The road to revolution

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A PowerPoint presentation that introduces the events that led to the American Revolution.

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The road to revolution

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Separating from Britain 1700-1775
  2. 2. The Colonists Consider New Ideas <ul><li>The Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First developed in the Scientific Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking beyond religious authority to explain the world around us. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Reason to explain phenomenon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copernicus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Galileo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isaac Newton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Examining laws about human nature </li></ul><ul><li>John Locke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Rights make human world run smoothly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Social Contract <ul><li>Idea of John Locke </li></ul><ul><li>People obey government if Government promises to protect their natural rights. </li></ul><ul><li>If government becomes tyrannical, the people no longer needed to obey it. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Benjamin Franklin <ul><li>Printer, scientist, inventor, writer, statesman, and diplomat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renaissance Man </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Invented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bifocals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal stove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting rod </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Europe vs. America <ul><li>Peasants in Europe were locked into traditional ways of thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t’ read or write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little opportunity to improve their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American farmers were educated and received new ideas with enthusiasm </li></ul>
  7. 7. Religious Feelings Revive <ul><li>Early 18 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritan church was weakening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Material comfort </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Jonathan Edwards <ul><li>From Northampton, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Declared people needed to do more than just go to church. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed profound emotional experiences rather than intellectual ones. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gave Rousing Sermons across the colonies. </li></ul>
  9. 9. George Whitefield <ul><li>Preacher who was a great actor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Played the role of God and the Devil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drew very large crowds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revival meetings held outdoors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Awakening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revival of religion in the colonies during the 1740’s. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Quaker Revival <ul><li>During the 1750’s many Quakers concluded that slavery was wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>John Woolman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urged other Quakers to free their slaves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By the 1770’s most Quakers had freed their slaves. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Witchcraft comes to an end. <ul><li>500,000 people were killed in Europe accused of witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>The Enlightenment reduced superstition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salem Witch Trials in 1692 also reduced superstition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Mather said accusations were “unbelievable”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>19 persons were killed during the Trials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Education System Grows <ul><li>American Public is more literate than any in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritans insisted people learn to read the Bible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent settlements allowed school system to develop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All towns with 50 families or more had to hire a schoolmaster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Northern colonies had better literacy rates. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Early Colleges <ul><li>Harvard was first American College </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained ministers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most college students were from wealthy families and did not go on to church work. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Power of the Printing Press <ul><li>Poor Richard’s Almanack </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed by Ben Franklin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very popular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped spread news throughout the colonies </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Freedom of Press <ul><li>John Peter Zenger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German immigrant who ran a newspaper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused governor of rigging elections and taking bribes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common law states anyone critizing the government is guilty of criminal libel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Libel-written statement that harms one’s reputation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Freedom of Press <ul><li>Andrew Hamilton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zenger’s lawyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue is whether or not the articles were true. If they are…no libel charges can be made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People have the right to air grievances against the government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hamilton wins the case and basis for Freedom of Press is created. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The French and Indian War <ul><li>France and Britain do not get along </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Major Conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of the League of Augsburg (1689-1697) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War to stop France’s Invasion of Italian City-States </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of Power- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spain’s king dies and France tries to take the throne </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of Austrian Succession (1744-1748) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of the Hapsburgs in Spain and Austria. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven Years War (French and Indian) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. French and Indian War <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French build series of Forts along St. Lawrence River, and Lake Erie. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Build Fort Duquesne at the confluence of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land claimed by Pennsylvania and Virginia. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 20. French and Indian War <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by wealthy Virginia farmers to obtain lands beyond the Appalachian Mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hoping to make money by selling lands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Governor Dinwiddie </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joins the Ohio company </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sends group of militiamen under command of George Washington to spy on French movements. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 22. French and Indian War <ul><li>Battle at Fort Necessity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Washington builds a stockade. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outnumber Washington 700/400 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington surrenders and returns to Virginia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French and Indian War Begins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. French and Indian War <ul><li>Albany Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Government wanted an alliance with the Iroquois against the French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Iroquois said no. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They thought the French were stronger. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Franklin proposes a plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial council to set up defense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needed colonies approval…most said no. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 25. French and Indian War <ul><li>Battle at Fort Duquesne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dinwiddie asks Britain to send regular troops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>London sends 1400 men under command of Gen. Braddock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major attack planned to drive French out of Ohio Country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Troops were slow and arrogant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Washington warned of possible ambush. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 27. French and Indian War <ul><li>Ambush 8 miles away from Fort Duquesne </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British troops not used to frontier tactics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British lose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Braddock is killed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1000 British casualties </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 28. French and Indian War <ul><li>William Pitt arrives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes able junior officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Washington leads new attack on Fort Duquesne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renames it Fort Pitt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>French defeat at Quebec and Montreal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French are defeated in the war. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Treaty of Paris 1763 <ul><li>Britain gets Florida from Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Britain gets Canada and all land east of the Mississippi from France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except New Orleans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spain gets Louisiana </li></ul>
  26. 31. Royal Proclamation of 1763 <ul><li>Made to try and stop colonists westward expansion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbade colonials from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists already west of line had to move back east. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This would make colonists easier to govern </li></ul></ul>
  27. 33. Colonists are Upset <ul><li>Proclamation Line means two things: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Government was insensitive to colonists interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Persuaded the colonists that British government could not enforce laws. </li></ul></ul>

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