notes later on. This practice is useful noteS interpretations, questions to follow up & keywords in distinguishing between what you hear and what you interpret and facilitates sharing as you solicit other possible interpretations from your team members. 8 8
  • 75. noteS interpretations, questions to follow up & keywords 9
  • 76. wo R K S h e e t: highlightS It’s a good idea to catalog the details of your research while it is still fresh – a noteS: good rule is to reflect upon what you learned at the end of each day in the field. highlightS You can complete this activity during a meal, in the car, or before bed. » DAt e : » nAme: » t Y p e o f AC t i V i t Y: Group Interview In-Context Immersion Individual Interview Other » l o C At i o n : A sample template is provided here to prompt the capture of the highlights. t h i n g S t h e pA R t i C i pA n t( S ) S A i D o R D i D t h At S U R p R i S e D Yo U oR moSt memoR ABle qUoteS: t h i n g S t h At m At t e R m o S t t o t h e pA R t i C i pA n t( S ) : m A i n t h e m e S o R l e A R n i n g S t h At S t o o D o U t f R o m t h i S i n t e R V i e w : new topiCS oR qUeStionS to exploRe in fUtURe inteRViewS: highlight Capture worksheet 34
  • 77. wo R K S h e e t: highlightS » DAt e : » nAme: » t Y p e o f AC t i V i t Y: Group Interview In-Context Immersion Individual Interview Other » l o C At i o n : t h i n g S t h e pA R t i C i pA n t( S ) S A i D o R D i D t h At S U R p R i S e D Yo U t h i n g S t h At m At t e R m o S t t o t h e pA R t i C i pA n t( S ) : oR moSt memoR ABle qUoteS: m A i n t h e m e S o R l e A R n i n g S t h At S t o o D o U t f R o m t h i S i n t e R V i e w : new topiCS oR qUeStionS to exploRe in fUtURe inteRViewS: 35
  • 78. exeRCiSe: CommUnitY ChARACteRS This exercise is good for: » Group interviews eYeS BRAin » Warming up the participants » Identifying individuals you want to follow up with after the session (often the eyes, ears or mouth of the community) eARS moUth » Step 1: » Step 3: heARt hAnDS Begin by saying you’d like to get to know Ask the group to explain why this person is the community better by understanding the the eyes & ears. If possible, ask for a specific different roles people in the community play. story that happened in the last month when the person played that role. Take notes in the appropriate box. feet » Step 2: Ask the group to identify a specific person who represents the eyes & ears of the community. » Step 4: You might need to qualify this with a definition Repeat for mouth, brain, heart or whichever (i.e. someone who is always looking outward feel most relevant. beyond the community for new ideas to bring into the community). People may be reluctant » woRKSheet NO. 1 to call out individuals, so remind them that there are many who play this role and you are Community Characters worksheet simply looking for one example. This activity works differently with mixed-gender, men-only or a women-only group. genDeR If men are dominating in a mixed group, you may want to ask only the women to identify someone for a given role. This can sometimes be a highly political activity, espeically if there are community or government leaders present. tip It’s fine to abandon the exercise if the political environment is making this activity difficult. 40
  • 79. eYeS BRAin eARS moUth heARt hAnDS feet » woRKSheet NO. 1
  • 80. exeRCiSe: ReSoURCe flow This exercise is good for: » Group interviews » Individual interviews » f o R i n D i V i D UA l i n t e R V i e w S : » foR gRoUp inteRViewS: Use Worksheet No. 2 Use Worksheet No. 2A » Step 1: » Step 1: Ask if your participant or one of their Ask if anyone in the group likes to draw children likes to draw. If not, it’s fine for (often a teenager will volunteer). If no the participant or the interview leader one volunteers, the interviewer can to write. make notes based on what people say. » Step 2: » Step 2: Ask the participant to list everything that If someone voluteered to draw, ask brings money INTO the household on the that person to work with the group to left side of the page. (This might include draw representations of everything that various crops, livestock, labor, etc) bring money INTO the community on the left side of the page. (These means » Step 3: of income might include various crops, Ask the participant to list everything that livestock, labor, etc) takes money OUT of the household on » woRKSheet 2 NO. the right side of the page. (This might » Step 3: include seed, technology, education, Next, ask them to draw or say medical expenses, etc) everything that takes money OUT of the community on the right side of » Step 4: the page. (These expenditures might Ask the participant to circle the item include seed inputs, water technology, genDeR on the page that provides the largest education, medical expenses, etc) income and the largest cost. Alternatively, Different cultures will often you can ask them to rank order all the » Step 4: determine whether the man items listed. Ask them to circle the items on the or the woman is in charge of page that provide the largest income decision-making and finances » Step 5: and the largest cost. in the home. If one person is Ask which items listed are controlled by dominating the conversation, the women and which are controlled by » Step 5: invite the input of the other. If desired, ask them to rank all the items Sometimes it is helpful for the men. Note this information down on the design team to split up the worksheet. from most money to least money. into two groups--one to interview the husband and one to interview the wife. This enables you to cross-check » woRKSheet 2A NO. and compare stories after the interview. Resource flow worksheets 46
  • 81. » woRKSheet NO. 2
  • 82. » woRKSheet NO. 2A
  • 83. exeRCiSe: fACtoRS & foRCeS This exercise is good for: » Group Interviews » Individual Interviews » Broadening the conversation beyond one’s immediate individual needs and circumstances » Inviting conflicting opinions from different members of community for rich dialogue » foR gRoUp inteRViewS: » f o R i n D i V i D UA l i n t e R V i e w S : » Step 1: » Step 1: Tell the group that you want to Tell your participant that you want to understand all the factors and forces understand all the factors and forces that affect their prosperity. that affect their prosperity. Describe the diagram: Describe the diagram: » The innermost circle is the community » The innermost circle is the person » The second circle is the nation and his/her family » The third circle is the world » The second circle is their community » woRKSheet NO. 3 » The third circle is their country » Step 2: and the world factors & forces worksheet Ask what factors in the community, in the nation and in the world BRING » Step 2: prosperity to the community (i.e. health, Ask what factors in the family, in the work ethic, children in school, etc). Start community and in the nation BRING In mixed-gender group sessions, the women will stay quiet in with the community level and build prosperity to their family. Start with some cultures though they have many ideas to share. When outwards to the world. Take notes in the household level and build outwards asking for responses to these questions, you might say “I’d like the appropriate circles. to the nation. Take notes in the genDeR five people to respond to this question” and point five people appropriate circles. who represent a mix of genders. » Step 3: Ask what factors in the world, in the » Step 3: Near the end of the exercise, ask what brings prosperity to the nation and in the community take Ask what factors in the nation, in the women of the community or household. Note if these factors prosperity AWAY from the community community and in the household take are different. (i.e. violence, cost of fuel, legal status, prosperity AWAY from their family. property ownership, climate change, Take notes in the appropriate circles. globalization, etc). Take notes in the appropriate circles. 57
  • 84. » woRKSheet NO. 3
  • 85. exeRCiSe: joURneY of An offeRing This exercise is good for: » Individual interviews » Understanding the whole process around purchasing a new product or service for the first time. » Step 1: Ask the particpant how they first heard about the offering (the product or service). Note their response under the first icon. » Step 2: Ask what was the first step they took to learn more about it. What questions did they have about the product or service? Note their response under the second icon. » woRKSheet NO. 4 » Step 3: journey of an offering worksheet Ask what caused them to finally make the decision to purchase. What did they have to forgo or sacrifice in order to purchase it? Note under the third icon. Different cultures will often determine whether the man or the woman is in charge of decision-making and finances in the home. If the man is the dominant voice in the conversation, listen to his genDeR explanation first, then ask for the woman to describe the journey » Step 4: from her perspective. Ask what the first use experience was like once they brought it home. Did anything Sometimes it is helpful for the design team to split up into two surprise them? Did they wish some aspect groups--one to interview the husband and one to interview the were different? Ask if they have told wife. This enables you to cross-check and compare stories after anyone else about it. Note responses the interview. under the fourth icon. 63
  • 86. » woRKSheet NO. 4
  • 87. IntervIews: w r I t e yO U r InstrUctIOns IntervIew gUIde Group Interview Individual Interview ex ample IntervIew gUIde » Open specIFIc » Open specIFIc » Open specIFIc: 1. Farm demographics Start the conversation with simple and specific questions your How many people live on your farm? participants will feel comfortable answering. You may want to begin Can you give me a tour of your farm? with a compliment and short introduction and then move on to questions 2. Stories of recent past about the participant’s current life. This is your chance to build rapport How did this year’s harvest compare to last year’s? Do you expect next year to be better or worse? with the person you are interviewing and to ask basic questions that will help you understand their overall life situation, the make-up of their 3. What do different members of the household do? What activities do women & men do differently? household, and their farming activities. » g O B r Oa d » gO BrOad 4. Aspirations for the future - use Aspiration Cards » g O B r Oa d : Prompt bigger more general topics that ask the participant to think Choose 3 cards that represent what you hope for your future. What did you choose and why? about life, business, and the future. Ask about their hopes and dreams for the future, as well as the barriers to achieving their goals. This is 5. System-based questions - use Factors & Forces worksheet The innermost circle represents your household. the chance to understand how they want to change their lives, what is The middle circle your community. standing in their way, and what they perceive the real paths to a better The outermost circle the nation and the world. What factors in each of these circles affect your prosperity? future might be. 6. Household (or Community) Resource Flow —- use the worksheets to illustrate or write household revenues and expenditures. 7. Who do you turn to for information on farming and marketing your products? » prOBe deep In your community? Outside the community? Who do you trust the most? Who gives you the best information? Ask deeper questions about the design challenge at hand & prompt with ‘what if’ scenarios. The last half of the interview is the time to ask questions that are focused on your design challenge. Make sure to ask » prOBe deep » prOBe deep: concrete questions of the participant that will help you define what is 8. Questions specific to innovation challenge and is not desirable to this person. (i.e Perceptions of Credit and Risk) Under what circumstances do people in your community take credit or loans? Have you ever taken credit? What for or why not? Unfold the flap to the right, and fill out the What was a recent, significant purchase? - Journey of an Offering Worksheet interview guide before you go out in the field. If you were offered a loan of $500, what would you do? When you start your interview, unfold the 9. Sacrificial Concepts flap and your interview guide will be visible Create 1 possible future product, service or agreement options for them to throughout your session, as you take notes and react to. It’s good to be provocative. pull out worksheets for participants.