Pastured pigs


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Pastured pigs

  1. 1. Pastured Pigs
  2. 2. Animal Welfare Approved
  3. 3.  We are the only animal welfare label that requires animals to be raised on pasture or range.  Our label is USDA approved.  Program endorsed by WSPA as the most stringent of all third-party certifiers.  We are a free program and have no financial incentive to certify farms that don’t meet the standards.Why Animal WelfareApproved?
  4. 4.  Farmers provided technical and marketing support.  Grant program for farms and slaughter plants.  FSIS and USDA labeling support.  Standards are practical and science based.  Program is transparent. How the program operates and it standards are on the website and accessible to both farmers and consumers.What are the benefits?
  5. 5.  Farms and Slaughter plants in the program are audited and reviewed annually.  The seal lets consumers know that the animals are being raised and slaughtered to the highest welfare standards.  We are a confidential program. We do not share audits or reviews without the consent of the farm or plant. Farms or Plants that do not meet the standards are allowed to do so thru Corrective Action Plans.The bottom line.
  6. 6.  Visit the website at  Read the standards for the species you would like to certify along with program information.  Contact us if you have any questions.  Click on the farms apply tab and fill out and submit form.  We look forward to working with you and your farm .How to Apply?
  7. 7.  What are your markets and Opportunities?  How much land will it take?  What type of infrastructure will I need?  What types of feeding plan and pastures work best?  What breeds work best for a pasture operation?  How do I set up a production system?Are you ready to set upyour farm?
  8. 8.  Will the farm be direct marketing meat or animals?  What level of production does farmer feel confident that they can sale?  How will product be sold? Farmers markets? Meat CSA? Restaurants?  Are markets available that will buy excess meat or animals?  Will market allow for seasonable production or require year round supply?What are my markets?
  9. 9.  If the farm is joining a marketing group or Coop. What level of production are you and the group or Coop comfortable with?  Are any contracts involved and what are the requirements for membership?  How is the price for animals or product determined?  What are farms alternatives if group or coop cannot market all of farms production?What are my markets?
  10. 10.  Land required for pigs is going to vary by region of country and soil type and rainfall & snowfall amounts.  General Guidelines:  6-10 Gestation Sows or guilts per acre.  5-10 Lactating sows and litters per acre. Weaning by 8 weeks of age.  15-50 Growing and Finishing pigs acre.  Overall a general guideline is to have one acre available for each productive sow in the herd to allow for rotation of pastures.How much land?
  11. 11. { Portable { FixedInfrastructure?
  12. 12.  Most farms want to put in fixed infrastructure when starting up.  Portable shelters, huts and fencing works better with rotational systems.  Portable systems gives farms more flexibility on how land and pastures can be used.  Fixed systems can limit access to pastures and makes rotation more difficult.Portable or Fixed?
  13. 13.  Allows for maximum use of pastures. Can easily be moved {  and disinfected.  Allow the farm to have greater flexibility in setting up production system.Portable Equipment
  14. 14.  More control over animals.  Harder to sanitize and { greater chance of parasite build up.  Less flexible.  Harder to make use of all pastures and rotation.Fixed Equipment
  15. 15. { Portable { FixedFencing
  16. 16.  Woven wire fences can make good perimeter fences especially in high traffic areas.  Cost can be an issue.  Woven wire fences are not very portable.  Pasture rotation along with cropping is harder to achieve with fixed fencing.  Terrain can make installation difficult.Fixed Fencing
  17. 17.  Cost is not as great as fixed fencing.  Lends itself to pasture rotation and cropping.  Requires more management than fixed fencing to keep in optimal working order.  One or two strand electric fences will keep pigs in well if combined with a New Zealand style fencer.  Key is to fence break pigs early and not allow them to ever get used to running under fence.Portable fencing
  18. 18.  orts/asl-1680.pdf is a link to a paper from Iowa State that looked at different hut designs and mortality.  Hut design makes a big difference in piglet mortality.Huts
  19. 19.  English Style huts along with different versions of modified A-frames work best.  A-frame and Quonset style huts had the worst performance.  In the U.S.A. Quonset and A-frame huts are the most available yet the least effective.  A farm will most likely have to build their own huts if they want English or modified A-frames.Huts
  20. 20. { English Arc { Modified AHuts
  21. 21. { A-Frame { QuonsetHuts
  22. 22. { Hoops { QuonsetShelters
  23. 23. { Carports { TentsShelters
  24. 24.  How much of pigs feed needs can come from pasture?  Depends on age of pigs and stage they are in.  Gestating sows can utilize pastures best. Can get 50% to 80% of needs on the right type pastures under certain conditions.  Lactating sows because of the demands of litter cannot utilize as well.  Finishing pigs would be in the 5 to 10% range at best as a rule of thumb.Feeding and Pastures
  25. 25.  Farm needs a good feed base.  Corn and soybean meal  Grain Sorghum (Milo) and soybean meal  Barley, Wheat or Triticale and soybean meal  Oats at appropriate rate depending on ration.  All of the above would need the appropriate vitamin and minerals included in mix.  Distillers grain and other products could be included at rates that would not cause issues for class of pigs.Feeding and Pastures
  26. 26.  What about peanuts, sweet potatoes, snap beans, cucumbers, potatoes and other by products.  These feeds are okay as supplements but farm should not depend on these sources as main feeding plan.  Peanuts and other products high in oil can cause soft pork if overfeed.  Many by products have minimal feed value.Feeding and Pastures
  27. 27.  Pastures should be viewed as a supplement to your main feeding plan.  The quality of pasture will depend on soil condition, rainfall and temperatures during any growing season.  Pastures will play a role in nutrient management as well as being feed source.  Most classes of pigs will denude pasture s at some point during the year.  Rotation should be part of pasture plan.Pastures
  28. 28.  Most pasture systems are Perennial based.  Perennials work well with ruminants.  Because little supplemental feed is needed with ruminants very little extra nutrients are added to the land.  Pastures can last for a long period of time in ruminant based systems making perennials a good choice.  Perennials do not work as well for pigs.Pastures
  29. 29.  The majority of pigs nutritional needs are meet with feed not grown on pasture pigs are grazing.  Pigs have a natural tendency to denude pastures.  Nutrient loads can increase greatly on land that is not rotated and cropped or hayed because of all of the added nutrients.  Land needs to be rotated and cropped or hayed to remove these nutrients.  Annuals work well for this.Pastures
  30. 30.  What breeds work best for pasture system.  All breeds of pigs can be utilized in a pasture system if appropriate breeding plan is in place.  Over large litters should be avoided. Many of the breeds that have large litters are also excellent mothers. Litter size can be addressed by crossing breeds while keeping the desired mothering trait.  White breeds can have issues with sunburn. Crosses can address this issue.Breeds?
  31. 31.  Do pasture breeds need to be heritage breeds?  Depends on farms market and philosophy.  Who defines Heritage? In can be argued that all breeds of pigs have heritage lines.  Heritage or rare breed are generally hardy.  Trade off is litter size is generally significantly smaller and feed conversion is usually poor.  Farm needs to be sure market will offset these issues.Breeds?
  32. 32.  Seasonal or year round?  Natural or AI?  1940’s style systems or modern outdoor production practices?Production systems
  33. 33.  Huts and shelters  Port a Hut  Smidley  Website of different types of equipment  Booth Pig Equipment  J Harvey Engineering LTD.  Osbourne
  34. 34.  Sioux Steel Company  Radial Production system at Sheepdrove Organic Farm _sept_2003.pdfResources