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Physics Semester 2 Review and Tutorial

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• Work/Kinetic Energy Theorem
• The inverse square law.
• Physics Semester 2 Review and Tutorial

1. 1. Slides with red backgrounds involve word problems. Slides with tan backgrounds involve matching concepts. Slides with olive backgrounds involve reading data tables. Slides with green backgrounds involve graphing. The slides used in this tutorial are color coded. If you are experiencing difficulty with one aspect of your understanding than another you might find this coding useful.
2. 2. Displacement, Time, Velocity, Acceleration, Mass, Force, Weight, Tension, Impulse, Momentum, Work, Energy, Power, Spring Constant, Radius, Tangential Velocity, Centripetal Acceleration, Centripetal Force, Angular Momentum, Wavelength, Frequency, Time Period, Mach Number, Index of Refraction Select the units that match the physics quantity. Hz or cycles/s J or kgm2/s2 J/s kg kgm/s kgm2/s m m/s m/s2 N or kgm/s2 N/m None Ns s s/cycle
3. 3. Displacement- m Time- s Velocity- m/s Acceleration- m/s2 Mass- kg Force- N Weight- N Tension- N Impulse- Ns Momentum- kgm/s Work- J Energy- J Power- J/s Spring Constant- N/m Radius- m Tangential Velocity- m/s Centripetal Acceleration- m/s2 Centripetal Force- N Angular Momentum- kgm2/s Wavelength- m Frequency- Hz (cycles/s) Time Period- s/cycle or just s Mach Number- None Index of Refraction- None
4. 4. 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Work Ug KE Ug KE Ug KE Ug KE Energy Bar Graph
5. 5. 20.41 m 15.31 m 5.1 m 17.86 m 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Work Ug KE Ug KE Ug KE Ug KE Energy Bar Graph Ug = mgΔy
6. 6. 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Work Ug KE Ug KE Ug KE Ug KE Energy Bar Graph
7. 7. 10.00 m/s 17.32 m/s 7.08 m/s 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 Work Ug KE Ug KE Ug KE Ug KE Energy Bar Graph 0 m/s KE = ½ mv2
8. 8. What is the net force required to get the rollercoaster to the top of the first hill according to the previous energy bar graph?
9. 9. SOLUTION: K U Find the force. W= 200,000 J F Δy = 20.41 m F = 9799.12 N
10. 10. What is the kinetic enery contained in a 35 kg object that has been displaced 7 meters horizontally by a force of 6 N?
11. 11. SOLUTION: K U Find the kinetic energy. F = 6 N KE Δx = 7 m KE = 42 J
12. 12. If that same 35 kg object was displaced 7 meters horizontally by a force of 6 N in 2 seconds, what would be the units of your answer?
13. 13. W = J Units t = s Units = J/s Find units. P = W/t
14. 14. Energy Impulse Momentum Power Work • The product of force and the time interval during which the force acts. • The product of the constant force on an object and the straight line distance through which the object is moved. • Rate at which work is done. • Inertia in motion. • The ability to do work.
15. 15. Energy- The ability to do work. Impulse- The product of force and the time interval during which the force acts. Momentum- Inertia in motion. Power- Rate at which work is done. Work- The product of the constant force on an object and the straight line distance through which the object is moved.
16. 16. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 F(N) Δ l (m) Force vs Change of Length
17. 17. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 F(N) Δ l (m) Force vs Change of Length Rise = 15 N Run = 25 m Slope = Rise/Run Slope = .6 N/m
18. 18. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 F(N) Δ l (m) Force vs Change of Length
19. 19. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 F(N) Δ l (m) Force vs Change of Length Area =( ½) Rise x Run Area = N x m Area = kgm/s2 x m Area = kgm2/s2 Area = J
20. 20. Determine where the y intercept on a force vs change of length graph would be if the spring contains no energy.
21. 21. SOLUTION: K U Determine the y-intercept. Us = 0 J y-intercept Δl = 0 m y-intercept = 0,0
22. 22. Two identical 924 kg cars begin breaking at exactly the same time with the same constant force of 1250 N on a level road. Car “A” comes to a stop in 50 meters. Car “B” comes to a stop in 100 meters. Determine the velocity of each vehicle.
23. 23. SOLUTION: K U To solve for velocity remember the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem F = 1250 N Vf”A” Xi = 0 m Vf”B” Xf”A” = 50 m Xf”A” = 100 m m = 924 kg Vf”A”= 11.63 m/s Vf”B”= 16.45 m/s
24. 24. 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 Work Us KE Us KE Us KE Energy Bar Graph
25. 25. 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 Work Us KE Us KE Us KE Energy Bar Graph
26. 26. A stopped car was left unattended on a 17 meter hill. It rolls down hill for 5 meters. Determine the velocity of the car.
27. 27. SOLUTION: K U Determine the velocity. Yi = 17 m V Yf = 12 m Δy = 5 m V = 9.9 m/s
28. 28. 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 Work KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug Energy Bar Graph of a Pole Vaulter
29. 29. 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 Work KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug Energy Bar Graph of a Pole Vaulter
30. 30. 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 Work KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug Energy Bar Graph of a Pole Vaulter
31. 31. 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 Work KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug KE Us Ug Energy Bar Graph of a Pole Vaulter
32. 32. Determine the frequency that an object is moving around a 30 meter diameter circle if it is traveling at 5 m/s.
33. 33. SOLUTION: K U Calculate the frequency. r = 15 m T V= 5 m/s f f = .053 Hz You could also use 2πr as λ!
34. 34. Radius (m) Time Period (s) Centripetal Acceleration (m/s2 ) Centripetal Force (N ) Frequency (Hz) 1 .898 4 12.25 7 14 13 .086
35. 35. Radius (m) Time Period (s) Centripetal Acceleration (m/s2 ) Centripetal Force (N ) Frequency (Hz) 1 .898 49 98 1.11 4 3.59 12.25 24.5 .279 7 6.28 7 14 .159 13 11.63 3.77 7.54 .086
36. 36. Frequency (Hz) Time Period (s) Centripetal Acceleration (m/s2 ) Centripetal Force (N ) .5 2 .2 37.9 .111 35.1 .077
37. 37. Frequency (Hz) Time Period (s) Centripetal Acceleration (m/s2 ) Centripetal Force (N ) .5 2 236.87 710.61 .2 5 37.9 113.7 .111 9 11.7 35.1 .077 13 5.61 16.83
38. 38. Select the graph that best represents the inverse square relationship between centripetal acceleration and radius if ac (m/s2) is plotted on the y-axis and r (m) is plotted on the x-axis. Graph Options
39. 39. Graph Options Select the graph that best represents the inverse square relationship between centripetal acceleration and radius if ac (m/s2) is plotted on the y-axis and r (m) is plotted on the x-axis.
40. 40. Star Planet Distancefrom Star(m) MassofPlanet (kg) ForceofAttraction (N) Caramel Butterfinger 5.8x10 10 3.3×1023 KitKat 1.1x10 11 4.9×1024 Yorky 2.3x10 11 6.4×1023 Chunky 7.8x1011 3.96x1023 BabyRuth 1.4x10 12 3.69x1022 Rolo 8.6×1025 1.29x1021 Crunchy 1.0×1026 6.26x1020
41. 41. Star Planet Distancefrom Star(m) MassofPlanet (kg) ForceofAttraction (N) Nestle Butterfinger 5.8x10 10 3.3×1023 1.24x1022 KitKat 1.1x10 11 4.9×1024 5.13x1022 Yorky 2.3x10 11 6.4×1023 1.53x1021 Chunky 7.8x1011 1.9×1027 3.96x1023 BabyRuth 1.4x10 12 5.7×1026 3.69x1022 Rolo 2.9x1012 8.6×1025 1.29x1021 Crunchy 4.5x1012 1.0×1026 6.26x1020
42. 42. Longitudinal Wave Transverse Wave Reflected Wave Refracted Wave • Bending of an oblique ray of light when it changes velocity due to a change in the medium in which it is traveling. • Wave in which the individual particles of a medium vibrate back and forth in the direction in which the wave travels. • Return of light from a surface in such a way that the angle at which the ray is retruned is equal to the angle at which it strikes the surface. • Wave in which the individual particles of a medium vibrate back and forth perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels.
43. 43. Longitudinal Wave- Wave in which the individual particles of a medium vibrate back and forth in the direction in which the wave travels. Transverse Wave- Wave in which the individual particles of a medium vibrate back and forth perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels. Reflected Wave- Return of light from a surface in such a way that the angle at which the ray is retruned is equal to the angle at which it strikes the surface. Refracted Wave- Bending of an oblique ray of light when it changes velocity due to a change in the medium in which it is traveling.
44. 44. “A” “B”
45. 45. “A” “B” Longitudinal? “A” and “B” because they are both sound waves! Quieter? “A” Lower Pitched? “B” More Energy? “B” Longest Wavelength? “B” Wavelength Amplitude Frequency
46. 46. Determine the speed of sound at a temperature of 23.25° C.
47. 47. SOLUTION: K U Calculate speed of sound. T = 23.5° C Vsos Vsos = 343.95 m/s
48. 48. Determine the frequency of sound you will hear when the ice cream truck is coming toward you and then when it is traveling away from you if the truck emits a bell at a frequency of 244 Hz and is traveling at 2 m/s.
49. 49. SOLUTION: K U Calculate frequency. fi = 244 Hz ff V = 2 m/s Towards ff = 245.48 Hz Away ff = 242.53 Hz Who buys ice cream in that kind of weather???
50. 50. Compare the frequencies of a sound that has a .75 meter wavelength when traveling in a temperature of -10° C and the same sound wave when the temperature is 10° C.
51. 51. SOLUTION: K U Calculate frequencies. T = -10° C ff T = 10° C -10 C f = 432 Hz 10 C f = 448 Hz
52. 52. Graph Options Select the graph that best represents the position of a sound wave that echoes off the ocean floor and returns to the source at the surface of the ocean. The ship creating the sound is the reference point.
53. 53. Graph Options Select the graph that best represents the position of a sound wave that echoes off the ocean floor and returns to the source at the surface of the ocean. Point at which sound wave hits ocean floor.
54. 54. It is a beautiful 28° C day without a cloud in the sky and you are watching the air show on Lake Michigan. A plane is traveling at Mach 2.5. Determine the plane’s
55. 55. SOLUTION: K U Calculate velocity. T = 28° C V Mach = 2.5 V = 867 m/s Find the velocity of sound for that day and then multiply that number by 2.5!
56. 56. If the same plane is flying 300 meters off the ground, determine the time it takes after the plane passes directly overhead for you to hear the sonic boom, and how far the plane would travel in that same amount of time.
57. 57. SOLUTION: K U Calculate time and displacement. T = 28° C t Mach = 2.5 Xf Vp = 867 m/s Vs = 346.8 m/s t = .865 s Xf = 749.96 m
58. 58. Determine the wavelength of a sound wave that has a frequency of 128.75 Hz and is traveling at 330 m/s.
59. 59. SOLUTION: K U Calculate wavelength. f = 300 Hz λ V = 769 m/s λ = 2.56 m
60. 60. Umbra Penumbra Additive Primary Color Subtractive Primary Color Complementary Color • Three colors of light absorbing pigments that when mixed in certain proportions will reflect any color of the spectrum. • A partial shadow that appears where some of the light is blocked and other light can fall. • Any two colors of light that when added together produce white light. • Darker part of a shadow where all light is blocked. • Three colors of light that when added together in certain proportions will produce any color of the spectrum.
61. 61. Umbra- Darker part of a shadow where all light is blocked. Penumbra- A partial shadow that appears where some of the light is blocked and other light can fall. Additive Primary Color- Three colors of light that when added together in certain proportions will produce any color of the spectrum. Subtractive Primary Color- Three colors of light absorbing pigments that when mixed in certain proportions will reflect any color of the spectrum. Complementary Color- Any two colors of light that when added together produce white light.
62. 62. Compare the velocities of a radio wave and a sound wave when the temperature is 17° C.
63. 63. SOLUTION: K U Calculate and compare velocities. T = 17° C Vs c = 3 x 108 m/s Vr = 3 x 108 m/s Vs = 340.2 m/s Radio waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum!
64. 64. Compare the change in velocities of a sound wave and a radio wave after hitting glass if the index of refraction is 1.43 when the temperature is 17° C .
65. 65. SOLUTION: K U Calculate and compare velocities. T = 17° C Vs c = 3 x 108 m/s Vr = 2.09 x 108 m/s Vs = 340.2 m/s Reflective velocity will equal Incidental velocity for sound.
66. 66. Determine the frequency of a radio wave that has a wavelength of 300 meters.
67. 67. SOLUTION: K U Calculate frequency. c = 3 x 108 m/s f λ = 300 m f = 1,000,000 Hz or 1,000 kHz or 100 MHz Did you remember radio waves are part of the electromagnetic spectrum?
68. 68. Polarizer Options Select the set of polarizers that would allow the most light to pass through.
69. 69. Polarizer Options Select the set of polarizers that would allow the most light to pass through.
70. 70. Polarizer Options Select the set of polarizers that would allow the most light to pass through.
71. 71. Polarizer Options Select the set of polarizers that would allow the most light to pass through.
72. 72. Mr. Floyd is trying to separate the color pink from white light by shining white light through a diamond prism. If the angle of incidence is 35° and the angle of refraction is 13.7°, determine the index of refraction for a diamond.
73. 73. SOLUTION: K U Calculate the index of refraction. nair = 1 ndiamond Θi = 35° Θr = 13.7° n = 2.42
74. 74. A person is 1.5 meters tall and is standing 5 meters in front of a pinhole camera. The camera screen is .1 meters from the pinhole. Determine the size of the image.
75. 75. SOLUTION: K U Calculate the size of the image. So = 1.5 m Si p = 5 m q = .1 m Si = .03 m
76. 76. A picture of a 1.5 meter object produces an image of 1.5 cm when the object is 4 meters from the camera. Determine the focal point of the camera.
77. 77. SOLUTION: K U Calculate the focal point. So = 1.5 m f Si = .015 m q p = 4 m f = .0396 m
78. 78. Select the statements that match each type of mirror. Concave Plane Upright Inverted Real Virtual Magnified Reduced Same size Reversed True (Not Reversed)
79. 79. Concave- Upright or Inverted, Real or Virtual, Magnified, Reduced, or the same size, Reversed or True. Plane- Upright, Virtual, Same size, and Reversed.
80. 80. Select the statements that match a concave mirror. The object is outside the center point. The object is at the center point. The object is at the focal point. The object is inside the focal point. Upright Inverted Real Virtual Magnified Reduced Same size Reversed True (Not Reversed)
81. 81. The object is outside the center point. Inverted, Real, Reduced, and Reversed. The object is at the center point. Inverted, Real, Same size, and Reversed. The object is at the focal point. No image is produced. The object is inside the focal point. Upright, Virtual, Magnified, and True.
82. 82. A 7.5 cm object is placed 10 cm in front of a concave mirror that has focal point of 20 cm. Determine the image size and distance. Then, determine if the image is real or virtual.
83. 83. SOLUTION: K U Calculate the image size and distance and type. So = 7.5 cm Si p = 10 cm q f = 20 cm Real or Virtual Si = -15 cm (meaning the image has flipped) q = -20 cm (meaning the image is in the mirror) Virtual v v
84. 84. Black White Blue Cyan Green Magenta Red Yellow Select the color that each object would appear if only red light was incident upon the objects.
85. 85. Black White Blue Cyan Green Magenta Red Yellow Select the color that each object would appear if only red light was incident upon the objects.
86. 86. Black White Blue Cyan Green Magenta Red Yellow Select the color that each object would appear if only cyan light was incident upon the objects.
87. 87. Black White Blue Cyan Green Magenta Red Yellow Select the color that each object would appear if only cyan light was incident upon the objects.
88. 88. Select the most likely reason that each cloud would appear the color illustrated. -The cloud is made up of small sized particles that reflect high frequency waves. -The cloud is made up of medium sized particles that reflect medium frequency waves. -The cloud is made up of large sized particles that reflect low frequency waves.
89. 89. The cloud is made up of small sized particles that reflect high frequency waves. The cloud is made up of large sized particles that reflect low frequency waves. The cloud is made up of medium sized particles that reflect medium frequency waves.
90. 90. While playing the “milk bottle” game at the amusement park, a .448 kg ball is thrown at a constant horizontal velocity of 10.4 m/s and collides with a stationary .577 kg milk bottle. If the two objects then stick together, determine the velocity at which they would continue to travel.
91. 91. SOLUTION: K U Find the velocity. m1 = .448 kg Vf m2 = .577 kg p g = -9.8 m/s2 Vi1 = 10.4 m/s Vi2 = 0 m/s p = 4.66 kgm/s2 Vf = 4.55 m/s
92. 92. Dr. Fiala, who has a mass of 100 kg is traveling at a constant velocity of 1.5 m/s. Determine the impulse felt by the unfortunate freshman sitting stationary in their bumper car.
93. 93. SOLUTION: K U Find the impulse. m = 100 kg p Vi = 1.5 m/s I I = 150 Ns
94. 94. If the unfortunate freshman sitting in the bumper car experienced the impact for .03 seconds, determine the force that Dr. Fiala applied to their bumper car. Ha, Ha, Ha, Ha
95. 95. SOLUTION: K U Find force. m = 100 kg F Vi = 1.5 m/s p = 150 kgm/s2 t = .03 s I = 150 Ns F = 5,000 N
96. 96. If it takes 85,000 W of power to raise Sky Trek Tower requiring 2,000,000 J of energy, determine the time required to lift the ride to the top.
97. 97. SOLUTION: K U Find time. P= 85,000 W t ET = 2,000,000 J t = 23.53 s
98. 98. Fully loaded the Sky Trek Tower has a mass of 2349.28 kg. Determine the maximum height of the ride.
99. 99. SOLUTION: K U Find height. P= 85,000 W Δy ET = 2,000,000 J t = 23.53 s m = 2349.28 kg g = 9.8 m/s2 Δy = 86.87 m
100. 100. Sky Trek Tower is fully enclosed to prevent objects from falling out. If you did drop your accelerometer out of the window by accident, determine its velocity just before reaching the ground.
101. 101. SOLUTION: K U Find velocity. P= 85,000 W V ET = 2,000,000 J t = 23.53 s m = 2349.28 kg g = -9.8 m/s2 Δy = 86.87 m V = -41.26 m/s
102. 102. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the acceleration it would be experiencing on the fall from the Sky Trek Tower.
103. 103. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the acceleration it would be experiencing on the fall from the Sky Trek Tower.
104. 104. Force Diagrams Select the force diagram that best matches the reading on the previous vertical accelerometer.
105. 105. Force Diagrams Select the force diagram that best matches the reading on the previous vertical accelerometer.
106. 106. To confirm the results from the height slide, you decide to triangulate the height of Sky Trek Tower. Using a baseline of 20 meters, and a sightline height of 1.5 meters, you findθ1 (22°) andθ2 (20°). Determine the triangulated height.
107. 107. SOLUTION: K U Find height. b = 20 m h SLH = 1.5 m Θ1 = 22° Θ2 = 20° h = 74.93 m
108. 108. At a certain point in your ride on your roller coaster your horizontal acceleration is 14.53 m/s2. Determine the angle at which your horizontal accelerometer would be indicating.
109. 109. SOLUTION: K U Find angle. a = 14.53 m/s2 Θ g = 9.8 m/s2 Θ = 56°
110. 110. At a certain point in your ride on your roller coaster your horizontal accelerometer has a deflection of 76°. Determine the number of g’s being produced at that point.
111. 111. SOLUTION: K U Find g’s. g = 9.8 m/s2 g Θ = 76° g = 4 g’s
112. 112. At a certain point in your ride on your roller coaster your vertical accelerometer is halfway between the second and third line. Determine your acceleration at that point.
113. 113. SOLUTION: K U Find acceleration. g = 9.8 m/s2 a g’s = 1.5 a = 4.9 m/s2
114. 114. Force Diagrams Select the force diagram that best matches the acceleration you calculated for the previous problem.
115. 115. Force Diagrams
116. 116. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the most force of support.
117. 117. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the most force of support.
118. 118. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the roller coaster traveling at constant velocity to the top of the first hill.
119. 119. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the roller coaster traveling at constant velocity to the top of the first hill.
120. 120. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the roller coaster traveling down the first hill.
121. 121. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the roller coaster traveling down the first hill.
122. 122. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the roller coaster actually accelerating at 4.9 m/s2.
123. 123. Vertical Accelerometer Readings Select the vertical accelerometer reading that best matches the roller coaster actually accelerating at 4.9 m/s2.