Growing great garlic4


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  • One and a half hour workshop, 2.30-4pm. Allow 30 mins questions.
  • Garlic is a great crop! Planting happens during the fall, a less busy time. Growing happens during the winter (very cheering). Scapes and scallions are available in spring, when other new crops are scarce. After the summer bulb harvest, the indoor work of curing and sorting is welcome. Bulbs store for sale for months.
  • Day-length exceeds 13 hours (4/10 at Twin Oaks, 38°N), For example, in Michigan, bulbing begins in mid-May. (temperatures are not high enough before then)In cooler regions, it is possible to plant garlic in spring, as the bulbing conditions are not reached until later in the year.Our garlic is mature in early June, or even at the end of May. It has less than 50 days in which to grow the bulb.
  • Hard neck: Rocambole and Asiatic types. Allium ophioscorodan.Soft neck: Artichoke, Silverskin, and Porcelain types. Allium sativum. Dr Gayle Volk did DNA finger-printing, found massive duplication.Music hardneck on the left, SilverwhiteSilverskin (softneck) on the right. Thanks to SESE for these photos.
  • Texas A&M: less than 85°F (29°C) at 2” (5 cm) deep. New Hampshire, mid-October. Areas with cold winters: two to three weeks after the first frost but before the ground freezes solid for the winter. Michigan: six weeks prior to the ground freezing, giving enough time for root growth only, to avoid freezing the leaves. California: January or February OK.
  • The clove you plant has the food supply to get growth started. Planting is done at a quieter time of year. It’s nice to have one of next year’s crops planted already.
  • In colder areas the goal is to get roots before the big freeze-up arrives, but not to make top growth until after the worst of the weather.
  • We keep our seed garlic on a high shelf in the shed June-November - conditions are perfect. To store bulbs over the winter, aim for 27°F (-3°C). If you are buying seed stock, buy from a supplier in a similar climate zone. Having said that, I’ll tell you that our hardneck garlic originally came from a bag of Chinese garlic bought at the wholesale produce market!
  • If you are growing for a CSA, you know how many people you are providing for, and can calculate the maximum to grow.If you love growing garlic, move to Korea, where each person reportedly eats 60 lbs (27 kg) of pickled garlic each year.At TO, we plant up to 140#hardneck and 40# softneck, 4240 row feet for 100 people. We harvest 650-1000 # hardneck and 200-275 # softneck.
  • Separate the seed garlic bulbs into cloves 0-7 days before planting. A good group activity. We often do this during our annual Crop Review meeting, when the crew meets to make notes on the past season.
  • If the basal plate breaks, the cloves are unusable for planting. I’ll rave on about garlic scallions later.
  • Many of us do nothing special with the cloves before planting. Some growers find they get better yields from treated cloves even if no problem was obvious.Anytime your garlic grows poorly and you can’t tell why, send a sample with the soil it’s growing in to your Extension Service to be tested for nematodes.
  • Northern growers may feed every two weeks in early spring until there are four leaves, if soil fertility is uncertain.
  • The spacing can be equidistant as in biointensive raised beds, or spaced rows with close plants. It’s the area that’s important. Colorado State University research: 3” is too close.The wide spacing is for very large bulbs (which might win ribbons at the fair, but might not give you the highest yield for the area). Some people have told us 5” is too close, but the bulbs don’t bump into each other at 5” spacing.In the Natural Farmer, Fall 1992, Grace Reynolds of Hillside Organic Farm in New York described how she converted a Cole one-row corn planter on the toolbar of her tractor to plant garlic. She attached a long tube to the planter and an angel food cake pan to the top of the tube. She set the tractor in crawler gear and walked behind it, dropping cloves through the pan into the tube. She also added a mark on the turning plate in the corn planter, dropping a clove down the tube each time she saw the mark, which made for regular spacing
  • Soil over the clove, ignoring the pointy extra skin – don’t worry about covering that =, unless crows would pull them out if you left any visible.A rolling dibble can be a useful tool. Can make one from a bicycle wheel (or two side by side), with rods or blocks to make divots at planting spots.Fred Forsburgin NY had designed a tractor-drawn planting platform. Can open furrows, then workers plant cloves in furrows through holes in floor of platform. Hillers on back cover the garlic.
  • (This seems surprisingly deep to me, and a slow method.)
  • Adding mulch later is more difficult than rolling bales across the bed, but if you have planted while it is still warm and want to allow the soil to cool before mulching, in order to prevent too much top growth before winter, this is an option. Myself, I would just plant later. If you plant huge amounts of garlic you will have to start planting earlier than ideal.In windy areas, can hold mulch down with cattle panels and rocks until garlic emerges.It is also possible to use thick rowcover to protect garlic over the winter, even a double layer of rowcover in very cold areas, whether or not you use mulch.
  • The visit to liberate trapped shoots also gives the chance to even out the mulch, covering any bare soil.Don’t wait too long – if you rolled really thick mulch you might never get 50% emergence!
  • You could plant your regular garlic patch with cloves at half the usual spacing and pull out every other one early. Think about quantities, though. If we double planted, we’d have over 7000 scallions, far more than we could use. The danger with double planting is stunting the size of your main crop by not thinning out the ones intended for scallions soon enough. They are chopped and cooked in stir-fries and other dishes. They are mostly green leaves at this point, although the remains of the clove can also be eaten. Hard-core garlic lovers eat them raw like onion scallions. If you do have more than you can sell in the spring, you could chop and dry them, or make pesto, for sale later in the year.Could also get garlic greens by planting whole bulbs – culled small bulbs?Haven’t tried this – could you transplant scallions in the spring if your main crop hit disaster? Probably only worthwhile for preserving heirloom varieties – yield would be low.
  • As with all alliums, removing weeds is important. Growers not using mulch will need to cultivate fairly frequently to deal with weeds., mechanically or manually.With mulch, hand weed.Flame-weeding and vinegar weeding are relatively new options.
  • For some years I was confused about which was the "sixth leaf," and I confess I was counting up instead of down.Keeping five intact skins on the garlic is a challenge in our humid climate, and because we are not shipping our garlic anywhere, it seems less crucial.
  • I also use a second method of deciding when to harvest: I pull 3 or 4 plants and cut the bulbs across horizontally and look at the center of the bulb. When air space becomes visible between the round stem and the cloves, it’s time to harvest.
  • We also use buckets because they can more easily be carried to our curing area, the upstairs of an old tobacco barn.Some growers sort in the field into small, medium and large bulbs (and compost material) and cure the three sizes separately.
  • In less hot climates, some people cure garlic outdoors, but ours would bake! In less humid climates, people don't need to pay as much attention to airflow as we do.
  • Yes, sometimes we have overloaded the netting and had the nails pull out of the walls! We try to start out by adding nails and rope to hold the netting up before we start harvesting.
  • A wall of garlic roots is quite a sight!
  • We put the seed bulbs in green net bags and the eating ones in red net bags ("Green for growing"). We also have a "Use First" category for non-storable bulbs, and compost buckets for all the tops and roots and any disasters. If we drop a bulb on the floor, we make it a "Use First" as the bruising would probably cause it to rot in storage. We weigh the filled bags for vanity reasons and to monitor the amount we are saving for seed.
  • We have marks on posts, chairs and fans around the barn, for people to measure the bulbs against. After a while people only measure the borderline ones, as they've developed a sense of the size.
  • We really value large cloves! We have been selecting our seed garlic in this way for many years now and have no trouble getting plenty of seed garlic, so once we have enough we stop measuring and selecting.
  • I hear that garlic can be stored for up to nine months at 27°F (-2.7°C), but I have not tried that myself. It does not freeze until 21°F (-6°C). Do not store peeled garlic in oil, as garlic is low in acidity and the botulin toxin could grow.
  • Thanks to Southern Exposure Seed Exchange for these glamor shots of some of their garlic varieties
  • One and a half hour workshop, 2.30-4pm. Allow 30 mins questions.
  • Growing great garlic4

    1. 1. Growing Great Garlic Pam Dawling Twin Oaks Community, Central Virginia Author of Sustainable Market Farming
    2. 2. Garlic is a greatcrop!It’s not just bulbs!Bulbs (and braids)Garlic ScapesGarlic Scallions(shown here)
    3. 3. Stages of Growth – Garlic is day-length sensitive• No control over when garlic starts to make bulbs, only over how large and healthy the leaves are when bulbing starts, and how large the final bulbs can be.• Bulbs start forming and no more leaf growth happens once day-length exceeds 13 hours, with air temperatures above 68°F (20°C) and soil temperatures over 60°F (15.5°C) as secondary triggers.• 12 hours of daylight on the spring equinox. After that, the farther north you go, the longer the daylength is. Northern latitudes reach 13 hours of daylight before southern ones, but garlic does not start bulbing there at 13 hours because temperatures are not yet high enough. Temperatures cause harvest dates to be earlier in warmer zones than in cooler areas at the same latitude.• It is important to establish garlic in good time so roots and leaf growth are as big as possible before the plants start making bulbs. Small plants on the trigger date will only make small bulbs!
    4. 4. Drying downHot weather above 91°F (33°C) ends bulb growth and drying down starts. It is important to get plenty of good rapid growth before hot weather arrives.Garlic can double in size in its last month of growth, and removing the scapes (the hard central stem) of hardneck garlic can increase the bulb size 25%.
    5. 5. Avoid confusion• Hardneck (with flower stalks or scapes, bigger cloves, easier to peel, more cold-tolerant).• Softneck (no scapes, easier to braid, stores later, smaller cloves, harder to peel).• Asiatics and Creoles sometimes have scapes.
    6. 6. Planting Time• Fall-planting is best.• 9 am soil temperature 50°F (10°C) at 4” (10 cm) deep. We plant in early November. If the fall is unusually warm, wait a week.• Softneck garlic can be planted in the very early spring if you have to (reduced yields). Give your seed garlic 40 days at or below 40°F (4.5°C) before spring planting, or the bulbs will not differentiate (divide into separate cloves).
    7. 7. Garlic emerges quickly in the fall Roots grow whenever the ground is not frozenTops grow whenever the temperature is above 40°F (4.5°C).
    8. 8. Growing in Winter• Get enough top growth in fall so garlic has a roaring start in the spring, but not so much that the leaves cannot endure the winter.• If garlic gets frozen back to the ground in the winter, it can re-grow, and be fine. If it dies back twice in the winter, the yield will be lower than it might have been if you had been luckier with the weather.• When properly planted, garlic can withstand winter lows of -30°F (-35°C).• If planted too early, too much tender top growth happens before winter.• If planted too late, there won’t be enough root growth before winter, and you’ll get a lower survival rate and smaller bulbs.
    9. 9. Storing Seed Stock• Store at 50-60°F (10-15°C). Don’t refrigerate.• Avoid temperatures of 40-50°F (4.5-10°C) during the summer, as this causes sprouting before you are ready to plant.• We have been carefully selecting seed stock for about 20 years now, and it does great.• Cloves for planting should be from large (but not giant) bulbs and be in good condition.
    10. 10. How Much to Plant• Yield ratio about 1:6 or 1:7 with hardnecks.• Makes sense - you are planting one clove to get a bulb of 6-7 cloves. If you get 1:12 you are doing very well indeed.• Divide the amount you intend to produce by 6 to figure out how much to plant.• Single rows, 8 lbs (3.6 kg) of hardneck or 4 lbs (1.8 kg) of softneck per 100’ (30 m).• Large areas 750-1000 lbs/ac (842-1122 kg/ha) are needed for plantings in double rows, 3-4” in-row (7.5-10 cm), beds 39” (1 m) apart.• 3-9 lbs (1.4-4.2 kg) per person per year in the US.
    11. 11. Popping the cloves Up to 7 days before planting Photo from Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
    12. 12. Popping the Cloves• Twist off the outer skins, pull the bulb apart• With hardneck garlic, the remainder of the stem acts as a handy lever for separating the cloves.• Don’t worry if some skin comes off the cloves – they will still grow.• Try not to break the basal plate of the cloves (the part the roots grow from).Sort:• good size cloves in big buckets,• damaged cloves in kitchen buckets,• tiny cloves in tiny buckets (planted for garlic scallions)• outer skins and reject cloves in compost buckets.
    13. 13. Pre-plant Treatments To prevent some pests or diseasesStem and bulb (bloat) nematode:1. Soak the separated cloves for 30 minutes in 100°F (37.7°C) water containing 0.1% surfactant (soap).2. Or soak for 20 mins in the same solution at 120°F (48.5°C).3. Then cool in plain water for 10-20 mins.4. Or soak in 10% bleach water for 10 mins, warm water rinse.5. Allow to dry for 2 hours at 100°F (37.7°C) or plant immediately.Mites :1. Separate the cloves and soak them overnight (up to 16 hours) in water. The long soaking loosens the clove skins so the alcohol can penetrate and reach the hidden mites.2. Optional additions to the water: 1 heaping tablespoon of baking soda and 1 tablespoon of liquid seaweed per gallon (around 8 ml baking soda and 4 ml liquid seaweed per liter).3. Just before planting, drain the cloves and cover them in rubbing alcohol for 3-5 minutes, so the alcohol penetrates the clove covers and kills any mites inside. Then plant immediately.Various fungal infections:1. Separate the cloves and soak them for 15-30 mins in water (optional extras as for mites).2. Just before planting, drain the cloves and cover them in rubbing alcohol for 3-5 minutes.Fusarium:1. Soak the cloves in a 10% bleach solution, then roll them in wood ash (wear gloves). The wood-ash soaks up the dampness of the bleach and provides a source of potassium.2. Add wood ashes when planting, or possibly dust the beds with more ashes over the winter. (Use moderation - don’t add so much that you make the soil alkaline.)
    14. 14. Crop Requirements • Sandy or clay loam, very good drainage, fertile soil, lots of OM, P and K important. • Rotation: at least five years away from alliums. • Full sun. • pH of 6.0-8.4, with 6.8 optimum. Onion maggots thrive if the soil is alkaline. • Compost or soybean meal at planting time. 30-60 #N/ac • 1-2” (2.5-5 cm) of water per week during the growing season (not during the winter), until the leaves start to yellow and the bulbs start to dry down, when irrigation should be stopped.
    15. 15. When Foliar Feeding is WastedIf your garlic reaches 4 leaves before winter, forget about foliar feedingand side-dressing.Reasons:1. It provides no gain in yield if the soil had adequate fertility at planting time.2. Foliar fertilizers tend to run off the waxy near-vertical garlic leaves, unless you add a good spreader-sticker (soap).3. Foliar feeding (or side-dressing with compost or organic fertilizers) is wasted after the fifth leaf, and certainly after the bulb starts to enlarge.4. In the South, spring is too late for foliar feeding, as garlic reaches a four-leaf size before winter.5. Don’t over-fertilize in the fall or growth will be too fast and tender to survive cold conditions, and the storage life of the garlic will be reduced.
    16. 16. SpacingGive each plant 32 to 72 square inches (206 -465 cm2).3” (7.5 cm) is too close. The shading of one plant by another reduces yield.We like 5” (13 cm) spacing in the row, and 8-10” (20-25 cm) between rows, 4rows in a 3.5-4’ (1-1.2 m) wide bed. That’s 40 in2 (258 cm2) each. We getplenty of 2 ½ “ bulbs. Many growers plant at 6” (15 cm) in-row.Double rows and drip tape - you can run a length of tape and plant one roweach side, with all plants 6” (15 cm) apart in all directions, and 40” (1 m) orless between drip lines and the pairs of rows.
    17. 17. Planting depthDepth: 1.5-2” (4-5 cm) of soil over the top of thecloves in the South, and 3-4” (8-10 cm) of soil in thenorth. Avoid planting deeper than necessary, as anymold problems you have may get worse.Planting depth in Michigan is 6” (15 cm). (Deeperplanting helps prevent too much top growth andmoderates the soil temperature.)In Arizona, some growers set the cloves on the soilsurface, then cover with 6” (15 cm) straw. This makesfor a clean crop and an easy harvest.
    18. 18. Planting• Hardneck - plant the right way up (pointy end up)! Hardneck cloves with the points down suffer a 30% reduction in yield. Softneck cloves can be planted any way up, so are easier for mechanical planting.• Our method is to mark the bed with a row-marker rake, make furrows with pointed hoes, then lightly press the cloves into the furrows at the chosen spacing, using measuring sticks. After that we pull soil over the cloves using regular hoes or rakes, and tamp the soil down with the back of the tool.• Some other growers who also plant by hand make a planting jig to make four or more holes at a time in loose soil, rather than make a furrow. Plant a clove in each hole and cover with the right depth of soil.• If you can’t squat, or you are planting from the seat of a tractor, use a 3’ (1 m) length of pipe to drop the cloves into the furrows. Dropped from that height, through a tube wide enough for the garlic to tumble end- over-end, the cloves will land the way they need to be.
    19. 19. No-till PlantingThere were trials at Virginia Tech to develop no-till planting for garlic,planting in the fall into a frost-killed cover crop.• Sorghum-Sudan hybrid, Lab-lab bean and Sunn hemp were planted in the first week of August in raised beds.• When frost had killed the cover crops (10/24) the beds were rolled to flatten the crop residue• Garlic cloves were planted 5-6” (14 cm) deep in holes made with a soil probe. All plots were given organic fertilizers.• Some were covered with thick straw, which was always beneficial.Disappointing results - no-till caused a 32-44% bulb loss, withSorghum-Sudan by far the worst. So don’t re-invent the wheel.Speculation - the cover crop residues tied up the available nitrogen.
    20. 20. No-till where oats winter-kill:Sow oats 4 weeks before garlic-planting date. DavidStern in upstate New York successfully plants intooats that have reached 6” (15 cm) tall. He cuts slotsthrough the oats with a disc-furrower and plantsthe cloves in the slots. The oats continue to growuntil winter-killed, and they continue to protect thegarlic. Timing is obviously critical and site-dependent. Can be harder to harvest from the“turf-like” soil. Wireworms could potentially be aproblem, encouraged by grasses.
    21. 21. To Mulch or Not toMulch?• Roll round bales of spoiled hay over our beds immediately after planting.• Come back a couple of weeks later and free any shoots trapped by clumps of over-thick mulch.• Leave it all alone until late February,• Start weeding (once a month for four months).• In the South organic mulches keep the soil cooler once the weather starts to heat up. It is harder to add mulch after the garlic has started to grow.• Organic mulches will protect the cloves from cold winter temperatures, and frost-heaving to some extent.
    22. 22. Liberate trapped shoots!Free trapped garlic shoots from over-thick mulch, when 50% emerged.
    23. 23. Garlic ScallionsSmall whole garlic plants, pulled and bunched like onion scallions.An attractive early spring crop.• To grow garlic scallions, save the smallest cloves from planting your main garlic crop• Plant close together in furrows, dropping them in almost shoulder to shoulder, just as they fall. Close the furrow and mulch over the top with spoiled hay or straw.• Plant these next to your main garlic patch, or in a part of the garden thats easily accessible in spring.• We harvest garlic scallions from early March, once they reach about 7-8" (18-20 cm) tall,• They last till May, unless we need to use the space for lettuce seedlings.• You may need to loosen the plants with a fork rather than just pulling.• Trim the roots, rinse, bundle, set in a small bucket with a little water, and youre done!• Some people cut the greens at 10" (25 cm) tall, and bunch them, allowing cuts to be made every two or three weeks. We tried this, but prefer to simply pull the whole plant. The leaves keep in better condition if still attached to the clove.• Scallions can be sold in small bunches of 3-6 depending on size.
    24. 24. Weed control is important Weeds can decrease yield by as much as 50%.Kill the spring cool-weather weeds, then kill the summer weeds.
    25. 25. Weed control methods• Without mulch: cultivate fairly frequently. Use tine weeders up until garlic is 6-8” tall. Then hillers will deal with the between-row weeds and some of the in-row weeds, but be careful not to cover too much of the foliage as this reduces yields.• Take care when hoeing or cultivating and hand- weeding. Keep the leaves in good shape.• Each leaf damaged or removed will cause about a 17% yield reduction for that plant.
    26. 26. Vinegar WeedingUseful in controlling broadleaf weeds, but has no effect on grassweeds. It is possible to reduce labor by 94% using vinegar ratherthan hand-weeding, so if broadleaf weeds are what you get, thisis a good solution.2004 SARE Grant report by Fred Forsburg.• 5 applications of 10% acetic acid vinegar spray during the growing season.• Start when the garlic is 18” (46 cm) tall• Spray about every 10 days, from both sides of each row.• Wear a mask and gloves, long sleeves and long pants, this strength of vinegar is caustic.•
    27. 27. Flame Growers who prefer not to mulchWeeding need to deal with weeds sooner.Colorado State Specialty Crops photo • Flame-weeding can achieve as good results as hand-weeding using one-third of the labor. • Can be used for relatively mature garlic, but young plants (four or fewer leaves) are too easily damaged. • Direct the flame at the base of the plants, in the morning, when the plants are turgid. • Don’t flame-weed if you have mulch!
    28. 28. Diseases• The major diseases are mostly fungal: White Rot, Fusarium, Botrytis, Rust, Penicillium Molds, Purple Blotch, Powdery Mildew and Downy Mildew. Use pre-plant clove treatments to reduce these diseases. Bacterial soft rots are also sometimes seen. Remove isolated sick plants as soon as you see them. Always remove garlic debris from the field at the end of the season, or till it in and plant a non-allium crop. In summer, soil biological life is very active, and soil organisms will quickly break down the debris.• White Rot is most active below 75°F (24°C) and leads to yellowing and dying of older leaves, tipburn, destruction of the root system and rotting of the bulb. This fungus can persist in the soil for 10 years, and requires assertive action to reduce the problem. A clever trick is to spray garlic extract on the soil when the temperature is 60-70°F (15-21°C) and you have no garlic growing. The fungal mycelium may grow and then die off in the absence of food. Several weeks later, garlic can be planted and will escape the rot.• Fusarium usually attacks plants that are under stress. (In our garden it is the plants on the gravelly edge of the patch.) It grows during hot weather, with symptoms similar to White Rot, but slower to develop. Fusarium produces small brown spots on the cloves, yellowed leaves and stunted browned roots. The discoloration of the leaves spreads from the tips. The main organic approaches to controlling Fusarium are good sanitation (and pre-planting treatments) as well as fostering strong plant growth.• Botrytis symptoms include “water-soaked” leaves, and can lead to bulbs rotting, sometimes during storage. This fungus grows best (worst!) in warm wet weather. Good airflow during growth, curing and storage, will reduce the chances of Botrytis problems.• Rust shows up initially as small white flecks on the leaves, developing into orange spots. Favorable conditions include temperatures of 45-55°F (7-13°C), high humidity but low rainfall, and low light. Stressed plants are the most likely to be stricken. Infected bulbs may shrink, yellow and die. Once again, good sanitation and rotations are the organic approaches.
    29. 29. Pests• Pests include nematodes, thrips, onion maggots, cutworm, armyworm, and mites. Weekly scouting is a good practice. Use pre- planting treatments against nematodes and mites. Caterpillars can be killed with Bt.• Nematode infestations show up as distorted, bloated, spongy leaves and bulbs, perhaps with brown or yellow spots. Top growth yellows and may separate from the root system. Farmscaping (planting flowers to attract beneficial insects that feed on pests) can work for thrips, which are on the menu for lady bugs and minute pirate bugs.• Beneficial nematodes can be effective against onion maggots; ground and rove beetles, birds and braconid wasps all prey on some life stage of the onion maggot. Rowcover can exclude the fly (mother of the maggots).• Mites can eat the skins of the cloves, survive the winter and multiply all spring long, seriously damaging or even killing your crop.
    30. 30. Garlic ScapesGarlic scapes are the firm, round seed stems that grow from hard-neck garlic, starting to appear 3 weeks beforeharvest, as the bulbs size up. If these are removed, the garlic bulbs will be easier to braid, if you want braids fromhardneck varieties. Scapes also make an early-season visually attractive crop. Contrary to ideas mentioned by somesources, leaving scapes in does not increase the storage life of the garlic. Most people who remove scapes cut themwhere they emerge from the leaves. We prefer to pull ours, to get the most out. We dont wait for the top of thescape to loop around, as the scapes will have begun to toughen and reduce the final yield of the garlic. As soon as thepointed caps of the scape have cleared the plant center, grasp the round stem just below the cap and pull slowly andsteadily vertically upwards. The scape emerges with a strange popping sound and you have the full length of thescape, including the tender lower portion. Sometimes the scapes will snap rather than pull right out, but theremainder of the stem can be pulled next time, when it has grown taller. We gather into buckets, with the scapesstanding upright, so we can put a little water in the bucket, and so that the scapes are aligned, easy to cut up. Theywill store well in a refrigerator for months if needed. Late morning is a good time to pull scapes (or early afternoon).The wound heals over in 15-20 minutes in the heat of the day, whereas otherwise it could drip for up to 24 hours,increasing the risk of disease, and losing water from the plant.We harvest scapes two or three times a week, for about three weeks in May. The crew always enjoys this job, partlybecause its a stand-up job, and partly because we encourage a friendly competition to see who can get the longestscape of the day. This encourages everyone to perfect their technique too. Scapes can be chopped and used in stir-fries, pesto, garlic butter, pickles and other dishes in place of bulb garlic. They can also be frozen for out of seasonuse. Searching the internet will reveal lots of recipes. Scapes sell in bunches of 6-10. One acre (0.4 hectare) ofhardneck garlic can produce 300-500 lbs (136-226 kg) of scapes.Coloradp State University Specialty Crops photo.
    31. 31. Pre-harvest prep• With hardneck garlic, scapes will start appearing about 3 weeks before the bulbs are mature. (Day-length as well as accumulated degree days determines when scapes appear as well as when bulbs are ready to harvest.) This is a good time to be paying more attention to your garlic crop, and what better way than walking through pulling scapes?• Take the opportunity to remove any diseased plants from the patch at the same time. Three weeks before the expected harvest, remove the mulch to help the bulbs dry down, and to prevent fungal diseases.• In our rotation, the spring broccoli is usually next door to the garlic, and we move the old garlic mulch to the broccoli to top up the mulch there. It helps us stay on track with getting the broccoli weeded too.
    32. 32. Determining when to harvestGarlic is ready to harvest when the sixth leaf down isstarting to brown on 50% of the crop. See RonEngelands Growing Great Garlic. The point is to havefive green leaves still on the plant, to provide theprotection of five intact skins over the bulb. Each leafcorresponds to one wrapper on the cloves orbulb, and as the leaf dies, so the skin rots.Harvesting too early means smaller bulbs (harvestingway too early means an undifferentiated bulb and lotsof wrappers that then shrivel up). Harvesting too latemeans the bulbs may "shatter" or have an explodedlook, and not store well.It is possible to take apart any small or shatteredbulbs and replant them immediately after harvest togrow more scallions. They won’t start growingimmediately if the weather is really hot, they’ll juststay dormant until cooler weather arrives.Usually its 6/7-6/14 for harvest of our main crop ofhardneck garlic, but it has been as early as 5/30, andas late as 6/18.
    33. 33. Cut across hardneck garlic – airspaces around stem show maturityMusic German Red
    34. 34. Mechanical HarvestColorado State Univesity Specialty Crops photo Use a tractor-mounted undercutter to loosen the bulbs, or a root-harvester to completely dig them up. Sub-soilers, European leek harvesting machines or homemade undercutters fashioned from an old snow plow blade bent into a rectangular shape, have all been used.
    35. 35. Manual Harvest• Use digging forks to loosen the soil – lift, don’t pull. Stressing the necks will not improve the curing.• In drought years use overhead irrigation the evening before, to loosen the soil enough to harvest without damage.• Treat the bulbs like precious sun- sensitive eggs! Bruised bulbs wont store well, nor will sun-scalded ones. It’s better not to wash them, as drying is what’s needed. Shake off the soil, without banging the bulbs.
    36. 36. Avoid cooking your garlic!We harvest into buckets to keep the bulbs shaded. Others might use crates. Ifit’s hot, get the garlic out of the field quickly, hang it up and get it drying,(indoors!) Don’t let garlic get above 121°F (49°C) as it will start to cook.
    37. 37. Despite looking a lot yellowerthan “5 green leaves”, this 2012crop was not shattering.
    38. 38. Garlic harvest gets fast follow-upImmediately after the harvest we till the old garlicarea and sow buckwheat and soy. We have about sixor seven weeks before well use these beds to sowour fall carrots at the very beginning of August.
    39. 39. The indoor job of hanging the garlicSetting garlic to cure to cure as it comes in from the field is popular when it is hot outside. It takes us several morning shifts to getPic of garlic drying on floor our 4200 row feet (1280 m) of garlic harvested and hung up. Some growers tie the plants in loose bundles of about 8-12 plants and hang the bundles under cover. If you can size the bunch so it ends up around one pound (0.5 kg) in weight, you may save yourself a task later. Whatever method you are using, get the garlic spread out immediately. Don’t leave it in plastic containers where the heat and moisture will incubate fungi!
    40. 40. Cure for 2-4 weeks. We hang our garlic in nylon netting around the walls of a barn. The netting has a 2" (5 cm) diamond mesh. Snowfencing (slats and wire, or the plastic kind) can also be used to hang garlic. Or you can make horizontal racks, and lay the garlic on top. To braid softneck garlic, start braiding within the first week of curing, before the leaves become too brittle. You’ll also need to clean your garlic.
    41. 41. Using nettingWe thread a bulb in eachdiamond, by bending thetops of the leaves andfeeding them through thespace. We take a section ofnetting and work upwards inrows, back andforth, covering the walls ingarlic. We use fans to movethe air, which you shouldconsider if your climate isalso humid.
    42. 42. Snipping and SortingTest the curing garlic by rolling theneck of a few sample bulbsbetween finger and thumb. If itfeels dry, rather than moist, itsready.Use scissors to cut off the rootsclose to the bulb and the tops¼ - ½ " (0.5-1 cm) above the bulb.Some growers brush mud off withtoothbrushes. We find enough dirtdrops off during storage to save usthis tedious task.
    43. 43. Selecting seed garlicMeasure the bulbs andassess which are good forseed.We save for seed all bulbs 2-2.5" (5-7 cm) in diameter,with an even shape andcloves that are tighttogether, not opening up.Some growers use jigs withtwo foam-lined battenstapering towards each otheron a board to measure sizes.Photo: Colorado State University Specialty Crops
    44. 44. Sorting garlic Don’t just save all the biggest bulbs for seed - they tend to be uneven ("rough") in shape and quality, with cloves of all sizes.
    45. 45. Storage • Our seed garlic goes on a high shelf in the garden shed, at quite variable ambient temperatures, and does fine until late October or early November when we plant it. The ideal storage conditions for seed garlic are 50-65°F (10- 18°C) and 65-70% relative humidity. • Don’t refrigerate seed garlic - prolonged cool storage results in “witches-brooming” (strange growth shapes), and early maturity (along with lower yields). • Storage above 65°F (18°C) results in delayed sprouting and late maturity. • The eating garlic is stored in a dry, coolish basement at 60- 70°F (15.5-21°C) over the summer. In late September we move our eating garlic from the basement to the walk-in cooler at 35-38°F (1.5-3°C) to make space available for the winter squash. By this time most of the apples have gone from the walk-in cooler, and there is no longer the problem of ethylene emitted by the apples, which causes garlic to sprout. Ideally they would never be in the same storage space. • At 32°F (0°C) it will store for 6-7 months. • Avoid the middle temperature range of 40-56°F (4.4- 13°C), as this encourages sprouting. This is another reason why we move garlic out of the basement in the fall – temperatures there are dropping below 56°F (13°C).
    46. 46. Kilarney hardneck (SESE)
    47. 47. Music hardneck (SESE)
    48. 48. Siberian hardneck (SESE)
    49. 49. German Red Hardneck (SESE)
    50. 50. Italian softneck (Artichoketype) (SESE)
    51. 51. French Red Softneck (SESE)
    52. 52. Silverwhite softneck (Silverskin type)(SESE)
    53. 53. Inchelium Red Softneck (Artichoke type) (SESE)
    54. 54. Polish White Softneck (SESE)
    55. 55. Lorz Italian (SESE)
    56. 56. ResourcesGrowing Great Garlic, Ron Engeland, 1991, Filaree Colorado State University Specialty Crop Garlic Project,ATTRA, Organic Garlic Production, 2004_spce_flme_scpe.htmThe Garlic Seed Foundation, Sources for An organization ofgrowers and eaters. Their website lists suppliers and Gourmet Garlic Gardens, gourmetgarlicgardens.comresources, including the ARS Germplasm Resource,which supplies small amounts of plant material to /index.htm 325-348-3049, 73 varietiesgrowers. They have an extensive library andinformation on building your own harvestingequipment. Filaree Farms, WA, 509-422-6940, over 100 varietiesDr Gayle Volk’s Garlic DNA Analysis, Territorial Seeds, OR, 800-626-0866, 27 varietiesNematodes, Southern Exposure Seed Exchange, VA, 540-894-9480, 17 varietiesGourmet Garlic Garden growing instructions, pestsand diseases, growing in the South, and more, Irish Eyes Garden Seeds, WA, 509-964-7000 or 509- 925-6025, 19 varieties
    57. 57. Growing Great Garlic Pam Dawling Twin Oaks Community Central Virginia Author of Sustainable Market Farming