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Ls2 afet unit 6 support systems in animals

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  • 1. UNIT 6: SUPPORTSYSTEMS INANIMALSCAMPBELL & REECECHAPTER 50 & NOTES ONEDULINK & LEARNING GUIDE
  • 2. 1. DIFFERENT TYPES OFSKELETONSThe three main types of skeletonsare:Hydrostatic skeletons (lack hardparts)Exoskeletons (external hard parts)Endoskeletons (internal hard parts)
  • 3. Hydrostatic SkeletonsA hydrostatic skeleton consists of fluidheld under pressure in a closed body This is the main type of skeleton inmost cnidarians, flatworms,nematodes, and annelidsAnnelids use their hydrostatic skeletonfor peristalsis, a type of movement onland produced by rhythmic waves ofmuscle contractions.
  • 4. HYDROSTATIC SKELETONSCNIDARIANEMATODEFLATWORMSANNELIDA
  • 5. ExoskeletonsAn exoskeleton is a hardencasement deposited on thesurface of an animalExoskeletons are found in mostmolluscs and arthropodsArthropod exoskeletons are madeof cuticle and can be both strongand flexibleThe polysaccharide chitin is oftenfound in arthropod cuticle
  • 6. EXOSKELETONSARTHROPODSMOLLUSC
  • 7. ENDOSKELETONSAn endoskeleton consists of hardsupporting elements, such asbones, buried in soft tissueEndoskeletons are found insponges, echinoderms, andchordatesA mammalian skeleton has more than200 bonesSome bones are fused; others areconnected at joints by ligaments thatallow freedom of movement.
  • 8. ENDOSKELETONSECHINODERMATASPONGESCHORDATA
  • 9. 2. THE HUMAN SKELETON
  • 10. 2. THE HUMAN SKELETON
  • 11. a. AXIAL SKELETON: i)Human Skull Consist of 28 bones It consists of flat bones that are connectedon the sides by immovable joints calledsutures. In babies not all the bones of the skull makecontact with each other and fontanels areformed. The lower jaw bone (Mandible) is the onlymovable bone of the skull – Upper jaw(Maxilla) is not moveable. The large opening at the base of the skull iscalled the foramen magnum – it is where thespinal cord enters the skull.
  • 12. Human Skull
  • 13. a. AXIAL SKELETON: ii)VERTEBRAL COLUMN Consists of 33 bones called vertebrae. 24 vertebrae are individual single bones. 9 vertebrae are fused to form the sacrum andcoccyx. Cartilage disks are found between vertebrae. The s-shaped structure of the vertebral columnand the disks absorb shock and help toprotect the spinal cord. The first vertebrae – Atlas – carry the weight ofthe skull, allows the head to nod. 2nd vertebrae – Axis – allows head to move tothe side
  • 14. a. AXIAL SKELETON:ii) VERTEBRAL COLUMN Vertebrae is divided into 7 Cervical vertebrae 12 Thoracic vertebrae 5 Lumbar vertebrae 5 fused vertebrae = sacrum 4 fused vertebrae = coccyx
  • 15. a. AXIAL SKELETON: iii) THORAX Consists of the sternum, 12 pairs of ribs andthoracic vertebrae. It protects the heart and lungs. First 7 pairs of ribs are directly attached to thesternum by cartilage – called true ribs. Next 5 pairs – false ribs – last 2 pairs of falseribs are not attached to the sternum – calledfloating ribs Intercostal muscles found between ribs – aidin breathing process.
  • 16. a. AXIAL SKELETON: iii) THORAXTrue ribsFalse ribs Floating ribssternum
  • 17. b. APPENDICULAR SKELETONMade up of the shoulder (pectoral girdle),arms, hips (pelvic girdle) and legs.126 bones.Function: Movement
  • 18. b. APPENDICULAR SKELETON i) Pectoral girdleand arm
  • 19. b. APPENDICULAR SKELETON i) Pelvic girdle andleg
  • 20. 3. FUNCTIONS OF A SKELETON Support Movement Protection Blood cell production Storage Endocrine regulation
  • 21. a. Support The skeleton provides theframework which supports the bodyand maintains its shape. The pelvis, associated ligamentsand muscles provide a floor for thepelvic structures. Without the ribs, costalcartilages, and intercostalmuscles, the heart would collapse.
  • 22. b. MOVEMENT The joints between bones permitmovement. Movement is powered by skeletalmuscles, which are attached to theskeleton at various sites on bones. Muscles, bones, and joints providethe principal mechanics formovement, all coordinated by thenervous system.
  • 23. c. ProtectionThe skeleton protects many vitalorgans e.g.: The skull protects the brain, theeyes, and the middle and innerears. The vertebrae protects the spinalcord. The rib cage, spine, and sternumprotect the lungs, heart and majorblood vessels.
  • 24. d. Blood cell production• The skeleton is the site ofhaematopoiesis, which takesplace in red bone marrow.• Haematopoiesisis the formation ofblood cellular components.
  • 25. e. Storage• Bone matrix can store calciumand is involved in calciummetabolism.• The bone marrow can store ironand is involved in iron metabolism.• Bones are not entirely made ofcalcium, but a mixture ofchondroitin sulfate andhydroxyapatite, the latter makingup 70% of a bone.
  • 26. f. Endocrine regulation• Bone cells release a hormonecalled osteocalcin, whichcontributes to the regulation ofblood sugar (glucose) and fatdeposition.• Osteocalcin increases both theinsulin secretion and sensitivity.
  • 27. 4. STRUCTURE OF A LONGBONEA long bone is an elongated boneconsisting of a body (diaphysis) andtwo terminal parts (epiphyses),such as found in the leg and armbones (femur, radius, phalangesand others).
  • 28. 4. STRUCTURE OF A LONG BONE
  • 29. 5. DIFFERENT JOINTS In the human body, there are jointswhere two or more bones meet in theskeleton. Immovable joints do not allowmovement and Synovial joints are movevable jointsand allow movement of the bones. Ligaments hold bones together. Tendons attach muscle to bone,.
  • 30. STRUCTURE OF A SYNOVIALJOINT
  • 31. Different types of synavial joints are:• Ball and socket joint• Hinge joint• Pivot joint• Gliding joint
  • 32. BALL AND SOCKET JOINT:• Joints of the hips and shoulders• Allows rotating movement of armsand legs
  • 33. HINGE JOINT:• Joints of the elbows, knees, fingersand toes• Only allows movement in onedirection.
  • 34. PIVOT JOINT:• Joints between atlas and axis• One bone turns on another
  • 35. GLIDING JOINT:• Joints of the wrist and ankles• The flat surface of one bone glidesover the surface of a bone next toit.
  • 36. JOINT DISORDERSDo research (self study) on the followingdisorders, you have to be able to brieflyexplain what each of them are (will notbe marked but there will be question inthe exam and semester test about it) Dislocation Sprains Arthritis Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis
  • 37. 6. MACRO STRUCTURE OFSKELETAL MUSCLES Epimysium: Surrounds entire muscle Perimysium: Surrounds bundles ofmuscle fibres (Fascicles) Endomysium: Surrounds individualmuscle fibres
  • 38. 6. STRUCTURE OF SKELETALMUSCLES
  • 39. MICRO STRUCTURE OFSKELETAL MUSCLES Sarcolemma: Muscle cell membrane Myofibrils: Threadlike strands withinmuscle fibres Actin (thin filament) Myosin (thick filament)
  • 40. SKELETAL MUSCLES Muscles are attached to bones bymeans of tendons. Skeletal muscles produce movementby contracting. This exerts a force on tendons, whichin return, pulls on bones. Muscles occur in pairs which workantagonistic against each other. When one contracts the other relaxes.
  • 41. MOVEMENT OF THE ARM