Harald Buijtendijk Ferry van de Mosselaer Dynamics of Tourism Systems Challenges in facilitating multi stakeholder collabo...
What we do? <ul><li>Atelier on Tourism Development </li></ul><ul><li>Creating platforms for knowledge exchange in tourism ...
Our work <ul><li>Wageningen UR </li></ul><ul><li>NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>SNV Netherlan...
Why are we here? <ul><li>The world is messy and sometimes flat! </li></ul><ul><li>Our goal:  to help you on the way! </li>...
Why are we here <ul><li>Preparing you for Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>We offer a  reality check </li>...
This lecture <ul><li>Analyzing destination dynamics is about  you  as a researcher…...... </li></ul><ul><li>Your role as a...
This lecture <ul><li>… ..stepping into an  unknown situation, </li></ul><ul><li>Actor networks in tourism </li></ul><ul><l...
This lecture <ul><li>..with the help of a  real-life simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to the role play </li></ul>...
Why a reality check? <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=STZUgKGqK5A </li></ul>
Why a reality check? <ul><li>Tourists are just visitors, tourism industry is a  visiting  industry </li></ul><ul><li>Where...
Why a reality check?
Why a reality check?
Why a reality check? <ul><li>There is no absolute truth in development </li></ul><ul><li>It is all a matter of perceptions...
Why a reality check? <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahg6qcgoay4 </li></ul>
Why a reality check? <ul><li>There are many  hidden  truths  </li></ul><ul><li>Actors in any development context: </li></u...
 
1. Your role as a    researcher <ul><li>(pics researchers) </li></ul>
Who are you?
1. Your role as a    researcher <ul><li>Your positionality: </li></ul><ul><li>Your identity & personality </li></ul><ul><l...
Why is this important? <ul><li>Research essentially represents reality as  perceived  by the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>...
Whose reality counts? <ul><li>Reflected in the international development industry </li></ul><ul><li>Up and down between to...
The changing role <ul><li>From traditional researchers and consultants… </li></ul>
The changing role <ul><li>… to facilitators </li></ul>
So, whose reality counts? <ul><li>Does the intervention in the video contribute to lasting (sustainable) change? </li></ul...
2. Actors and power <ul><li>Who’s involved? </li></ul>
The supply chain <ul><li>The Tourism Supply Chain: </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Agents </li></ul><ul><li>T...
More complex value chain <ul><li>Source: SNV (2008) </li></ul>
Whose involved? <ul><li>(pics stakeholder examples) </li></ul>
But what about us?
And us?
They all (should) have a  say in tourism d’ment
Is the world equal? <ul><li>Source: The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
World tourism <ul><li>Source: The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
Aircraft travel <ul><li>Source:  The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
War Deaths 1945 - 2002 <ul><li>Source:  The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
HIV prevalence <ul><li>Source:  The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
Why? <ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas and entit...
Power through relations
Resistance <ul><li>Foreign control </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><...
Examples from Nepal 1 The essence of airline companies
1. The essence of airlines <ul><li>Nepal was and again is an emerging tourism destination </li></ul><ul><li>Internal confl...
1. The essence of airlines <ul><li>Direct flight connections from major source markets in Europe to Kathmandu </li></ul><u...
1. The essence of airlines <ul><li>Why did airlines decide to operate direct flights? </li></ul><ul><li>And why did they s...
Examples from Nepal 2  Humla, pathway for pilgrims to holy Mount Kalaish
2. Pathway of the pilgrims
2. Pathway of the pilgrims
2. Pathway of the pilgrims <ul><li>Indian and non Indian pilgrims increasingly travel to Kalaish  via Humla </li></ul><ul>...
2. Pathway of the pilgrims
2. Pathway of the pilgrims Tourist demand in Humla Indian tourists Non Indian tourists 2005 109 412
2. Pathway of the pilgrims Tourist demand in Humla Indian tourists Non Indian tourists 2005 109 412 2006 516 800
2. Pathway of the pilgrims Tourist demand in Humla Indian tourists Non Indian tourists 2005 109 412 2006 516 800 2007 455 ...
2. Pathway of the pilgrims Tourist demand in Humla Indian tourists Non Indian tourists 2005 109 412 2006 516 800 2007 455 ...
2. Pathway of the pilgrims <ul><li>Tourism to Humla came in a virtual standstill in 2008 </li></ul>
2. Pathway of the pilgrims (picture Beijing 2008)
2. Pathway of the pilgrims <ul><li>Because of fear for disruptions from Tibetan dissidents and sympathisers….  </li></ul><...
Examples from Nepal 3  Increasing income and employment through tourism in Humla?
3. Increasing income and   employment 3  Increasing income and employment through tourism in Humla?
3. Increasing income and   employment <ul><li>Development in Humla: </li></ul><ul><li>Poorest and most isolated district i...
3. Increasing income and   employment <ul><li>Tourism in Humla: </li></ul><ul><li>No tourist infrastructure </li></ul><ul>...
3. Increasing income and   employment <ul><li>Tourism development in Humla: </li></ul><ul><li>Development organizations ha...
3. Increasing income and   employment <ul><li>Both interventions have not been successful </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul...
Wrapping up <ul><li>Level of success or failure  in participating in  tourism networks  depends on  power  and  agency  of...
Wrapping up <ul><li>Power  and  agency  are  never  equally distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Action  is based on the  values,...
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Atelier on Tourism Development - Challenges in facilitating multistakeholder collaboration in tourism development

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This lecture deliberates on the challenges in facilitating multistakeholder collaboration in tourism development. Lecture given to bachelor students in tourism at the NHTV Breda February 2011

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  • This is what we call a ‘classical’ and simplified tourism supply chain, as you know from earlier lectures. All the actors play a direct role (although the can, and are increasingly bypassed) in the supply and demand of tourists to and from destinations.
  • They are in, what we call, the institutional environment that ‘enables’ tourism supply chains and destinations to function properly.
  • In sum, we can already see that the number of stakeholders in tourism supply chain and destination development is extensive. This is however, still a small proportion of the real total number of stakeholders
  • What about the riksjaw drivers, the tour guides, the street vendors, craftsmen and crab fishers?
  • And what about the urang-utans, the giraffes and the penguins?
  • But how come it is very unlikely that you will get all these so-called stakeholders on the table? (apart from the fact that animals can’t talk)
  • Projected wealth: shows the GDP, adjusted for local purchasing power, of the equivalent territory in 2015
  • Net incoming tourism The size of each territory indicates the number of tourist trips made to that territory minus the number made from that territory to elsewhere.
  • Aircraft travel In this map, the size of each territory indicates the total distance flown by aircraft registered there.
  • War deaths 1945-2002 Note the disappearance of Russia, America and Western Europe. The most deaths as a percentage of the population occured in Cambodia, followed by Timor-Leste, Angola, Rwanda, North Korea and Afghanistan.
  • HIV prevalence The size of each territory shows the number of people aged 15 to 49 with HIV. The highest prevalence exists in Swaziland, where 38 per cent of 15 to 49-year-olds carry the virus. More than a fifth of people in Botswana, Lesotho, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Namibia, within this age range, carry HIV.
  • Power and wealth are highly unequally distributed around the world. What underlies these power inequalities? What are the resources of power? Power is not something tangible, that you can hold on to. It is not so much the possesion of these things that generates power, but what is being done with it in relation to others. It is the effect that matters!!
  • Power is exercised through relations with others in a network. From individual to individual, from group to group, from company to company, from state to state, from company to state, from state to group etc. Etc.
  • Atelier on Tourism Development - Challenges in facilitating multistakeholder collaboration in tourism development

    1. 1. Harald Buijtendijk Ferry van de Mosselaer Dynamics of Tourism Systems Challenges in facilitating multi stakeholder collaboration
    2. 2. What we do? <ul><li>Atelier on Tourism Development </li></ul><ul><li>Creating platforms for knowledge exchange in tourism development </li></ul><ul><li>Platforms for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops for university students </li></ul><ul><li>Platforms for inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops for professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Platforms for solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Projects for commissioners in the field </li></ul>
    3. 3. Our work <ul><li>Wageningen UR </li></ul><ul><li>NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>SNV Netherlands Development Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Asian Development Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-American Development Bank </li></ul><ul><li>UNDP </li></ul><ul><li>UNWTO </li></ul><ul><li>VSO </li></ul><ul><li>MercyCorps </li></ul><ul><li>Bodegas de Argentina </li></ul>
    4. 4. Why are we here? <ul><li>The world is messy and sometimes flat! </li></ul><ul><li>Our goal: to help you on the way! </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why are we here <ul><li>Preparing you for Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul><ul><li>We offer a reality check </li></ul><ul><li>Two steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture today </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-stakeholder workshops week 8 & 9 </li></ul>
    6. 6. This lecture <ul><li>Analyzing destination dynamics is about you as a researcher…...... </li></ul><ul><li>Your role as a researcher </li></ul><ul><li>The changing role of researchers and consultants in analyzing and developing actor networks in tourism </li></ul><ul><li>How can you research destinations? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you contribute to destination development? </li></ul>
    7. 7. This lecture <ul><li>… ..stepping into an unknown situation, </li></ul><ul><li>Actor networks in tourism </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of relationships between actors in tourism systems </li></ul><ul><li>What is the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>How do actor relationships come into being? </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at practical examples. </li></ul>
    8. 8. This lecture <ul><li>..with the help of a real-life simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to the role play </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing the role play </li></ul><ul><li>What is the role play about? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the current situation regarding tourism development on Tralaly Island? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Why a reality check? <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=STZUgKGqK5A </li></ul>
    10. 10. Why a reality check? <ul><li>Tourists are just visitors, tourism industry is a visiting industry </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas many relationships between actors are constant over time </li></ul><ul><li>Our aim: stressing that tourism has a highly incidental character in local societies </li></ul>
    11. 11. Why a reality check?
    12. 12. Why a reality check?
    13. 13. Why a reality check? <ul><li>There is no absolute truth in development </li></ul><ul><li>It is all a matter of perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Our aim: helping you to acknowledge the subjectivity of actor positions </li></ul>
    14. 14. Why a reality check? <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahg6qcgoay4 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Why a reality check? <ul><li>There are many hidden truths </li></ul><ul><li>Actors in any development context: </li></ul><ul><li>Main focus is on individual interests </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in development is means to an end </li></ul><ul><li>Action is highly circumstantial </li></ul><ul><li>Our aim: helping you to broaden your view, and look beyond the obvious </li></ul>
    16. 17. 1. Your role as a researcher <ul><li>(pics researchers) </li></ul>
    17. 18. Who are you?
    18. 19. 1. Your role as a researcher <ul><li>Your positionality: </li></ul><ul><li>Your identity & personality </li></ul><ul><li>Views and opinions you take with you in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Based on your view of the world, which is the sum of </li></ul><ul><li>your background, education and previous experiences </li></ul>
    19. 20. Why is this important? <ul><li>Research essentially represents reality as perceived by the researcher </li></ul><ul><li>The result? </li></ul><ul><li>Not one absolute truth, but many versions of truth </li></ul><ul><li>Informed by positionalities and ongoing interactions </li></ul><ul><li>The question is: whose reality counts? </li></ul>
    20. 21. Whose reality counts? <ul><li>Reflected in the international development industry </li></ul><ul><li>Up and down between top down and bottom up interventions ; an ongoing balancing act! </li></ul><ul><li>1960s large infrastructural projects </li></ul><ul><li>1970s alternative development </li></ul><ul><li>1980s structural adjustment (lost decade) </li></ul><ul><li>1990s the rise of participatory development </li></ul><ul><li>2000s UN Millennium Development Goals </li></ul>
    21. 22. The changing role <ul><li>From traditional researchers and consultants… </li></ul>
    22. 23. The changing role <ul><li>… to facilitators </li></ul>
    23. 24. So, whose reality counts? <ul><li>Does the intervention in the video contribute to lasting (sustainable) change? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWmRTjLRMfU </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VkM28ojPlVU </li></ul>
    24. 25. 2. Actors and power <ul><li>Who’s involved? </li></ul>
    25. 26. The supply chain <ul><li>The Tourism Supply Chain: </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Tour operators </li></ul><ul><li>Airlines </li></ul><ul><li>Local agents </li></ul><ul><li>Accomodations </li></ul><ul><li>Excursion providers </li></ul><ul><li>Source figure: IDH (2011) </li></ul>
    26. 27. More complex value chain <ul><li>Source: SNV (2008) </li></ul>
    27. 28. Whose involved? <ul><li>(pics stakeholder examples) </li></ul>
    28. 29. But what about us?
    29. 30. And us?
    30. 31. They all (should) have a say in tourism d’ment
    31. 32. Is the world equal? <ul><li>Source: The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
    32. 33. World tourism <ul><li>Source: The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
    33. 34. Aircraft travel <ul><li>Source: The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
    34. 35. War Deaths 1945 - 2002 <ul><li>Source: The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
    35. 36. HIV prevalence <ul><li>Source: The Atlas of the Real World (2008) </li></ul>
    36. 37. Why? <ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge and expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas and entitlements </li></ul><ul><li>Contacts </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul><ul><li>And many other things….. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Power through relations
    38. 39. Resistance <ul><li>Foreign control </li></ul><ul><li>Traditions and customs </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of benefits </li></ul><ul><li>And again many other things…. </li></ul>
    39. 40. Examples from Nepal 1 The essence of airline companies
    40. 41. 1. The essence of airlines <ul><li>Nepal was and again is an emerging tourism destination </li></ul><ul><li>Internal conflict between 2001 and 2006, peak years in arrivals (+500,000) in 1997, 1998, and </li></ul><ul><li>since 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    41. 42. 1. The essence of airlines <ul><li>Direct flight connections from major source markets in Europe to Kathmandu </li></ul><ul><li>Including direct charter flights from Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>Transavia /OAD (1998) and Arke Fly / TUI (from 2009 onwards) </li></ul>
    42. 43. 1. The essence of airlines <ul><li>Why did airlines decide to operate direct flights? </li></ul><ul><li>And why did they stop? </li></ul><ul><li>Coincidence, and </li></ul><ul><li>Factors beyond the control of destination stakeholders. </li></ul>
    43. 44. Examples from Nepal 2 Humla, pathway for pilgrims to holy Mount Kalaish
    44. 45. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims
    45. 46. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims
    46. 47. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims <ul><li>Indian and non Indian pilgrims increasingly travel to Kalaish via Humla </li></ul><ul><li>Humla is the poorest district of Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism huge opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Indian pilgrims important market: </li></ul><ul><li>big spenders </li></ul>
    47. 48. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims
    48. 49. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims Tourist demand in Humla Indian tourists Non Indian tourists 2005 109 412
    49. 50. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims Tourist demand in Humla Indian tourists Non Indian tourists 2005 109 412 2006 516 800
    50. 51. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims Tourist demand in Humla Indian tourists Non Indian tourists 2005 109 412 2006 516 800 2007 455 1073
    51. 52. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims Tourist demand in Humla Indian tourists Non Indian tourists 2005 109 412 2006 516 800 2007 455 1073 2008 8 65
    52. 53. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims <ul><li>Tourism to Humla came in a virtual standstill in 2008 </li></ul>
    53. 54. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims (picture Beijing 2008)
    54. 55. 2. Pathway of the pilgrims <ul><li>Because of fear for disruptions from Tibetan dissidents and sympathisers…. </li></ul><ul><li>China closed the Nepali Tibetan Border </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Embassy in Kathmandu stopped issuing visas for Tibet </li></ul>
    55. 56. Examples from Nepal 3 Increasing income and employment through tourism in Humla?
    56. 57. 3. Increasing income and employment 3 Increasing income and employment through tourism in Humla?
    57. 58. 3. Increasing income and employment <ul><li>Development in Humla: </li></ul><ul><li>Poorest and most isolated district in Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1.5% of total land surface suitable for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Food deficiencies throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>No infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from barter to cash economy </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty defined as lack of (access to) resources </li></ul>
    58. 59. 3. Increasing income and employment <ul><li>Tourism in Humla: </li></ul><ul><li>No tourist infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>No tourist accommodation outside district capital Simikot </li></ul><ul><li>Only camping treks, independent travel not allowed (permit required) </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists are underspending </li></ul>
    59. 60. 3. Increasing income and employment <ul><li>Tourism development in Humla: </li></ul><ul><li>Development organizations have been involved in pro poor (tourism) development in Humla for over a decade </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of two interventions: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable production (cash crops) for trekking groups </li></ul><ul><li>Offering loan facilitation to small businesses </li></ul>
    60. 61. 3. Increasing income and employment <ul><li>Both interventions have not been successful </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>They have been based on the logic of business economics alone </li></ul><ul><li>Based on outside, Western perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Did not consider specific conditions in local society </li></ul>
    61. 62. Wrapping up <ul><li>Level of success or failure in participating in tourism networks depends on power and agency of individual actors </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to influence others </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in action </li></ul><ul><li>Exercised through relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Agency </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to cope with life </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded in strategy </li></ul>
    62. 63. Wrapping up <ul><li>Power and agency are never equally distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Action is based on the values, needs , and interests of individual actors </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development starts with a collective ability to mutually respect individual needs and interests </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable development results from a collaborative effort towards jointly defined common purposes </li></ul>
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