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4.1 2013 brain studies

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  • Unit 4 Memory and Performance
  • So… How good is your memory? Let’s try a simple test of it. Without writing anything down, see if you can memorize the following list of words in their correct order.
  • What is memory?
  • The term "memory" encompasses a range of complex cognitive phenomena, which allow us to virtually go back to events and facts that happened in the past. The components constituting memory as a cognitive process are orientation/focusing, perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval. Here is a cognitive definition of memory:
  • Definition of recall
  • Peg method
  • Unit 4 Memory and Performance
  • Example of the peg method if the first word was motorcycle. Peg the bun to the motorcycle
  • Do not write these down!
  • Remember the more crazy outrageous and wild they are, the more likely you can recall them.
  • Lawnmower was number ten on the list. You needed to couple it with hen.
  • Hen-lawnmower
  • Peg is great for up to 10 items, what about more?
  • Lets go through the mental images for this example of the loci method.Remember, you can place more than one object in a room!
  • In your journal, write down 5 rooms with 5 locations each.
  • word #1 is diaper
  • Short-term memory - closely related to "working" memory, occurs in the prefrontal cortex. It stores information for a very short time (from a few seconds up to one minute) and its capacity is limited to about 7 items. The task short-term memory performs is to keep entering Information in mind for a short time before either dismissing it or transferring it to long-term memory.
  • As incoming information is processed it travels from the cerebrum to the limbic system for an emotional response. Here is where the hippocampus comes into play.
  • Primacy and Recency EffectsExample: I remember my first official little league baseball practice.
  • Due to the fact that something has just happened we also tend to remember our lasts if it has emotional value. This is called the recency effect.
  • Today’s primary and recency effects.Motorcycle and hen (five is baseball bat)Diaper and turtle (12 is swimsuit)
  • Implications for learning
  • If the memory is rehearsed (repetition) it becomes part of your life it can become part of long term memory.
  • This process can take a while as neurons and their networks need to initiate and turn on genes in the cell to manufacture proteins that change the response of the cell to other neurons.
  • More pathways equals stronger memories. If you can create more neural networks of information through active processing and orchestrated immersion into a topic.
  • More pathways equals stronger memories. If you can create more neural networks of information through active processing and orchestrated immersion into a topic.
  • Here are some additional examples.
  • Here are some additional examples.
  • How about this?
  • You can use the substitution method for many different terms or concepts that you want to remember.Example of old English vocabulary words.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Remember the following 10 items in thecorrect order so that If I ask you what was wordthree, you would remember it.WatchMissileMufflerCandyTomatoFingernailScarfDiseaseElephantPillar
    • 2. Raise your hand as soon as you recognize themusic and can identify how it is connected toyou.How do you remember this?What is the name of the actual song?Do you remember any Peanuts trivia?
    • 3. A collection of neural networks formedthrough repetition from past experiences orevents in one’s life.What are some of your earliest memories?
    • 4. The ability to access the neural networks in orderto perform a task or skill. Example recallingmultiplication facts such as 6 x 7, or the musclememory of how to hit a backhand tennis shot.
    • 5. A mnemonic device used to recall words orevents in their correct order.First memorize the peg words that rhyme withthe numbers 1-10.
    • 6. 1Bun2Shoe3Tree4Door5Hive6Sticks7Heaven8Gate9Vine10-Hen
    • 7. Motorcycle
    • 8. Memorize the following items in their correctorder using the peg method.MotorcycleCricketSilver dollarsDartBaseball BatDoughnutHelmetEmeraldsSoap BubblesLawn mower
    • 9. So, Peg,did itcomeback toyou?What were your images?1-bun- motorcycle2-shoe-cricket3-tree- silver dollars4-door-dart5-hive-baseball bat6-sticks- doughnut7-heaven-helmet8-gate-emeralds9-vine-soap bubbles10-hen-lawnmower
    • 10. C.O.W. helps with recall.Bees
    • 11. The Loci Method.The loci method is another mnemonic devicethat uses a template of known locations toplace words on.Use visualization to see the “item” to memorizeon that particular location. Don’t be afraid toC.O.W. 5 rooms and 5 locations in these rooms isenough to remember 25 words.10 rooms + 10 locations = 100 words!
    • 12. The Loci Method.
    • 13. Do Not Write these words down.Instead link them to your locations.My first room was a bedroom and the location is my pillow.I put a diaper on my pillowVisualize placing the diaper at your first location.
    • 14. 1. diaper2. mustard3. oar4. meatball5. basketball6. pliers7. paperclip8. magazine9. ring10. grease11. dog catcher12. swimsuit13. buffalo14. ship15. grapefruit16. bucket17. Tire18. marathon19. Ice cube20. candle21. cloud22. corn23. dancer24. windmill25. turtleVideo: 26:43
    • 15. If the information is emotionally relevant theinformation may be stored in the hippocampus.This is the short term memory holding area.
    • 16. Emotion aids a memory. That is why we suggestedC.O.W.Since there can be a lot of emotion with something that hasnever been experienced before, firsts become more easilyrecalled. This is called the primacy effect.
    • 17. Recall the first and last words from our peg method.Recall what was in location number one and twentyfive for the loci method.
    • 18. It is difficult to eat a burrito in one bite.Consider the metaphor!
    • 19. By breaking study sessions into several smaller unitsrather than one long session, what are we doing?More beginnings and endings create more primacyand recency!
    • 20. Long term potentiation
    • 21. Memories are broken up into varies elementsassociated with the information such as visual,auditory, and other senses and delivered aroundthe cerebrum. This creates multiple pathways tothe information.
    • 22. Because long term memories are stored throughout thecerebrum this is why a smell or sound or visual clue canstimulate and initiate the recall of a memory.There are virtually many access points throughout thebrain to recall an event or information needed to processsomething.So you smell cookies and it triggers a host of memoriesabout going to grandma’s house.I say apple and you have a working/functional memoryabout what apples look like, taste, where they grow, howgood they are for you, etc.
    • 23. Orchestrated ImmersionActive Processing
    • 24. Practice and repetition then strengthens thepathways and makes access (recall) easier.This is why writing something down makes iteasier to remember than just readingsomething, or watching something. Somestudents highlight information in theirtextbooks which is less effective than physicallytaking notes.
    • 25. We have used the mnemonic devices of the pegmethod, loci method, and linked emotions to first andlast events.Acronyms can also be utilized to help retaininformation.
    • 26. S.C.U.B.A.SelfContainedBreathingApparatus
    • 27. M.A.D.D.Mothers Against Drunk DrivingS.A.D.D.Students Against Destructive DecisionsPlease excuse my dear aunt Sally.Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction (from left toright)My very excellent mother just served us nachos. (used to be nine pizzas.)Mars Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus NeptuneNever Eat Soggy WafflesClockwise on CompassD.A.M.Mothers Against Dyslexia
    • 28. Substitution Memory MethodSubstitute a word or phrase thatsounds like the word or term youwant to memorize.Use the substitution word to create avisual that helps to remember thedefinition of the term.
    • 29. Turlough means a winter pond.Turlough sounds like Turtle: I see a turtle frozenin the ice of a pond during winter.Piet means chatterbox. I see a person putting apiece of pie into a person’s mouth who won’tshut up.Palmary means outstanding. I visualize twopeople slapping palms (high five)when theyaccomplish something outstanding.