0
Playful Design
John Ferrara
An introduction to game experience
design for UX practitioners
While you’re waiting to start
S...
‘Sup
John Ferrara
Creative director, Megazoid Games
User experience designer
“Let’s Move!” award winner
@PlayfulDesign
PlayfulDesignBook.com
My book
Today
We’ll talk about games
We’ll play some games
We’ll take a break
We’ll make some games
We’ll test our games
Why should UX designers
care about games?
part 1
Best possible outcome if you...
Skip college.
Never move out of your parents' house.
Never get married.
Never have any chi...
Leap Frog Sugar Bugs
Baranowski, et. al.
Pediatrics
February 27, 2012
None produced
any difference
in physical activity.
The problem is design.
Games are hard to design well.
Serious games are even harder.
Why should UX designers
care about games?
part 1
Reason #1
We’re needed.
2. Game design is a lot like user experience design
3. Games are a ubiquitous activity
4. Games are innovators in interact...
Things that games can do
in the real world
part 2
Games can
teach
Learning by doing
Practice is rolled in with theory.
Ideas are not just illustrated, but experienced.
Failure based learning
Getting it wrong builds a better understanding.
Games are a totally safe “virtual lab”.
Systems thinking
Working with the relationships between moving parts.
Games are the best medium for this that exists.
Games can
motivate
Human computation
Useful outputs are a byproduct of play.
“Games are algorithms that run on people.”
-- Luis Von Ahn
Reframing
Casting real-life challenges in a different light.
Overlay
Reframing in-the-moment.
A fantasy world is superposed on reality.
Buy the advantage
Intrinsic rewards for external actions.
Players must greatly value the game experience.
Games can
persuade
Games are a form of procedural
rhetoric
Procedurality makes games
unique as a communications
medium.
Example
Gamficai tion?
A growing backlash
“I don’t do ‘gamification,’ and I’m not
prepared to stand up and say I think it
works.”
–Jane McGonigal...
Games can achieve
great things in the
real world.*
*If they are well designed experiences.
Elements ofplayer
experience
part 3
Immersion
Flow
Creativity
Social interaction
Competence
Catharsis
Interaction balance issues
Campaign balance issues
0
HINT
MENU
Games should
be designed to
be games first.
part 4
Paper prototyping
video games
They’re fast and cheap
They focus on the fundamentals
You can playtest with them
They help people speak in a common langua...
Can you really do a video game on paper?
Can you really do a video game on paper?
Stone Librande
Guidelines for paper prototyping
Strip off the aesthetic and usability layers
Work on the underlying gameplay
X
X
Guidelines
Don’t be too literal
Work on small things
Make it a real game
Iterate
Strip off the aesthetic and usability lay...
So how might this be done on paper?
Let’s take a closer
look at what’s really
happening.
The objective is to
climb 6 levels without
getting hit by a
barrel.
Sometimes you jump
one barrel (hard).
Sometimes you jump two barrels (harder).
Sometimes there are
barrels above you.
Sometimes they fall down a ladder.
Sometimes you get a
hammer.
Then you get to bust some ass. :-)
But if you ever get hit by a barrell…
You start over at the...
Super
Jumpman
Bros.
Tower cards
Objective:
Reach level 6
before your
opponent.
Each turn you’ll
have a chance to
move up one level.
Draw a card. Each gives you 3 options.
Move your coin one space up the tower card.
Draw a card. Each gives you 3 options.
Keep your coin where it is on the tower card.
Draw a card. Each gives you 3 options.
Move your coin one space down the tower card.
Draw a card. Each gives you 3 options.
Look out for barrels!
To avoid the barrel, you must roll anything other
than the numbers that appear above it.
Two barrels
If there are two barrels, but must roll separately
for each one. So above, you’d roll twice.
This barrel is in front of the ladder.
You must roll if you want to climb OR exit right.
Barrels in front of the ladder
OK...
This barrel is behind the ladder.
You only need to roll if you’re exiting right.
Barrels behind the ladder
Roll
OK
OK
Barrels above the ladder
Barrels above can fall down a ladder onto you.
You must roll if you’re climbing the ladder.
Roll
...
Pop quiz: What could you do here?
If you get hit by a barrel...
The hammer card is awesome
1. Draw again right away.
2. Any barrels on the bottom level are smashed.
3. You still have to ...
Let’s play!
Press start
Discussion
In what ways was this similar to the original game?
In what ways was this different?
What might you change to i...
Lessons for design
The central conflict of the game
Basic strategy & tactics
What the obstacles are & how often they appea...
Abstraction vs. representationalism
Gameplay vs. aesthetics
Luck vs. skill
Going deeper
part 5
A quick primer on essential
game design concepts
Core mechanic
The activities players are engaged in
moment to moment throughout a game.
Roll
Move around the board
Buy pro...
Objectives
Specific conditions that players are either trying to...
achieve avoidor
Objectives
Longer games have nested objectives.
Constraints
Limits on what the player can and cannot do.
2 types of constraints:
Environmental
Formal
Environmental constraints
Hard limits set by inherent physical characteristics.
Soft rules that all of the players agree to follow in
order to enable the game experience.
Formal constraints
Conflict
The relationship between objectives and constraints.
Conflict
The relationship between objectives and constraints.
Games necessarily involve challenge.
Ideal experience in UX design
Ideal experience in game design
Arbitration
Some games have mechanisms that enforce the rules
so people don’t have to.
2 types of arbitration:
Mechanical
...
Mechanical arbitration
Computerized arbitration
It’s okay for you to do anything that the game
doesn’t specifically prohibit.
As a result, the design is vulnerable to deg...
Degenerate strategy: Is this cheating?
To reach objectives, players may need to make
choices that can have positive or negative outcomes.
Uncertainty is fundamen...
Greater risks require greater rewards
You usually don’t directly design the play experience.
You design the parameters in which play executes.
The players, obje...
30 minutes
Up next: You prototype your own games.
Break time!
A game design game
for 5 players
(each played by
another person)
10 dragon heads
4 warriors
The game ends when
either all dragon
heads or warriors
have bee...
If you get anything other than a 1, nothing happens.
The dragon rolls all 4 dice at once
Fang attack
Kill any 1 warrior next
to any dragon head.
(Including diagonals.)
Fang attack
Kill any 1 warrior next
to any dragon head.
(Including diagonals.)
Fang attack
Kill any 1 warrior next
to any dragon head.
(Including diagonals.)
Fire attack
Kill any 1 warrior at
least 3 spaces from
any dragon head.
(Including diagonals.)
Fire attack
Kill any 1 warrior at
least 3 spaces from
any dragon head.
(Including diagonals.)
Fire attack
Kill any 1 warrior at
least 3 spaces from
any dragon head.
(Including diagonals.)
Move
All dragon heads
move 1 space in any
direction.
All must move in the
same direction.
Move
All dragon heads
move 1 space in any
direction.
All must move in the
same direction.
Move
All dragon heads
move 1 space in any
direction.
All must move in the
same direction.
Move
All dragon heads
move 1 space in any
direction.
All must move in the
same direction.
Move
All dragon heads
move 1 space in any
direction.
All must move in the
same direction.
Move
All dragon heads
move 1 space in any
direction.
All must move in the
same direction.
Move
All dragon heads
move 1 space in any
direction.
All must move in the
same direction.
Heal
The dragon regrows
1 lost head, which
may be placed in any
space directly up,
down, left, or right
from any other hea...
Heal
The dragon regrows
1 lost head, which
may be placed in any
space directly up,
down, left, or right
from any other hea...
Heal
The dragon regrows
1 lost head, which
may be placed in any
space directly up,
down, left, or right
from any other hea...
Heal
The dragon regrows
1 lost head, which
may be placed in any
space directly up,
down, left, or right
from any other hea...
Heal
The dragon regrows
1 lost head, which
may be placed in any
space directly up,
down, left, or right
from any other hea...
Heal
The dragon regrows
1 lost head, which
may be placed in any
space directly up,
down, left, or right
from any other hea...
So how do the warriors work?
That’s up to you!
Make up roles and rules for each warrior
(e.g. elf, fighter, sorceress, etc...
Design a system of rules that interact to make a game
experience that’s:
The designer’s objective
Sustained.
Challenging
....
Let’s design!
10 minutes.
Then play begins.
SUSTAINED - CHALLENGING - FAIR - ENJOYABLE
Time to play!
15 minutes.
Make changes as you go.
SUSTAINED - CHALLENGING - FAIR - ENJOYABLE
Discussion
Did anyone develop a character that worked well?
What was the biggest problem in your game?
What might you chan...
Iteration 2
Start over. Try to improve the experience.
Make new characters with new rules.
You can change the rules for th...
Let’s design
again!
10 minutes.
Then play begins.
USE AT LEAST 2 ENVIRONMENTAL PIECES
Time to play!
10 minutes.
AT LEAST 2 ENVIRONMENTAL PIECES
Was the game better or worse this time?
Were you able to solve the problems?
Did new problems come up?
What’s the most sig...
part 6
Playtesting
What should
playtesting evaluate?
UI usability
Control mappings & ergonomics
Control mappings & ergonomics
Balance
Puzzles
Puzzles
Skill level
Skill level
Fun!
one more...
The “good-tough” problem
Ask yourself
Are players having a hard time for the right reasons?
Do players see the challenge a...
General playtesting guidelines
Recruit selectively.
Test in a cozy space.
Do an observation script.
If your game is long, ...
Iteration 3
Carry forward your favorite characters and rules from
iterations 1 & 2, or create new ones as needed.
Change t...
Let’s design
again again!
15 minutes.
Then play begins.
ACHIEVE AN EFFECT FROM THE INSTRUCTIONS
TEAM SWAP!!!
10 minutes.
2 players from another team will join your table.
Explain your game and conduct playtesting.
Thank you!
Please complete the assessment form.
Connect with me: @PlayfulDesign
A case study
Understand the nutritional attributes of food
Build a knowledge base of food choices
Develop skills to interpret nutrition...
More than anything,
the problem is cultural.
Challenge to create games that teach
8- to 12- year olds healthier eating habits
Virtual pets. Real nutrition.
Player is responsible for maintaining
the health of a virtual pet
Must shop for the critter's food, cook
for it, and feed ...
A quick demo
Designing
persuasive games
1. Define a core message
A persuasive game
must be designed around
a clear and concise statement
of what you want players
...
2. Tie the message to strategy
Games drive players
to find the most efficient ways
to win.
If the message represents
the i...
Tiered system of rewards
Better food choices
Health goes up
Greater productivity, more
sports wins, sick less often
Earn m...
3. Enable self-directed discovery
Self-directed discovery persuades
by giving people
a feeling of ownership
of the insight...
Discovering better food choices
Discovering better food sourcing
Discovering healthy recipes
Players can cook, combining
ingredients into prepared
meals.
Meals of greater nutritional meri...
Meals can be sold to the
restaurant for a profit.
Other players can then
purchase them, enabling
social learning.
4. Offer meaningful choices
If there is no benefit
to making the wrong choice,
then there is
no choice at all.
Effects of high-calorie foods
Advantages:
● More energy for sports games
● More energy for work
Consequences:
● Exceed dai...
5. Keep it real
Video games' capacity
to simulate the conditions
of the real world
can impart credibility
to embedded argu...
Fitter Critters has real nutrition
data for 675 actual food items
...and the daily objectives are
based on real consumption
guidelines
Pilot Study, November
2011Northbridge Elementary, MA
Run by University of Massachusetts Medical
School
100 5th graders, 4 ...
Balanced gameplay
Often, you don’t directly design the play experience.
You design the parameters in which play executes.
The players, objec...
There are some big design issues here!!
Games execute outside of the designer’s control.
The real-time interactions betwee...
UI usability
UI usability
Balance
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
Playful design workshop   ferrara - uxlx 2014
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An introduction to game experience design for user experience designers.

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  • But if you’re rolling two dice you get a completely different probability distribution.

    [elaborate]

    As a designer, there’s more that you can do with this, because the rolls are more differentiated. The entire game of craps is specifically designed around this probability distribution.
  • Don’t run it in a lab with one-way glass and a ficus in the corner.

    Interruptions are invariably going to mess up the player’s flow. Give them directions at the outset, then just see where it goes.
  • First, define a core message. A persuasive game must be designed around a clear and concise statement of what you want players to do or to believe.
    This is critical to guide design decisions toward the central persuasive objective.

    These are often best left implicit in the game itself -- but more about that in a minute.
  • Transcript of "Playful design workshop ferrara - uxlx 2014"

    1. 1. Playful Design John Ferrara An introduction to game experience design for UX practitioners While you’re waiting to start Screenshot a game you’re playing and tweet it with hashtag #PlayfulDesign
    2. 2. ‘Sup John Ferrara Creative director, Megazoid Games User experience designer “Let’s Move!” award winner @PlayfulDesign
    3. 3. PlayfulDesignBook.com My book
    4. 4. Today We’ll talk about games We’ll play some games We’ll take a break We’ll make some games We’ll test our games
    5. 5. Why should UX designers care about games? part 1
    6. 6. Best possible outcome if you... Skip college. Never move out of your parents' house. Never get married. Never have any children. Never travel or take any vacations. Work indefinitely past 65. Die alone in a nursing home with lots of money and no one to leave it to.
    7. 7. Leap Frog Sugar Bugs
    8. 8. Baranowski, et. al. Pediatrics February 27, 2012
    9. 9. None produced any difference in physical activity.
    10. 10. The problem is design. Games are hard to design well. Serious games are even harder.
    11. 11. Why should UX designers care about games? part 1
    12. 12. Reason #1 We’re needed.
    13. 13. 2. Game design is a lot like user experience design 3. Games are a ubiquitous activity 4. Games are innovators in interactivity 5. Technology is bringing games & UX together Other reasons
    14. 14. Things that games can do in the real world part 2
    15. 15. Games can teach
    16. 16. Learning by doing Practice is rolled in with theory. Ideas are not just illustrated, but experienced.
    17. 17. Failure based learning Getting it wrong builds a better understanding. Games are a totally safe “virtual lab”.
    18. 18. Systems thinking Working with the relationships between moving parts. Games are the best medium for this that exists.
    19. 19. Games can motivate
    20. 20. Human computation Useful outputs are a byproduct of play. “Games are algorithms that run on people.” -- Luis Von Ahn
    21. 21. Reframing Casting real-life challenges in a different light.
    22. 22. Overlay Reframing in-the-moment. A fantasy world is superposed on reality.
    23. 23. Buy the advantage Intrinsic rewards for external actions. Players must greatly value the game experience.
    24. 24. Games can persuade
    25. 25. Games are a form of procedural rhetoric Procedurality makes games unique as a communications medium.
    26. 26. Example
    27. 27. Gamficai tion?
    28. 28. A growing backlash “I don’t do ‘gamification,’ and I’m not prepared to stand up and say I think it works.” –Jane McGonigal “Gamification is bullshit.” –Ian Bogost
    29. 29. Games can achieve great things in the real world.* *If they are well designed experiences.
    30. 30. Elements ofplayer experience part 3
    31. 31. Immersion
    32. 32. Flow
    33. 33. Creativity
    34. 34. Social interaction
    35. 35. Competence
    36. 36. Catharsis
    37. 37. Interaction balance issues
    38. 38. Campaign balance issues
    39. 39. 0 HINT MENU
    40. 40. Games should be designed to be games first.
    41. 41. part 4 Paper prototyping video games
    42. 42. They’re fast and cheap They focus on the fundamentals You can playtest with them They help people speak in a common language Why paper prototypes?
    43. 43. Can you really do a video game on paper?
    44. 44. Can you really do a video game on paper? Stone Librande
    45. 45. Guidelines for paper prototyping Strip off the aesthetic and usability layers Work on the underlying gameplay
    46. 46. X X
    47. 47. Guidelines Don’t be too literal Work on small things Make it a real game Iterate Strip off the aesthetic and usability layers Focus on the underlying gameplay
    48. 48. So how might this be done on paper?
    49. 49. Let’s take a closer look at what’s really happening.
    50. 50. The objective is to climb 6 levels without getting hit by a barrel.
    51. 51. Sometimes you jump one barrel (hard). Sometimes you jump two barrels (harder).
    52. 52. Sometimes there are barrels above you. Sometimes they fall down a ladder.
    53. 53. Sometimes you get a hammer. Then you get to bust some ass. :-) But if you ever get hit by a barrell… You start over at the bottom. :-(
    54. 54. Super Jumpman Bros.
    55. 55. Tower cards Objective: Reach level 6 before your opponent. Each turn you’ll have a chance to move up one level.
    56. 56. Draw a card. Each gives you 3 options. Move your coin one space up the tower card.
    57. 57. Draw a card. Each gives you 3 options. Keep your coin where it is on the tower card.
    58. 58. Draw a card. Each gives you 3 options. Move your coin one space down the tower card.
    59. 59. Draw a card. Each gives you 3 options.
    60. 60. Look out for barrels! To avoid the barrel, you must roll anything other than the numbers that appear above it.
    61. 61. Two barrels If there are two barrels, but must roll separately for each one. So above, you’d roll twice.
    62. 62. This barrel is in front of the ladder. You must roll if you want to climb OR exit right. Barrels in front of the ladder OK Roll Roll
    63. 63. This barrel is behind the ladder. You only need to roll if you’re exiting right. Barrels behind the ladder Roll OK OK
    64. 64. Barrels above the ladder Barrels above can fall down a ladder onto you. You must roll if you’re climbing the ladder. Roll OK OK
    65. 65. Pop quiz: What could you do here?
    66. 66. If you get hit by a barrel...
    67. 67. The hammer card is awesome 1. Draw again right away. 2. Any barrels on the bottom level are smashed. 3. You still have to roll if a barrel is above.
    68. 68. Let’s play! Press start
    69. 69. Discussion In what ways was this similar to the original game? In what ways was this different? What might you change to improve the experience?
    70. 70. Lessons for design The central conflict of the game Basic strategy & tactics What the obstacles are & how often they appear How hard it should be to jump a barrel What consequences for mistakes are fair How the stakes change over time How the game ends
    71. 71. Abstraction vs. representationalism Gameplay vs. aesthetics Luck vs. skill Going deeper
    72. 72. part 5 A quick primer on essential game design concepts
    73. 73. Core mechanic The activities players are engaged in moment to moment throughout a game. Roll Move around the board Buy properties Pay rent
    74. 74. Objectives Specific conditions that players are either trying to... achieve avoidor
    75. 75. Objectives Longer games have nested objectives.
    76. 76. Constraints Limits on what the player can and cannot do. 2 types of constraints: Environmental Formal
    77. 77. Environmental constraints Hard limits set by inherent physical characteristics.
    78. 78. Soft rules that all of the players agree to follow in order to enable the game experience. Formal constraints
    79. 79. Conflict The relationship between objectives and constraints.
    80. 80. Conflict The relationship between objectives and constraints. Games necessarily involve challenge.
    81. 81. Ideal experience in UX design
    82. 82. Ideal experience in game design
    83. 83. Arbitration Some games have mechanisms that enforce the rules so people don’t have to. 2 types of arbitration: Mechanical Computerized
    84. 84. Mechanical arbitration
    85. 85. Computerized arbitration
    86. 86. It’s okay for you to do anything that the game doesn’t specifically prohibit. As a result, the design is vulnerable to degenerate strategies. Arbitration limits cheating
    87. 87. Degenerate strategy: Is this cheating?
    88. 88. To reach objectives, players may need to make choices that can have positive or negative outcomes. Uncertainty is fundamental to risk. Risk
    89. 89. Greater risks require greater rewards
    90. 90. You usually don’t directly design the play experience. You design the parameters in which play executes. The players, objectives, and constraints interact in complex ways to construct the experience as you go. Games as systems
    91. 91. 30 minutes Up next: You prototype your own games. Break time!
    92. 92. A game design game for 5 players
    93. 93. (each played by another person) 10 dragon heads 4 warriors The game ends when either all dragon heads or warriors have been removed from the board. (played by 1 person)
    94. 94. If you get anything other than a 1, nothing happens. The dragon rolls all 4 dice at once
    95. 95. Fang attack Kill any 1 warrior next to any dragon head. (Including diagonals.)
    96. 96. Fang attack Kill any 1 warrior next to any dragon head. (Including diagonals.)
    97. 97. Fang attack Kill any 1 warrior next to any dragon head. (Including diagonals.)
    98. 98. Fire attack Kill any 1 warrior at least 3 spaces from any dragon head. (Including diagonals.)
    99. 99. Fire attack Kill any 1 warrior at least 3 spaces from any dragon head. (Including diagonals.)
    100. 100. Fire attack Kill any 1 warrior at least 3 spaces from any dragon head. (Including diagonals.)
    101. 101. Move All dragon heads move 1 space in any direction. All must move in the same direction.
    102. 102. Move All dragon heads move 1 space in any direction. All must move in the same direction.
    103. 103. Move All dragon heads move 1 space in any direction. All must move in the same direction.
    104. 104. Move All dragon heads move 1 space in any direction. All must move in the same direction.
    105. 105. Move All dragon heads move 1 space in any direction. All must move in the same direction.
    106. 106. Move All dragon heads move 1 space in any direction. All must move in the same direction.
    107. 107. Move All dragon heads move 1 space in any direction. All must move in the same direction.
    108. 108. Heal The dragon regrows 1 lost head, which may be placed in any space directly up, down, left, or right from any other head. Heads may regrow up to a maximum of 10.
    109. 109. Heal The dragon regrows 1 lost head, which may be placed in any space directly up, down, left, or right from any other head. Heads may regrow up to a maximum of 10.
    110. 110. Heal The dragon regrows 1 lost head, which may be placed in any space directly up, down, left, or right from any other head. Heads may regrow up to a maximum of 10.
    111. 111. Heal The dragon regrows 1 lost head, which may be placed in any space directly up, down, left, or right from any other head. Heads may regrow up to a maximum of 10.
    112. 112. Heal The dragon regrows 1 lost head, which may be placed in any space directly up, down, left, or right from any other head. Heads may regrow up to a maximum of 10.
    113. 113. Heal The dragon regrows 1 lost head, which may be placed in any space directly up, down, left, or right from any other head. Heads may regrow up to a maximum of 10.
    114. 114. So how do the warriors work? That’s up to you! Make up roles and rules for each warrior (e.g. elf, fighter, sorceress, etc.) Write everything down on the character sheets.
    115. 115. Design a system of rules that interact to make a game experience that’s: The designer’s objective Sustained. Challenging . Fair. Enjoyable.
    116. 116. Let’s design! 10 minutes. Then play begins. SUSTAINED - CHALLENGING - FAIR - ENJOYABLE
    117. 117. Time to play! 15 minutes. Make changes as you go. SUSTAINED - CHALLENGING - FAIR - ENJOYABLE
    118. 118. Discussion Did anyone develop a character that worked well? What was the biggest problem in your game? What might you change to get rid of that problem?
    119. 119. Iteration 2 Start over. Try to improve the experience. Make new characters with new rules. You can change the rules for the dragon. Incorporate at least 2 environmental pieces.
    120. 120. Let’s design again! 10 minutes. Then play begins. USE AT LEAST 2 ENVIRONMENTAL PIECES
    121. 121. Time to play! 10 minutes. AT LEAST 2 ENVIRONMENTAL PIECES
    122. 122. Was the game better or worse this time? Were you able to solve the problems? Did new problems come up? What’s the most significant problem now? Discussion
    123. 123. part 6 Playtesting
    124. 124. What should playtesting evaluate?
    125. 125. UI usability
    126. 126. Control mappings & ergonomics
    127. 127. Control mappings & ergonomics
    128. 128. Balance
    129. 129. Puzzles
    130. 130. Puzzles
    131. 131. Skill level
    132. 132. Skill level
    133. 133. Fun! one more...
    134. 134. The “good-tough” problem Ask yourself Are players having a hard time for the right reasons? Do players see the challenge as engaging or discouraging? Is the challenge appropriate for the current level of the game? What actions to players take in response to the challenge? How do players reflect on the challenge after surmounting it?
    135. 135. General playtesting guidelines Recruit selectively. Test in a cozy space. Do an observation script. If your game is long, run long sessions. Watch. Listen. Chill.
    136. 136. Iteration 3 Carry forward your favorite characters and rules from iterations 1 & 2, or create new ones as needed. Change the rules to promote one of these effects: Easy: Maximize risk taking among the warriors. Easy: Maximize the dragon’s aggressiveness. Medium: Maximize collaboration among the warriors. Medium: Incentivize the dragon to hold one edge of the board. Hard: Incentivize the warriors to betray one another. Hard: Create a way for the dragon to trick the warriors.
    137. 137. Let’s design again again! 15 minutes. Then play begins. ACHIEVE AN EFFECT FROM THE INSTRUCTIONS
    138. 138. TEAM SWAP!!! 10 minutes. 2 players from another team will join your table. Explain your game and conduct playtesting.
    139. 139. Thank you! Please complete the assessment form. Connect with me: @PlayfulDesign
    140. 140. A case study
    141. 141. Understand the nutritional attributes of food Build a knowledge base of food choices Develop skills to interpret nutrition information Learn to value healthier food choices Kids need to:
    142. 142. More than anything, the problem is cultural.
    143. 143. Challenge to create games that teach 8- to 12- year olds healthier eating habits
    144. 144. Virtual pets. Real nutrition.
    145. 145. Player is responsible for maintaining the health of a virtual pet Must shop for the critter's food, cook for it, and feed it Each day the player must fill the critter's green bars without filling the red bars
    146. 146. A quick demo
    147. 147. Designing persuasive games
    148. 148. 1. Define a core message A persuasive game must be designed around a clear and concise statement of what you want players to do or to believe.
    149. 149. 2. Tie the message to strategy Games drive players to find the most efficient ways to win. If the message represents the ideal strategy, then the process of playing serves as a proof of its truthfulness.
    150. 150. Tiered system of rewards Better food choices Health goes up Greater productivity, more sports wins, sick less often Earn more money Trick out your pad Social rewards
    151. 151. 3. Enable self-directed discovery Self-directed discovery persuades by giving people a feeling of ownership of the insight they've uncovered.
    152. 152. Discovering better food choices
    153. 153. Discovering better food sourcing
    154. 154. Discovering healthy recipes Players can cook, combining ingredients into prepared meals. Meals of greater nutritional merit are worth more than their constituent ingredients
    155. 155. Meals can be sold to the restaurant for a profit. Other players can then purchase them, enabling social learning.
    156. 156. 4. Offer meaningful choices If there is no benefit to making the wrong choice, then there is no choice at all.
    157. 157. Effects of high-calorie foods Advantages: ● More energy for sports games ● More energy for work Consequences: ● Exceed daily limits faster ● Critter starts rejecting healthier options
    158. 158. 5. Keep it real Video games' capacity to simulate the conditions of the real world can impart credibility to embedded arguments.
    159. 159. Fitter Critters has real nutrition data for 675 actual food items
    160. 160. ...and the daily objectives are based on real consumption guidelines
    161. 161. Pilot Study, November 2011Northbridge Elementary, MA Run by University of Massachusetts Medical School 100 5th graders, 4 class periods 1. Significant increases in positive attitudes toward nutrition and fitness 2. Significant increases in students' self- efficacy 3. Moderate increases in nutrition knowledge
    162. 162. Balanced gameplay
    163. 163. Often, you don’t directly design the play experience. You design the parameters in which play executes. The players, objectives, and constraints interact in complex ways to construct the experience as you go. Games as systems Although some games aren’t systems, e.g...
    164. 164. There are some big design issues here!! Games execute outside of the designer’s control. The real-time interactions between game elements are complex and hard to predict. Unintended degenerate strategies can emerge. Players may not understand a game or they may struggle with its UI. Players might not be having any fun.
    165. 165. UI usability
    166. 166. UI usability
    167. 167. Balance
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