Tutorial: Introduction to Transient Analysis using DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

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Tutorial: Introduction to Transient Analysis with PowerFactory. This tutorial is a simple introduction to transient simulation using DIgSILENT PowerFactory

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Tutorial: Introduction to Transient Analysis using DIgSILENT PowerFactory.

  1. 1. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 1/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, Dr.Sc Manchester, UK, September, 2009 Tutorial: Introduction to Transient Analysis with PowerFactory
  2. 2. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 2/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve This tutorial is a simple introduction to transient simulation with PowerFactory Tutorial: Introduction to Transient Analysis in PowerFactory Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, Dr.Sc fglogatt@fglongatt.org.ve Manchester, September 2009
  3. 3. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 3/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1. Introduction Introduction to Transient Phenomenon and Modeling
  4. 4. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 4/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1. Introduction • Power system stability may be broadly defined as that property of a power system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating conditions ad to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance [1]. • The robustness of a system is defined by the ability of the system to maintain stable operation under normal and perturbed conditions [2]. [1] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1994. [2] PowerFactory User’s Manual DIgSILENT PowerFactory Version 14.0. DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen, Germany 2008
  5. 5. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 5/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1. Introduction • Dynamic process in electrical power system can be characterized by various areas of consideration and their characteristic time scales or frequency bands.
  6. 6. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 6/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1. Introduction • In general way, the transients in electrical power systems are classified according to three possible timeframes: – Short-term, or electromagnetic transients; – Mid-term, or electromechanical transients; – Long-term transients. Short Mid Long
  7. 7. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 7/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1. Introduction Classification of Power System Stability [1] Power System Stability Angle Stability Voltage Stability Transient Stability Mid-term Stability Long-term Stability Large Disturbance Voltage Stability Small-Signal Stability Non- oscillatory Instability Oscillatory Instability Small- Disturbance Voltage Stability • Ability to remain in operating equilibrium • Equilibrium between opposing forces • Ability to maintain synchronism • Torque balance of synchronous machines • Ability to maintain steady acceptable voltage • Reactive power balance [1] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1994. RECOMMENDED READ: P. Kundur, J. Paserba, V. Ajjarapu, G. Andersson, A. Bose, C. Canizares, N. Hatziargyriou, D. Hill, A.M. Stanković, C. Taylor, T. Van Cutsem, V. Vittal, "Definition and classification of power system stability IEEE/CIGRE joint task force on stability terms and definitions", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 19 , No. 3 , pp.1387 - 1401, Aug. 2004
  8. 8. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 8/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1. Introduction • PowerFactory allow the transient analysis in electrical power systems according to three possible timeframes: – Short-term, or electromagnetic transients; – Mid-term, or electromechanical transients; – Long-term transients. Long-term Transient Short-term Transient Mid-term Transient Time Electromagnetic transients Electromechanical transients
  9. 9. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 9/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1. Introduction • PowerFactory is capable to do simulations in these three different time bands because its modeling and algorithm of solutions. Long-term Transient Short-term Transient Mid-term Transient Electromagnetic transients Electromechanical transients ≈µ sec frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz, or with typical time constants between 10 s and 100 ms (50 Hz) ≈ hours to days
  10. 10. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 10/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1. Introduction • PowerFactory can analyse the complete range of transient phenomena in electrical power systems. • Three different simulation functions available: 1. Symmetrical steady-state (RMS) network model, 2. Three-phase for steady-state (RMS) network model, 3. Electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation function using a dynamic network model.
  11. 11. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 11/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1.1. Balanced RMS Simulation • A basic function which uses a symmetrical steady-state (RMS) network model for mid-term and long-term transients under balanced network conditions; Machine equations in d & q components (Rotor flux diff. eqs. Inertia swing eqs. Efd Pm Inverse d, q, 0 transf. d, q, 0 transf. id iq Network Z, Y elements at rated freq. (ω0) pos. seq. ea1(jω0) Phasor (pos. seq) ψd = eq ψq = ed θ ia1(jω0) Phasor (pos. seq)
  12. 12. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 12/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1.2. Three-Phase RMS Simulation • A three-phase function which uses a steady-state (RMS) network model for mid-term and long-term transients under balanced and unbalanced network conditions, i.e. for analyzing dynamic behaviour after unsymmetrical faults; Machine equations in d & q components (Rotor flux diff. eqs. Inertia swing eqs. Efd Pm Inverse d, q, 0 transf. d, q, 0 transf. id iq Network Z, Y elements at rated freq. (ω0) +Ve, -Ve And 0 seq. ea1(jω0) Phasor (pos. seq) ψd = eq ψq = ed θ ia1(jω0) Phasor (pos. seq)
  13. 13. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 13/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 1.3 Three-Phase EMT Simulation • An electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulation function using a dynamic network model for electromagnetic and electromechanical transients under balanced and unbalanced network conditions. • This function is particularly suited to the analysis of short-term transients. va(t) vc(t) vb(t) Ra La Rb Lb Rc Lc Ca Cb Cc
  14. 14. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 14/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 2. Transient Simulation
  15. 15. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 15/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 2. Transient simulation • The process of performing a transient simulation typically involves the following steps: Calculation of initial values Definition of results variables Definition of events Definition of output graphs Execution of simulation Creating additional results graphs Iterative calculations, settings Printing resuts Calculation of initial values, this include a load flow calculation and all state variable calculation
  16. 16. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 16/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 3. Balanced RMS Simulation
  17. 17. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 17/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 3. Balanced RMS Simulation • The balanced RMS simulation function are based in the following conditions: – Considers dynamics of electromechanical, control and thermal devices. – It uses a symmetrical, steady-state representation of the passive electrical network. – Only the fundamental components of voltages and currents are taken into account.
  18. 18. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 18/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 3. Balanced RMS Simulations • PowerFactory allow the following studies: • PowerFactory allow various events that can be included in the simulation. • REMARK: the basic simulation function allows the insertion of symmetrical faults only due to the symmetrical network representation. Transient stability Mid-term stability Oscilatory stability Motor start-up Studies e.g. determination of critical fault clearing times e.g. optimization of spinning reserve and load shedding e.g. optimization of control device to improve system damping e.g. determination of start-up times and voltage drops
  19. 19. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 19/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 4. Recommended Readings
  20. 20. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 20/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 4. Recommended readings • P. Kundur, J. Paserba, V. Ajjarapu, G. Andersson, A. Bose, C. Canizares, N. Hatziargyriou, D. Hill, A.M. Stanković, C. Taylor, T. Van Cutsem, V. Vittal, "Definition and classification of power system stability IEEE/CIGRE joint task force on stability terms and definitions", IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 19 , No. 3, pp.1387 – 1401. • F.P. deMello, “Power System Dynamic Overview” Proceedings of the Symposium on Adequacy and Philosophy of Modeling Dynamic System Performance, 1975 IEEE Publication 75CH0970-4-PWR (808 kB)
  21. 21. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 21/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve 4. Recommended readings • F.P. deMello. “Process Dynamics in Electric Utility Systems”. ISA Paper 505-70, International Conference Exhibit of ISA, October 26-29, 1970, Philadelphia, Pa.
  22. 22. Dr. Francisco M. Gonzalez-Longatt, fglongatt@ieee.org .Copyright © 2009 22/21 Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedordistributedinanyformwithoutpermissionoftheauthor. Copyright©2009.http:www.fglongatt.org.ve Please visit: http://www.fglongatt.org.ve Comments and suggestion are welcome: fglongatt@fglongatt.org.ve

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