CAMP
Clarkson University
CAMP
                                    Clarkson University


• Environmental Applications
• Environmental Applications
 ...
CAMP
                                       Clarkson University


• particle and fiber deposition
                        ...
CAMP
                                                            Clarkson University


• Particle and fiber deposition in ...
CAMP
                               Clarkson University




Velocity vector plot   Particle Deposition
CAMP
                                                                                          Clarkson University



    ...
CAMP
                                       Clarkson University




                       η (%)




Li and Ahmadi (1996)
...
CAMP
                                           Clarkson University




Velocity magnitude contours in the nose.
CAMP
                                 Clarkson University




Pressure contours in the nose.
CAMP
                                                                                         Clarkson University
        ...
CAMP
                            Clarkson University


      Sample Deposited
        Glass Fibers



  Comparison with
  ...
CAMP
                                                            Clarkson University
                                     ...
CAMP
                                                                                        Clarkson University

Pressure...
CAMP
                                        Clarkson University


    Computer Simulation of
concentration behind the bui...
CAMP
                                                  Clarkson University




                                    Velocit...
CAMP
                           Clarkson University

                                  Buffalo




Canada




   Lwebuga-M...
CAMP
                                     Clarkson University

             Peace Bridge   Canada




                    ...
CAMP
                                      Clarkson University


                              Particle      Deposition
  ...
CAMP
                                         Clarkson University

                      Fl
                              ...
CAMP
                               Clarkson University




Fully Coupled Electro-hydrodynamic
System of Equations are sol...
CAMP
                     Clarkson University




         Plate

Gas
Flow   Corona Wire

          Plate
CAMP
                             Clarkson University


                Electrode



Positive Ion
Negative Ion/
Electron

...
CAMP
                                                    Clarkson University


Single Wire Precipitator
                  ...
CAMP
Clarkson University
CAMP
  Clarkson University




No Cross Flow
CAMP
  Clarkson University




No Cross Flow
CAMP
  Clarkson University




No Cross Flow
CAMP
                                                                                                                     ...
CAMP
                                                Clarkson University




   No cross-flow       Inlet velocity 0.2 m/s...
CAMP
                                                                                                                     ...
CAMP
                                                Clarkson University




  No cross-flow        Inlet velocity 0.2 m/s...
CAMP
                                                Clarkson University




 No cross-flow         Inlet velocity 0.2 m/s...
CAMP
                                           Clarkson University


    Current Flux           Inlet           Plate
   ...
CAMP
                                 Clarkson University



Inlet Velocity   Wire Charge
                   Density
 No c...
CAMP
Clarkson University
CAMP
                                        Clarkson University


Electric Potential and Charge Density Contours




Elec...
CAMP
                                                                                        Clarkson University




     ...
CAMP
                                                Clarkson University


• Develop a sequence of interactive web-based
 ...
CAMP
                                   Clarkson University


• Computer modeling provide an
  important tool for studying...
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Computer Modeling of Air Flow and Contaminant Transport in Environments and Electrophotographic Machines (Goodarz Ahmadi and Fa-Gung Fan)

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Annual CAMP Technical Meeting, Canandaigua, NY, 5/12-14, 2004. (CAMP --- Center for Advanced Materials Processing)

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Computer Modeling of Air Flow and Contaminant Transport in Environments and Electrophotographic Machines (Goodarz Ahmadi and Fa-Gung Fan)

  1. 1. CAMP Clarkson University
  2. 2. CAMP Clarkson University • Environmental Applications • Environmental Applications - Respiratory Deposition - Respiratory Deposition - Aerodynamic Lenses - Aerodynamic Lenses - Airflow near and in Buildings - Airflow near and in Buildings - Airflow and pollutant near Bridges - Airflow and pollutant near Bridges • EHD in Corona Devices • EHD in Corona Devices - Electrostatic Separator - Electrostatic Separator - Corotron Devices - Corotron Devices
  3. 3. CAMP Clarkson University • particle and fiber deposition Hopke-NIOSH Hopke-NIOSH in human lung and nose
  4. 4. CAMP Clarkson University • Particle and fiber deposition in human lung 0.95cm FLUENT 45o 3.01cm 2.78cm 30o U=3m/s 45o 1.46cm 2cm 1.5cm 7.2cm Schematic of the triple Grid schematic bifurcation airway
  5. 5. CAMP Clarkson University Velocity vector plot Particle Deposition
  6. 6. CAMP Clarkson University 80 50 70 Experimental Data Third Bifurcation 40 (%) 60 Second Bifurcation 50 30 Numerical Simulation First Bifurcation 40 20 30 10 20 0 10 10-2 10-1 100 100 101 Particle Diameter (µm) st Comparison of total deposition with Variations of the capture efficiency the experimental data of Hinds (1982) with particle Stokes number
  7. 7. CAMP Clarkson University η (%) Li and Ahmadi (1996) Velocity magnitude contours
  8. 8. CAMP Clarkson University Velocity magnitude contours in the nose.
  9. 9. CAMP Clarkson University Pressure contours in the nose.
  10. 10. CAMP Clarkson University 3.75 L/min 100 7.5 L/min 15 L/min 90 80 Deposition in Percentage 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Diameter in Micron 100 90 80 Deposition in Percentage 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 τ *
  11. 11. CAMP Clarkson University Sample Deposited Glass Fibers Comparison with Experimental Data Sample Trajectories Fan and Ahmadi (1996) Soltani and Ahmadi (1999)
  12. 12. CAMP Clarkson University Vacuum Pump Aerodynamic Lenses Nozzle (d=3 mm) (d=5, 4.5, 4, 3.75, 3.5 mm) Skimmer 50 mm •To evaluate the performance Intermediate of aerodynamic lenses for Chamber generating focused beams of nano-particles Computational grid Velocity Contours
  13. 13. CAMP Clarkson University Pressure Contours d =100 nm Particle Trajectories 20 eamD eter (mm) 16 Beam Diameter (mm) Experimental Data (Liu et al. 1995b) Conningham (varying pressure) 12 iam Conningham (constant coefficient) article B 8 P 4 0 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 Particles Diameter (micrometer) Particle Diameter (µm)
  14. 14. CAMP Clarkson University Computer Simulation of concentration behind the building Experimental helium concentration data measured by Mirzai et al. (1994)
  15. 15. CAMP Clarkson University Velocity magnitude contours. Pollutant concentration contours.
  16. 16. CAMP Clarkson University Buffalo Canada Lwebuga-Mukasa (2001)
  17. 17. CAMP Clarkson University Peace Bridge Canada Buffalo Lwebuga-Mukasa (2001)
  18. 18. CAMP Clarkson University Particle Deposition Size Rate 0.1 µm 6% 20 µm 8% 50 µm 30% Velocity magnitude contours
  19. 19. CAMP Clarkson University Fl Mt Ft d O a FPo •Cryogenic Surface Cleaning (Toscano and Ahmadi (2002) •Particle Removal in Turbulent Flows (Soltani, Fan and Ahmadi (1995) •Removal by Vibration
  20. 20. CAMP Clarkson University Fully Coupled Electro-hydrodynamic System of Equations are solved
  21. 21. CAMP Clarkson University Plate Gas Flow Corona Wire Plate
  22. 22. CAMP Clarkson University Electrode Positive Ion Negative Ion/ Electron Ionized Sheath + Wire
  23. 23. CAMP Clarkson University Single Wire Precipitator Plate Gas Flow Corona Wire Plate Kaptsov’s Assumption and Peek’s Formula were used
  24. 24. CAMP Clarkson University
  25. 25. CAMP Clarkson University No Cross Flow
  26. 26. CAMP Clarkson University No Cross Flow
  27. 27. CAMP Clarkson University No Cross Flow
  28. 28. CAMP Clarkson University 25 12 20 Computational result Voltage (dimensionless) Voltage (dimensionless) Penny and Matick 9 15 6 10 5 3 0 0 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 Y (dimensionless) Y (dimensionless)
  29. 29. CAMP Clarkson University No cross-flow Inlet velocity 0.2 m/s Intel velocity 3 m/s Inlet velocity 6 m/s
  30. 30. CAMP Clarkson University 14 14 Inlet Inlet Outlet 12 Outlet 12 Voltage (dimensionless) 10 Voltage (dimensionless) 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 Y (dimensionless) Y (dimensionless) No cross-flow Inlet velocity 0.2 m/s 14 14 Inlet Inlet 12 Outlet 12 Outlet Voltage (dimensionless) Voltage (dimensionless) 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 Y (dimensionless) Y (dimensionless) Intel velocity 3 m/s Inlet velocity 6 m/s
  31. 31. CAMP Clarkson University No cross-flow Inlet velocity 0.2 m/s Intel velocity 3 m/s Inlet velocity 6 m/s
  32. 32. CAMP Clarkson University No cross-flow Inlet velocity 0.2 m/s Intel velocity 3 m/s Inlet velocity 6 m/s
  33. 33. CAMP Clarkson University Current Flux Inlet Plate Velocity Current J = (qu + bqE − D∇q) No cross flow 5.84 e-5 A/m2 0.2 m/s 5.83 e-5 A/m2 Current received by each Plate 3 m/s 5.70 e-5 A/m2 J py = ∫ bqE y 6 m/s 5.53 e-5 A/m2
  34. 34. CAMP Clarkson University Inlet Velocity Wire Charge Density No cross flow 5.64 e-5 C/m3 0.2 m/s 5.66 e-5 C/m3 3 m/s 5.73 e-5 C/m3 6 m/s 5.90 e-5 C/m3
  35. 35. CAMP Clarkson University
  36. 36. CAMP Clarkson University Electric Potential and Charge Density Contours Electric Potential Charge Density Contours Contours
  37. 37. CAMP Clarkson University 0.001 400 0.0009 0.0008 Voltage (Volt) 300 0.0007 3 C/m 200 0.0006 0.0005 100 0.0004 0 0.0003 0 5 10 15 20 0 100 200 300 Length (mm) Φ Voltage Profile on the Charge Density Substrate Profile on the wire
  38. 38. CAMP Clarkson University • Develop a sequence of interactive web-based courses on particle transport, deposition and removal • Provide computational modeling experience • Provide hands-on laboratory experience http://www.clarkson.edu/fluidflow/courses/me437/syllabus.htm http://www.clarkson.edu/fluidflow/courses/me537/syllabus.htm http://www.clarkson.edu/fluidflow/courses/me637/syllabus.htm
  39. 39. CAMP Clarkson University • Computer modeling provide an important tool for studying environmental flows • Numerical simulation is a useful tool for design of corona devices Goodarz Ahmadi Clarkson University Fa-Gung Fan (315) 268-2322 Xerox Corporation ahmadi@clarkson.edu FFan@crt.xerox.com

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