Lessons in Project Management - 3 - Project Scoping and Contracting

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Lessons in Project Management - 3 - Project Scoping and Contracting

  1. 1. International Project Management Prof. Dr. Frank Habermann Lecture 3 – Envisioning, Scoping and Contracting
  2. 2. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010  How to find a project mission?  What is a project customer?  Dealing with different customer constellations  Types of project needs, drivers and reasons  The challenge and art of scoping  Pre-projects and business case analysis  Project contracts and project charter  Project organisation and responsibility matrix Content
  3. 3. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 From vision to implementation … a not too rare scenario
  4. 4. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 in the beginning, every project needs a clear mission!
  5. 5. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 What is a clear mission? Picture source: blog.brandintegrity.com/content/binary/mission%20statement.jpg
  6. 6. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 A clear mission means having an unmistakable assignment Picture source: ww.youtube.com/watch?v=qq9R65fXDKQ
  7. 7. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 What defines your mission? you: PROJECT MANAGER
  8. 8. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 What defines your mission? you: PROJECT MANAGER the guy who has hired you and pays the bill: SPONSOR
  9. 9. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 What defines your mission? you: PROJECT MANAGER the service or product you deliver: DELIVERABLE the guy who has hired you and pays the bill: SPONSOR
  10. 10. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 What defines your mission? you: PROJECT MANAGER the service or product you deliver: DELIVERABLE the receiver(s) of your project service/product: TARGET GROUP the guy who has hired you and pays the bill: SPONSOR
  11. 11. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 What defines your mission? you: PROJECT MANAGER the service or product you deliver: DELIVERABLE the receiver(s) of your project service/product: TARGET GROUP THE JOB the guy who has hired you and pays the bill: SPONSOR
  12. 12. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 the customer is god the customer is king the customer is always right … but who actually is your customer?
  13. 13. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 A simple question with a not always easy to find answer: who is your customer?
  14. 14. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 A simple question with a not always easy to find answer: who is your customer? „Your customer is a person who purchases your product or service!“
  15. 15. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 A simple question with a not always easy to find answer: who is your customer? „Your customer is a person who purchases your product or service!“ Consequently, the project sponsor is always your customer!
  16. 16. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 A simple question with a not always easy to find answer: who is your customer? „Your customer is a person who purchases your product or service!“ Consequently, the project sponsor is always your customer! „Your customer is a person who receives and uses your product or service!“
  17. 17. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 A simple question with a not always easy to find answer: who is your customer? „Your customer is a person who purchases your product or service!“ Consequently, the project sponsor is always your customer! „Your customer is a person who receives and uses your product or service!“ Typically, there are additional customers (or customer groups) within your project!
  18. 18. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Project customers: Three typical project constellations Scenario 1: The guy who pays you also is the direct receiver of your project‘s services Example: Developing a new business strategy for the CEO
  19. 19. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Project customers: Three typical project constellations Scenario 2: The sponsor asks you to provide services to members of his closest „family“ Scenario 1: The guy who pays you also is the direct receiver of your project‘s services Example: Developing a new business strategy for the CEO Example: Organizing an internal event („Michael‘s birthday“)
  20. 20. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Project customers: Three typical project constellations Scenario 3: The sponsor asks you to provide services to third party or „distant relatives“ Scenario 2: The sponsor asks you to provide services to members of his closest „family“ Scenario 1: The guy who pays you also is the direct receiver of your project‘s services Example: Implementing new software for HR Example: Developing a new business strategy for the CEO Example: Organizing an internal event („Michael‘s birthday“)
  21. 21. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Project customers: Three typical project constellations TWO customers: But sponsor and receiver widely share the same goals ONE single customer: Sponsor and receiver are identical TWO customers: The receiver has individual goals which might be in conflict with the sponsor‘s intentions Scenario 3: The sponsor asks you to provide services to third party or „distant relatives“ Scenario 2: The sponsor asks you to provide services to members of his closest „family“ Scenario 1: The guy who pays you also is the direct receiver of your project‘s services
  22. 22. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 each project must start with a clear understanding Of the need!
  23. 23. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Project drivers you will hear …. and such you won‘t Picture source: www.cnn.com
  24. 24. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 We must meet regulations We need to keep up with global competition Project drivers you will hear …. and such you won‘t We need to get more effective We need to create synergies This is of highest strategic importance Picture source: www.cnn.com
  25. 25. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 I have to show some action I want to get rid of my predecessor‘s stuff Project drivers you will hear …. and such you won‘t This is crucial for my careerI just want to have that thing We must meet regulations We need to keep up with global competition We need to get more effective We need to create synergies This is of highest strategic importance Picture source: www.cnn.com
  26. 26. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Uncover the real project! Picture Source: Sony
  27. 27. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 What is a project need?  The need is the driver for investing time and resources  The need explains the purpose for initiating the project  THE NEED COMES FROM YOUR CUSTOMER(S)  Thus, needs can be both, economically reasonable as well as significantly selfish  The economic need is described in a “business case” official (and hidden) agenda beneficial business case PURPOSE NEED
  28. 28. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Following-up: what defines your mission? the service or product you deliver: DELIVERABLE the receiver(s) of your project service/product: TARGET GROUP the guy who has hired you and pays the bill: SPONSOR official (and hidden) agenda beneficial case PURPOSE you: PROJECT MANAGER
  29. 29. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 A pre-project analyses the business case and clarifies a feasible project approach  Sometimes, in the beginning the project need is not entirely clear, i.e. it is • too big, • too vague, • too academic, • too controversial, etc. Main Project ?
  30. 30. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 A pre-project analyses the business case and clarifies a feasible project approach  Sometimes, in the beginning the project need is not entirely clear, i.e. it is • too big, • too vague, • too academic, • too controversial, etc.  In all these cases, a pre- project will help to prepare a good starting point (i.e. clarify the business case) Pre-Project Main Project aka - Envisioning - Feasibility Study - Business Case Analysis - Strategic Planning - Blueprinting
  31. 31. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2009 Elements of a Business Case  Background (why is this paper written?)  Business Vision and Goals (what do we want to reach?)  Problem Statement (specific challenge, target group, benefits?)  Underlying Conditions (what are known constraints?)  Project Options (alternative course-of-action and risks?)  Recommendation: - Deliverables and proposed approach to produce them - Estimated effort (required resources and expertise) - Estmated budget - Estimated schedule Picture Source: www.lowesforpros.com
  32. 32. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 SWOT analysis helps to better understand the current business situation (where are we and what are drivers for moving?)  S = Strengths  W = Weaknesses  O = Opportunities  T = Threats S O W T
  33. 33. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 SWOT analysis helps to better understand the current business situation (where are we and what are drivers for moving?)  S = Strengths  W = Weaknesses  O = Opportunities  T = Threats S O W T positive negative
  34. 34. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 SWOT analysis helps to better understand the current business situation (where are we and what are drivers for moving?)  S = Strengths  W = Weaknesses  O = Opportunities  T = Threats S O W T Internal (manageable) External (not manageable)
  35. 35. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 SWOT analysis helps to better understand the current business situation (where are we and what are drivers for moving?)  S = Strengths  W = Weaknesses  O = Opportunities  T = Threats S TO WInternal (manageable) External (not manageable) positive negative
  36. 36. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Following-up: what defines your mission? the service or product you deliver: DELIVERABLE the receiver(s) of your project service/product: TARGET GROUP the guy who has hired you and pays the bill: SPONSOR rules of the gameunderlying conditions RESTRICTIONS official (and hidden) agenda beneficial case PURPOSE you: PROJECT MANAGER
  37. 37. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 after all, set the right scope!
  38. 38. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Scoping means clarifying responsibility and managing expectations  The project scope defines the tasks of the main project Main ProjectCASE Pre- Project
  39. 39. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 The project profiler helps understanding complexity and thus setting the right project scope Source: Becota – The Berlin Consulting & Talent Association Mission unit determinedsemi- defined unpre- dictable archi- tectural incor- porated iso- lated novel extended modified rarely steadily often Activity Technology business line enter- prise < 6 6-12 months > 12 months passive inert active object doubt agree Stakeholders many few single elusive varying stable Staff Organization auto- nomous central federated ope- rative tactical strategic Knowledge paper/file data base em- bedded Skills iden- tical heteroge- nous similar tech- nical beha- vioral academic scopeduration approach level quantity stability attitudeposition type set focus maturity source structure frequency access easy spiny limited
  40. 40. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 The project profiler helps understanding complexity and thus setting the right project scope Source: Becota – The Berlin Consulting & Talent Association Mission unit determinedsemi- defined unpre- dictable archi- tectural incor- porated iso- lated novel extended modified rarely steadily often Activity Technology business line enter- prise < 6 6-12 months > 12 months passive inert active object doubt agree Stakeholders many few single elusive varying stable Staff Organization auto- nomous central federated ope- rative tactical strategic Knowledge paper/file data base em- bedded Skills iden- tical heteroge- nous similar tech- nical beha- vioral academic scopeduration approach level quantity stability attitudeposition type set focus maturity source structure frequency access easy spiny limited Orga-technical drivers of complexity („hard factors“) => Classic Project Management Psycho-social drivers of complexity („soft factors“) => Classic Change Management
  41. 41. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 The project profiler helps understanding complexity and thus setting the right project scope Source: Becota – The Berlin Consulting & Talent Association Mission unit determinedsemi- defined unpre- dictable archi- tectural incor- porated iso- lated novel extended modified rarely steadily often Activity Technology business line enter- prise > 6 6-12 months > 12 months passive inert active object doubt agree Stakeholders many few single elusive varying stable Staff Organization auto- nomous central federated ope- rative tactical strategic Knowledge paper/file data base em- bedded Skills iden- tical heteroge- nous similar tech- nical beha- vioral academic scopeduration approach level quantity stability attitudeposition type set focus maturity source structure frequency access easy spiny limited Mission unit determinedsemi- defined unpre- dictable archi- tectural incor- porated iso- lated novel extended modified rarely steadily often Activity Technology business line enter- prise > 6 6-12 months > 12 months passive inert active object doubt agree Stakeholders many few single elusive varying stable Staff Organization auto- nomous central federated ope- rative tactical strategic Knowledge paper/file data base em- bedded Skills iden- tical heteroge- nous similar tech- nical beha- vioral academic scopeduration approach level quantity stability attitudeposition type set focus maturity source structure frequency access easy spiny limited a rather broad scope => check, if project is manageable => otherwise, re-shape/re-scope a rather narrow scope => check, if project is substantial => otherwise, re-shape/re-scope
  42. 42. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Scoping means clarifying responsibility and managing expectations  The project scope defines the tasks of the main project  Things which are beyond the project scope must be • either addressed by third-party (in parallel to the main project) • or treated in further projects (follow-up phases) Main Project Phase 2 Foreign project CASE Pre- Project
  43. 43. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Remember lecture#1: when do we call a project a success? on time on budget on quality
  44. 44. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Scoping is defining the project goals regarding the identified business need to be addressed on time on budget on quality scoping is the procedure of setting the parameters for each criteria
  45. 45. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Scoping is defining the project goals regarding the identified business need to be addressed on time on budget on quality scoping is the procedure of setting the parameters for each criteria be Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound
  46. 46. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 setting the scope means negotiating project goals
  47. 47. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Setting the project scope needs understanding the cost-time-quality equilibrium changing only one criteria strongly impacts the others!
  48. 48. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Setting the project scope needs understanding the cost-time-quality equilibrium for example … If you would like to shorten the project duration
  49. 49. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Setting the project scope needs understanding the cost-time-quality equilibrium for example … for reaching the same results as originally defined If you would like to shorten the project duration
  50. 50. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Setting the project scope needs understanding the cost-time-quality equilibrium for example … for reaching the same results as originally defined If you would like to shorten the project duration You (most likely) have to calculate higher costs
  51. 51. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 As project manager you have to be a business juggler Picture source: www.binbin.net/photos/science-museum
  52. 52. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Scoping means negotiating the parameters for the deliverable THE DELIVERABLE THE SPONSOR PROJECT MANAGER
  53. 53. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Scoping means negotiating the parameters for the deliverable THE DELIVERABLE „In order to deliver high quality, I need an excellent team and sufficient time“ „You got a maximum budget of X and I need this done until tomorrow“ Agreeing the scope means solving natural conflicts of interest! THE SPONSOR PROJECT MANAGER
  54. 54. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Discussion: How to cope with unrealistic expectations? Picture source: http://geekandpoke.typepad.com
  55. 55. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Scoping means negotiating the parameters for the deliverable THE SPONSOR PROJECT MANAGER THE DELIVERABLE Negotiations typically become tricky if a third party steps in! TARGET GROUP
  56. 56. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Scoping means negotiating the parameters for the deliverable THE SPONSOR PROJECT MANAGER THE DELIVERABLE In serious cases the PM needs to decide for one party (or escalate the project)! TARGET GROUP Rule: any conflicts between sponsor and target group cannot be solved by the PM
  57. 57. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 To sum it up: what defines your mission? the service or product you deliver: DELIVERABLE the receiver(s) of your project service/product: TARGET GROUP the guy who has hired you and pays the bill: SPONSOR rules of the gameunderlying conditions RESTRICTIONS official (and hidden) agenda beneficial case PURPOSE you: PROJECT MANAGERSCOPE cost quality time
  58. 58. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Very important: even if an agreement is found, watch your scope … it tends to creep away!
  59. 59. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Scoping is a continuous fight: what shall be done in the boundaries of the main project?  Reasons for ongoing scope creep: • The scope is actually not yet agreed (people just stopped negotiating) • Some stakeholders start thinking not before the project really starts (-> new needs and personal interests come up) • Looking more into details might lead to further requirements • Some people might even try to step out of agreements (i.e. delegate tasks back) Main Project Phase 2 Foreign project CASE Pre- Project
  60. 60. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Scoping is a continuous fight: what shall be done in the boundaries of the main project?  Reasons for ongoing scope creep: • The scope is actually not yet agreed (people just stopped negotiating) • Some stakeholders start thinking not before the project really starts (-> new needs and personal interests come up) • Looking more into details might lead to further requirements • Some people might even try to step out of agreements (i.e. delegate tasks back) Main Project Phase 2 Foreign project CASE Pre- Project ?
  61. 61. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 finally, write it all down and close the project contract !
  62. 62. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Remember lecture#1: Typical project douments INITIATE RUN COMPLETE Project Contract Project Charter Rough Require- ments Definition Solution Documentation Test Plan Approvals (technical & organizational) Hand-over Documention (e.g. Support Info) Closure Report Conceptual Solution (Models) Detailed Require- ments Definition Training Plan Project Plan
  63. 63. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Types of projects contracts (service contracts) TQM setting C = Fix (lump sum) Q = Specified (approval criteria) T = To be agreed C = Fix (per sub-project/product) Q = Specified (approval criteria) T = To be agreed C = TIME x MATERIAL Q = Roughly specified T = Fix (cycle period) C = Fixed bandwidths Q = Fix (incentive criteria) T = To be agreed Advantages for customer Exactly knows the budget, i.e.no financial risk (favorite model) Flexibility (select specialized providers with best cost/benefit ratio) Appropriate for long-term business relationships with trusted providers Share the business risks with the provider (e.g. in pilot projects) Advantages for provider None (high risk, if scope/requirements are not clearly defined) Concentration (can offer core services and thus keep the risk comparably low) Almost no risk and high planning security (favorite model) Taking risk regarding the benefits of the own services shows confidence and thus may win the contract Contract types FIXED PRICE UNIT PRICE TIME AND MATERIAL INECNTIVE
  64. 64. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Types of projects contracts (service contracts) TQM setting C = Fix (lump sum) Q = Specified (approval criteria) T = To be agreed C = Fix (per sub-project/product) Q = Specified (approval criteria) T = To be agreed C = TIME x MATERIAL Q = Roughly specified T = Fix (cycle period) C = Fixed bandwidths Q = Fix (incentive criteria) T = To be agreed Advantages for customer Exactly knows the budget, i.e.no financial risk (favorite model) Flexibility (select specialized providers with best cost/benefit ratio) Appropriate for long-term business relationships with trusted providers Share the business risks with the provider (e.g. in pilot projects) Advantages for provider None (high risk, if scope/requirements are not clearly defined) Concentration (can offer core services and thus keep the risk comparably low) Almost no risk and high planning security (favorite model) Taking risk regarding the benefits of the own services shows confidence and thus may win the contract Contract types FIXED PRICE UNIT PRICE TIME AND MATERIAL INECNTIVE
  65. 65. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Types of projects contracts (service contracts) TQM setting C = Fix (lump sum) Q = Specified (approval criteria) T = To be agreed C = Fix (per sub-project/product) Q = Specified (approval criteria) T = To be agreed C = TIME x MATERIAL Q = Roughly specified T = Fix (cycle period) C = Fixed bandwidths Q = Fix (incentive criteria) T = To be agreed Advantages for customer Exactly knows the budget, i.e.no financial risk (favorite model) Flexibility (select specialized providers with best cost/benefit ratio) Appropriate for long-term business relationships with trusted providers Share the business risks with the provider (e.g. in pilot projects) Advantages for provider None (high risk, if scope/requirements are not clearly defined) Concentration (can offer core services and thus keep the risk comparably low) Almost no risk and high planning security (favorite model) Taking risk regarding the benefits of the own services shows confidence and thus may win the contract Contract types FIXED PRICE UNIT PRICE TIME AND MATERIAL INECNTIVE
  66. 66. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Types of projects contracts (service contracts) TQM setting C = Fix (lump sum) Q = Specified (approval criteria) T = To be agreed C = Fix (per sub-project/product) Q = Specified (approval criteria) T = To be agreed C = TIME x MATERIAL Q = Roughly specified T = Fix (cycle period) C = Fixed bandwidths Q = Fix (incentive criteria) T = To be agreed Advantages for customer Exactly knows the budget, i.e.no financial risk (favorite model) Flexibility (select specialized providers with best cost/benefit ratio) Appropriate for long-term business relationships with trusted providers Share the business risks with the provider (e.g. in pilot projects) Advantages for provider None (high risk, if scope/requirements are not clearly defined) Concentration (can offer core services and thus keep the risk comparably low) Almost no risk and high planning security (favorite model) Taking risk regarding the benefits of own services shows confidence and thus may win the contract Contract types FIXED PRICE UNIT PRICE TIME AND MATERIAL INCENTIVE
  67. 67. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Remember lecture#1: Typical project douments INITIATE RUN COMPLETE Project Contract Project Charter Rough Require- ments Definition Solution Documentation Test Plan Approvals (technical & organizational) Hand-over Documention (e.g. Support Info) Closure Report Conceptual Solution (Models) Detailed Require- ments Definition Training Plan Project Plan
  68. 68. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Understanding the roles of project contract and charter  Project contract and project charter are closely linked documents  Both share the agreed business case and the proposed range of services and / or products to be delivered Project Contract Project Charter • Legal Purposes • External Document • PM Purposes • Internal Document
  69. 69. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Understanding the roles of project contract and charter  Project contract and project charter are closely linked documents  Both share the agreed business case and the proposed range of services and / or products to be delivered Project Contract Project Charter • Legal Purposes • External Document • PM Purposes • Internal Document both contain the accepted PROPOSAL: proposed deliverables estimated effort agreed schedule project rules and orga
  70. 70. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 In complex projects many contracts may exist but exactly one charter THE PROJECT The PM internal team members
  71. 71. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 In complex projects many contracts may exist but exactly one charter THE PROJECT The PM internal team members Project Charter
  72. 72. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 In complex projects many contracts may exist but exactly one charter Hardware Vendor (HV) THE PROJECT Project Contract HV The PM Project Charter internal team members
  73. 73. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 In complex projects many contracts may exist but exactly one charter Software Vendor (SV) Hardware Vendor (HV) Consulting Partner A (CPA) Consulting Partner B (CPB) THE PROJECT Project Contract SV Project Contract HV Project Contract CPA Project Contract CPB The PM Project Charter internal team members external team members
  74. 74. © Becota GmbH | www.becota.com | 2010 Content of a Project Charter The term project charter is used in different ways. To our understanding the charter includes both, the scope statement as well as the statement of work!  Purpose and Problem Statement  Project Deliverables  Project Scope and Goals  Project Milestones and Rough Schedule  Existing Constraints and Known Risks (Threats)  Project Organization: - Project Structure (Org Chart) - Project Roles (Responsibility Matrix) - Project Reporting (Communication Plan) - Change and Escalation Procedures Picture Source: www.lowesforpros.com
  75. 75. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Example project org chart (role-based structure) STEERING COMMITTEE Project Sponsor(s) Project Manager Functional Lead Topic A (Sub-Project /Team Manager) Functional Lead Topic B (Sub-Project /Team Manager) Functional Lead Topic C (Sub-Project /Team Manager) Functional Lead Topic D (Sub-Project /Team Manager) Team Topic A (Expert Roles) Team Topic B (Expert Roles) Team Topic C (Expert Roles) Team Topic D (Expert Roles) Project Management Office (Communication/ Logistics) ADVISORY BOARD Associated Senior Experts
  76. 76. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Responsibility matrix – the RACI model Who is responsible? Who is accountable? R A Who is consulted? Who is informed? C I Person who is assigned with the task and will do the work Person who is the ultimative owner and takes the final decision Person who must be asked before decision/action is been taken Person who must be informed that decision/action has been taken
  77. 77. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Responsibility matrix – example form Picture source: http://cdn.information-management.com/media/assets/
  78. 78. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Responsibility matrix – analysis Picture source: http://cdn.information-management.com/media/assets/ Horizontal analysis: No R‘s or A‘s who will do it? More than 1 A confusion Lots of R‘s too many people involved Lots of C‘s and I‘s Do they really all need to know?
  79. 79. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Responsibility matrix – analysis Picture source: http://cdn.information-management.com/media/assets/ Vertikal analysis: Lots of R‘s too much work No empty space too much work No R‘s or A‘s can function be elimianted? Too many A‘ is accountability on right evel? Horizontal analysis: No R‘s or A‘s who will do it? More than 1 A confusion Lots of R‘s too many people involved Lots of C‘s and I‘s Do they really all need to know?
  80. 80. © Becota | www.becota.org | 2010 Mission clear, contracts closed, charter written? Then go and spread the word! Picture source: http://mathdaily.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/
  81. 81. Thank you very much! presentation by Frank Habermann founder of Becota and Professor of Business http://de.linkedin.com/in/frankhabermann/en
  82. 82. If you have enjoyed this presentation, please let us know! You can download this file from the Berlin Consulting Forum -> join the forum at http://consultingforum.becota.org -> visit our corporate website at http://www.becota.com

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