Chapter 6: Popular Methodology“The Practice of ELT”, Jeremy Harmer, 2001. Departamento de Lenguas Extranjeras Facultad de Ciencias Humanas UNLPam Practice II, Prof. Braun (2011)
APPROACH: “Theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching”,Richards and Rodgers 1986:16. How do people acquire languages? Which conditions will promote successful language learning?
METHOD Juan Amos Comenio (1592-1670) “A method is the practical realization of an approach”, (Harmer 2011) Decisions need to be made: Roles of teachers and learners, types of activities, syllabus organization,useful materials.
PROCEDURE: It is an ordered sequence of techniques. First you do this, then you do that… Eg. How to write a poem as agroup.
TECHNIQUE: TPR. Silent viewing. Finger technique, etc.DISCUSS:Why should teachers study about Methods?
MODELS: Teaching models offer sets of procedures, usually for teachers in training.They influence the current state of ELT.
AUDIOLINGUALISM Behaviourism: modle of learning Stimulus,Response,Reinforcement. Audio-lingual method: Drills/ Repetition, errors were banned.
(*) I. PRESENTATION-PRACTICE- PRODUCTION. Stage 1: Presentation with pictures. Stage 2: Choral-Individual repetition. Stage 3: Immediate creativity. (+) It may be appropriate for beginner and elementary students. (-) Criticism: It seems to assume that learners learn in “straight lines”.It is teacher-centered. Tessa Woodward, Michael Lewis, Jim Scrivener.
More criticism “It only describes one kind of lesson; it is inadequate as a general proposal concerning approaches to language in the classroom. It entirely fails to describe the many ways in which teachers can work when, for example, using courseboks, or when adopting a task-based approach”.From Scrivener J. (1996:79).
II. Variation in PPP and alternatives to it: ARC: Put forth by Scrivener (1994b), it stands for AUTHENTIC USE RESTRICTED USE CLARIFICATION AND FOCUS We may use it as CRA or CACACR.
OHE According to Michael Lewis students should be allowed to Observe (read or listen to the language). This will lead them to Hypothesize about how language works. Finally, they will Experiment on the basis of those hypothesis.
III Also in line with McCarthy and Carter (1995).They use Illustration (e.g. transcripts of conversations)and then discovery activities and questions about the language (e.g. ways of agreeing and disagreeing politely), then Interaction as a result of which, noticing a certain routine , students will grasp new facts about language use ( Induction).
(*) ESA (Harmer, 1998). STUDY ENGAGE ACTIVATE The point of departure may vary. Boomerang effect.
Summary of Methods from the 1970’s onwards: The Communicative Approach. Task-Based Learning. Four methods from the 1970’s-80’s: Community language learning. The Silent Way. Suggestopaedia.Total Physical Response. Humanistic teaching. The Lexical Approach.
MAKING CHOICES: Which approaches and Methods are best and/or most appropriate for our own teaching situations? Remember key aspects: Exposure to language. Input. CLT. The affective variable. Discovery. Noticing. Grammar and lexis. Methodology and Culture.