CRM practices in banks

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  • 1. Customer Relationship Management Assignment on CRM practices in Bank of India and ING Vysya BankSUBMITTED TO:Prof. Reeti Agarwal SUBMITTED BY: Feroz Ahmad (JIML-11-057) Ankit Pandey (JIML-11-021) Ashish Saxena (JIML-11-39) Bhola Bhakta (JIML-11-FS-021) (Section –B)Date: 29 September, 2012
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe are grateful to our respected faculty prof. Reeti Agarwal for giving us an opportunityto understand the analysis of CRM practices in banking sector. Through this project wegot to learn that how to look at the problem from a Manager’s perspective.We would like to present our gratitude to Reeti Mam for the successful completion of theproject which would not have been possible without her constant help and guidance.
  • 3. Bank of Baroda is an Indian bank based in Vadodara, India. It is the countrys first largestpublic sector lender in terms of annual profit. BoB is ranked 715 on Forbes Global 2000 list.BoB has total assets in excess of Rs. 3.58 lakh crores, or Rs. 3,583 billion, a network of 4007branches (out of which 3914 branches are in India) and offices, and over 2000 ATMs. Itplans to open 400 new branches in the coming year. It offers a wide range of bankingproducts and financial services to corporate and retail customers through its deliverychannels and through its specialized subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investmentbanking, credit cards and asset management. Its total global business was Rs. 6,722.48billion as of 31 March 2012. Its headquarter is in Baroda and corporate headquarter isin Bandra Kurla Complex Mumbai.In its international expansion, the Bank of Baroda followed the Indian diaspora, especiallythat of Gujaratis. The Bank has 93 branches/offices in 24 countries including 55branches/offices of the bank, 36 branches of its 8 subsidiaries and 2 representative officesin Thailand and Australia. The Bank of Baroda has a joint venture in Zambia with 16branches.Among the Bank of Baroda’s overseas branches are ones in the world’s major financialcenters (e.g., New York, London, Dubai, Hong Kong, Brussels and Singapore), as well as anumber in other countries. The bank is engaged in retail banking via the branches ofsubsidiaries in Botswana, Guyana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The bank plans to upgradeits representative office in Australia to a branch and set up a joint venture commercial bankin Malaysia. It has a large presence in Mauritius with about nine branches spread out in thecountry.IndiaFirst Life Insurance Company is a joint venture between two of India’s public sectorbanks – Bank of Baroda (44%) and Andhra Bank (30%), and UK’s financial and investmentcompany Legal & General(26%).[1] It was incorporated in November 2009 and has its itsheadquarters in Mumbai.[1] The company started strongly, achieving a turnover in excessof Rs. 200 crores in in its first four and half months, and being recommended for ISOcertification within 7 months.In 2011, BoB opened an Electronic Banking Service Unit (EBSU) was opened at HamriyaFree Zone, Sharjah (UAE). It also opened four new branches in existing operations inUganda, Kenya, and Guyana. BoB closed its representative office in Malaysia in anticipationof the opening of its consortium bank there. BoB received ‘In Principle’ approval for theupgrading of its representative office in Australia to a branch.
  • 4. CRM Practices in Bank of BarodaTechnology-based CRMTechnology plays the role of enabler in CRM deployment and allows Bank of Baroda to achievegreater customization and better service at lower cost that helps in better customer identificationand fast and convenience services to its customers.Customer Loyalty ProgramsBank of Baroda has an aim to be a customer centric organisation and build a favorable and longterm relationships with its customers. Loyalty has both an attitudinal and behavioral dimensionsto adjudge the customers based on their value and attachment with the bank. Behavioral loyaltywill include examples like maintaining long term relationship with bank, word of mouth, etcwhile attitudinal loyalty will comprise examples like trust or emotional attachment. Further,behavioral loyalty does not necessarily reflect attitudinal loyalty, thus, Bank of Baroda focuseson attitudinal loyalty through its various loyalty programs, marketing communications toemotional touch the target customers because loyalty leads to more business and increase inbottom line of the bank. It has four loyalty cards based on value of the customers such asPlatinum, Gold, Silver and Bronze. It helps in identifying the most valuable customers and plansthe different offers, schemes and services as per their needs and preferences.Data Warehouse and Data MiningThe Data warehouse is the core of any decision support system and hence of the CRM. Inimplementing its Data Warehouse Bank of Baroda has selected an incremental approach,where the development of information systems is integrated with the business strategy.Instead of developing a complete design of a corporate Data Warehouse beforeimplementing it, the bank has decided to develop a portion of the Data Warehouse to beused for customer relationship management and for the production of accurate andconsistent management reports. Here the bank is not concerned with the latter goal, butare concentrating on the former.The Data Warehouse has been designed according to the IBM BDW (Banking DataWarehouse) model that has been developed as a consequence of the collaboration betweenIBM and many banking customers. The model is currently being used by 400 banksworldwide. Bank of Baroda Data Warehouse is regularly populated both from operationalsystems and from intermediate sources obtained by partial pre-processing of the same rawdata.
  • 5. CRM Practices from Customer Perspective Since when you are having an a/c in your current bank? Less than 1 more than 4 Year year 8% 32% 1-2 yr 16% 3-4 yr 2-3 yr 16% 28%The above graph shows that 32% of total respondents are having their a/c with Bank of Baroda for morethan 4 years, 28% are for 2-3 years and 16% for both 1-2 year and 3-4 years. Thus, it shows that Bank ofBaroda is doing well and is able to retain its customer through its various attractive services. Please tick the services you avail of your current bank Demat A/c Internet Mobile banking 5% banking 0% 11% Current A/c 6% Loan Saving A/c 5% 39% Credit card 22% Fixed Deposit 12%We can infer from this figure that a large no of 39% respondents are having the core facility of the banki.e. saving a/c and 22% are also using credit card of the bank. All the other facility such as demat a/c,current a/c, loan and internet banking is being used by very small portion of respondents of 5%, 6%, 5%
  • 6. and 11% respectively. A drawback can be easily identified that none of the respondents are using mobilebanking facility, thus, Bank of Baroda should come up with many attracting features to encouragemobile banking. Please rate the following services of your current bank from 1 to 5 (Least to Most). 14 12 10 5 8 4 6 3 4 2 2 0 1 Loaning Bank A/c ATM Internet Mobile Credit card Demat Locker services banking banking facility facilityThe above graph shows that ATM services, credit card, bank a/c and specially locker facility is rated highmost by large no. of respondents. Locker facility is generally not considered by most of the customersbut Bank of Baroda is doing well in this category, thus, it should be strengthening this facility and shouldmake available to large customers. Internet banking, mobile banking and demat a/c are rated lower bymany respondents, thus, company should be extending its strength to this new generation facilities.
  • 7. Please rate your satisfaction level with your current bank. Highly dissatisfied Dissatisfied 0% 12% Average Highly 4% satisfied 16% Satisfied 68%The most important aspect for any organisation is to be rated high on satisfaction level by its customers.Here, the graph reflects that 68% of respondents are satisfied with Bank of Baroda and even 16% arehighly satisfied. Only 12% are dissatisfied and the best part is that none of the respondents felt highlydissatisfied with the services of the bank. Thus, company should also focus on this 12% dissatisfiedbecause dissatisfaction leads to increase in dissatisfied customers.
  • 8. Do you have any complaints regarding your bank? No 44% Yes 56%It can be clearly see that 56% of respondents do have complaints regarding bank besides they aresatisfied with bank and only 44% feels that they would not complain regarding services of the bank. Itgenerally happens when customers do have complaints and do not want to switch to other serviceprovider due to their loyalty towards the bank. They want to stay with the bank and desire to getresolution to their problems. Therefore, Bank of Baroda should effective handle the complaints of itscustomers to make them satisfied and un-complained. It should also provide some convenientcomplaint system and effective resolution of those complaints.
  • 9. Please tick the area where you have complaints. Rude behavior Insecure services of employee (mobile, internet 13% Wrong transaction banking) 3% 19% Unresponsiveness Disruption in service of employee 9% 21% Non-upgraded services 4% Delay in service delivery 31%The above areas are the general area of complaints by many customers. Here, 31% of the respondentsbelieve that they do not get their service on time and there happens delays in delivery of services thatleads to high waiting time for customers. Waiting time is always unproductive for customers as well asbank because it is also loss of opportunity and may also lead to switching of customers to competitors.Among all the respondents 21% feels that the employees of the bank do not proactively response theirqueries and complaints and 13% of respondents have also experienced that employees were rude tothem while interacting. These two aspects are related to behavior of employees that may influence acustomer to be loyal and may also spoil the long term relationship with the bank in a while. Thus, thebank should conduct some soft skill training to make the employees behave with customers in a goodmanner. Moreover, 19 % responses were about insecurity in digital banking such as internet and mobilebanking and that is why most customers do not use these facilities. Thus, Bank of Baroda should comeup with good secure system and ensure the security and should convey the same to its customerseffectively in taking their confidence.
  • 10. Do you feel that your complaints are resolved effectively? not sure 4% no 28% yes 68%The above graph shows the effective handling of customers by Bank of Baroda. It is able to make 68% ofrespondents feel that their complaints were resolved effectively and this may be the reason of high no.of respondents are satisfied with the bank. There is still need of work to be done to make those 28%respondents happy with the resolution provided to them on their complaints. You were satisfied with resolution provided on your previous complaint/s. Disagree Strongly disagree 12% 4% Can’t say 0% Strongly agree Agree 52% 32%This graph shows the outcome of the previous question, where 52% of respondents strongly agree thatthey were satisfied with resolution on their complaints. Moreover, 32% respondents do agree with theabove statement that implies that they are satisfied with the resolution provided to them. But, 12% ofrespondents also disagree and 4% of respondents even strongly disagree that they were given properresolution to their problems. Thus, Bank of Baroda should focus on effective complaints handling by softspoken, experienced and helpful employees.
  • 11. How would you rate the behavior of employees in your current bank Worst Excellent 4% 12% Good Bad 28% 48% Average 8%The graph shows the employees behavior that impacts a lot on business of any organisation. It can beinferred from the data analysis that Bank of Baroda is doing very well in terms of services but they valueis getting destructed by its employees unproductive behavior, here, 48% of the respondents feel thatthe behavior of employees was very bad and 4% also feel that they were worst. On the other hand, 12%of respondents have selected excellent and good by 28% of participants on the behavior issue of Bank ofBaroda. Thus, there is emergence to work on employee behavior if, the bank wants to improve in thefuture. It should invest in training program of its employees and make them know the worth ofcustomers. Do you think that you are given personalized treatment by your bank no 44% Yes 56%The above graph is to chart the differentiation between normal and valuable customers. It is good forBank of Baroda that 56% of respondents think that they are treated in personalized way by the bank andthey are given treatment as per their worth in the bank.
  • 12. Do you use any loyalty schemes of the bank, if yes then please mention platinum 0% silver gold 8% 12% bronze 16% no 64%The above figure is to show the loyalty schemes avail by various customers, here, 64% of respondentsdo not avail any loyalty scheme and bronze is 16%, silver is 8% and gold is 12% availed by therespondents. But, none of the respondents use platinum card scheme. Thus, BOB should come up withmany such loyalty schemes that help in identifying and retaining most valuable customers of the bank. Would you like to use more products and services of your current bank in future may be 8% no 20% yes 72%The graph is to show the potential customers of the bank that in future the bank can cross sell or up sellto these customers. It is very good for the bank that 72% of the respondents would like to avail moreproducts and services of Bank of Baroda. Thus, the bank should come with more innovative, attractive,and affordable products and services in future to target these potential cum loyal customers.
  • 13. Would you like to recommend this bank to your family & friends never 4% may be no 0% 12% yes Definitely 24% 60%The most important and pleasing graph of this study is to see whether customers are as satisfied torecommend this bank to someone else. It shows that 60% of the respondents would definitelyrecommend this bank to the known. Among the whole respondents, only 4% would never recommendthat shows their dissatisfaction and 12% said directly no. Therefore, the company should focus onimproving the behavior its employees to convert these 12% and 4% respondents into satisfiedcustomers that will not only give their future business to the bank but also do positive word of mouththat is the best communication tool used by any company.
  • 14. ING Vysya Bank is a Bangalore-based retail, commercial/wholesale, and private bankformed from the 2002 merger of the Dutch ING Group and Indian Vysya Bank, following aseven-year strategic alliance between Vysya Bank and now-ING Group subsidiaryBelgian Bank Bruxelles Lambert. This merger marks the first between an Indian bank and aforeign bank.ING Group, the highest-ranking institutional shareholder, currently holds a 44% equitystake in ING Vysya Bank, followed by Aberdeen Asset Management, private equity firmChrysCapital, Morgan Stanley, and Citigroup, respectively. ING Group also maintains apresence in India through shareholding in ING Vysya Life Insurance Company and INGInvestment Management (India).Founded in 1930, Vysya Bank was formally incorporated in the cityof Bangalore, Karnataka. The state of Karnataka is known as the "cradle of Indian banking"due to the regions bygone banking relationship with several European East IndiaCompanies during the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Seven of the countrys leading banks(Canara Bank, Syndicate Bank, Corporation Bank, Vijaya Bank, Karnataka Bank, State Bankof Mysore, and ING Vysya Bank) were originally established in Karnataka.In 1995, Vysya Bank entered into a long-term strategic alliance with Belgian bank BankBruxelles Lambert (BBL). Following this agreement, the Vysya Bank engaged KPMC PeatMarwick for assistance in re-engineering its business processes in preparation forglobalization. In 1996, an international investment banking joint venture (JV) with MCSecurities (London), an investment banking subsidiary of BBL, was formally established.In 1998, the ING Group acquired BBL and all its contractual and JV interests in Vysya Bank.In 1999, Vysya Bank joined the ING Group in co-marketing/distribution of life insuranceproducts in India. Vysya Bank also acquired a 26% equity stake in the ING AssetManagement Company. In 2000, Vysya Bank, ING Insurance, and the Damani Group formeda life insurance JV; this innovative collaboration marks the first bank assurance venture inIndia.ING Vysya Bank has over 80 years of operating experience in the banking/financial services& insurance sector and currently serves over 2 million Indian consumers. The bank offersan entire range of financial products and services, organized under three strategic lines ofbusiness: retail, private and wholesale banking.
  • 15. CRM practices in ING Vysya BankIBM to implement CRM solutionIBM, along with its business partners Avaya GlobalConnect and Talisma, has implementedCustomer Service Line, a CRM solution, for ING Vysya Bank. The solution ensures 24x7availability of phone banking service to its customers. IBM Global Services providedbusiness consultancy and lead managed this CRM project and also integrated it, in additionto setting up the LAN and IT infrastructure for this project. The ING Vysya CustomerService Line provides full service phone banking solution to its customers.BPR EnabledING Vysya Bank launched the customer first initiative that would use IT and BPRcreatively towards the objective of making the bank easy to deal with for customers. Itwould help in – Reengineering the project for account opening and account maintenance. The service request fulfillment cycle has reduced times by more than 90%, making the customers very happy. By making the bank easier for customers to interact with helped in saving Rs.2.5 crore.‘Easy to Deal With’Financial institutions are perceived to be opaque and inwardly focused. And ING VysyaBanks worldwide market research suggested the same: customers do not feel in control oftheir money when dealing with financial services companies.ING Vysya Bank decided tolaunch the customer first initiative that would use technology and BPR creatively towardsthe objective of making the bank easy to deal with for customers.Using pre-generated kits for accessing telephone banking and ATM, includinginstantaneous replacement of lost cards was the first step. "Stocking pre-generatedinventory of accounts and access devices like PINs and ATM cards at all customer touch-points took the bank closer to its aim.The bank focus was on pre-processing all operations and technology elements associatedwith these processes, so that the only task would be to activate the account and channels assoon as the customers request is received.However, there were some roadblocks in the implementation. From a technologyperspective, all customers facing core banking processes relevant for account opening andaccount maintenance had to be re-engineered for the project. This was very challenging,
  • 16. users were comfortable with the existing processes and didnt want to change the way theywork. Initially, there was a significant disconnect between the people who designed thenew processes and people involved in user acceptance testing. To tackle that, additionaltraining on the current and modified business processes with inputs on the benefits of there-engineered process was provided to the users.CRM Practices from Customer perspective Since when you are having an a/c in your current bank? Less than 1 Year 4% more than 4 yr 1-2 yr 16% 20% 3-4 yr 24% 2-3 yr 36%From this chart we can see that, 16% of total customer are having Ing Vysya bank accountfrom more than 4 years, 24% customers are using its services from 3 to 4 years, 36%customers are using from 2 to 3 years, 20% customers using from 1to 2 years and 4% arehaving its bank account from less than 1 year. 16% customer are more loyal to the bankbecause they have an account from more than 4 years while 20% customers havingaccount from 1 to 2 years, it shows that company is able to attract new customers as well.
  • 17. Please tick the services you avail of your current bank. Demat A/c Mobile banking 7% 2% Internet banking Saving A/c Current A/c 13% 34% 2% Loan 9% Credit card 26% Fixed Deposit 7%This chart shows that 34% respondents having saving account, 26% are using credit cardfacility, 9% having loan account, 2% having current account, 13% using internet bankingfacility and 7% having demat account. Company has more customer in saving bank account,it shows that people prefer it saving bank account than any other account or facility.
  • 18. Please rate the following services of your current bank from 1 to 5 (Least to Most). 14 12 10 8 5 4 6 3 2 4 1 2 0 Loaning Bank A/c ATM Internet Mobile Credit card Demat Locker services banking banking facility facilityThe above graph shows that ATM services, credit card, bank a/c and specially locker facility is rated highmost by large no. of respondents. Locker facility is generally not considered by most of the customersbut ING Vysya Bank is doing well in this category, thus, it should be strengthening this facility and shouldmake available to large customers. Mobile banking and demat a/c are loaning rated lower by manyrespondents, thus, company should be extending its strength to this new generation facilities.
  • 19. Please rate your satisfaction level with your current bank. Highly dissatisfied 8% Dissatisfied Highly satisfied 16% 24% Average 12% Satisfied 40%This chart shows that shows that 8% respondents are highly dissatisfied, 24% are highlysatisfied, 12% respondents rated Ing facilities as average satisfaction,16% are rated it asdissatisfied and 40% are satisfied with Ing Vysya. Most of the respondent satisfied with Ingbut it needs to improve and take measures to make dissatisfied customers to satisfy.
  • 20. Do you have any complaints regarding your bank? yes 36% no 64%The 64% respondents have not any complain with ING Vysya but 36% having complaintswith this bank. Company need to resolve their problems quickly it will help bank to maketheir customers loyal. Please tick the area where you have Insecure services complaints. (mobile, internet banking) 20% Rude behavior of employee 31% Wrong transaction 15% Unresponsiveness of employee Non- Delay in 15% Disruption in upgraded service service services delivery 8% 3% 8%This chart shows that 31% complaint people have complain about Rude behaviour ofemployees, 20% have complain about insecure services, 15% have wrong transactioncomplaints, 8% have compliant of disrupt services, 3% have No upgraded services, 8%
  • 21. delay in services and 15% have complaints about unresponsiveness of employees. Bankneed to give training to their employee that they should not rudely behave with thecustomers. Do you feel that your complaints are resolved effectively? not sure 12% no 32% yes 56%This chart shows that 56% respondents feel that their complaints were resolved effectivelywhile 32% feel that their complaints did not resolved efficiently and 12% complainingrespondents are not sure whether their complaints were resolved efficiently or not. You were satisfied with resolution provided on your previous complaint/s. Strongly disagree 8% Disagree 16% Strongly agree Can’t say 44% 4% Agree 28%This chart shows that 44% complaining respondents highly satisfied with resolutionprovided on their complaints, 28% are just satisfied, 8% are strongly disagree that they
  • 22. were provided good resolution, 16% are disagree and 4% are can’t say that They weresatisfied with provided resolution or not. Company need to provide good solution for 8%strongly disagree and 16% disagree respondents to make them loyal. How would you rate the behavior of employees in your current bank Bad 0% Worst Average 12% 8% Excellent Good 56% 24%From this chart we can see that 56% respondents Rate behaviour of the employees asexcellence, 12% rate worst, 24% rated good while 0% respondents rated bad. It meansbehaviour of the employees are good with the customers but it need to be improve to makemore loyal customers.
  • 23. Do you think that you are given personalized treatment by your bank no 28% Yes 72%This chart shows that 72% respondents get personalized treatment means specialtreatment and 28% are not getting personalized treatment. This dependent on the value ofthe customers for ING Vysya. Do you use any loyalty schemes of the bank, if yes then please mention platinum 8% gold no 24% 44% bronz silver 16% 8%ING Vysya having some loyalty schemes like platinum, gold, silver, bronze cards. 16%respondents using bronze card loyalty scheme, 24% using gold card, 8% using silver card,8% using platinum card loyalty schemes while 44% respondents are not having any kind ofloyalty card. It is very good that bank has so many schemes and it also beneficial for theBank.
  • 24. Would you like to use more products and services of your current bank in future may be 4% no 8% yes 88%This chart shows that 88% of the total respondents would like to use more products andservices of ING Vysya in future, 8% would not use more products in future while 4 % maybe use ING more products in future. It is very good for company that their existingcustomers are ready to use its future product also. Would you like to recommend this bank to your family & friends never 16% no 8% Definitely may be 48% 8% yes 20%
  • 25. This chart shows that 48% respondents are definitely refer ING Vysya bank for their familyand friends, 8% are not recommending, 20% are saying yes for recommendation, 8% arenot decided while 16% are never recommend ING Vysya bank to their family and friends.The recommendation percentage is good, it’s good for bank. But there is also customerswho do not like to recommend it means they are not fully satisfied with the bank Services.So Bank needs to make satisfy them and try to win their recommendations.ConclusionAlthough all banks recognize the need for CRM, not every bank is implementing thecomplete CRM concept. The way CRM has been implemented thus far seems to dependheavily on the current balance between the discretionary and advisory services that thebank provides.Customer Relationship Management is beneficial for all stakeholders: customers,employees, and investors. It is being used large or small banks in India as well as abroad.Due to privatization, deregulation, and globalization competition has increased. This hasled in the intensive use of CRM.ING Vysya Bank has implemented CRM to some extent, but still is on the initial stage. It hasinvested a lot of money in implemented various IT based solution to make its bankingoperations more easy, convenience for its customers but in terms of its customer dealing, itneeds to more to make its customers satisfied. Its employees are coming out to be itsstrength where majority of respondents have responded excellent behaviour of theemployees that is an edge over Bank of Baroda. Moreover, 44% respondents do stronglyagree with the statement that implies that they are satisfied with the resolution provided tothem. But, 16% of respondents also disagree and 8% of respondents even strongly disagreethat they were given proper resolution to their problems. Thus, ING Vysya Bank shouldfocus on effective complaints handling by soft spoken, experienced and helpful employees.Bank of Baroda is more customer centric than ING Vysya Bank. BOB has got more positiveand favourable response from the respondents and specially in case of recommendation bycustomers to his/her family members where it has higher positive response. Therefore, thecompany should focus on improving the behavior its employees to convert these 12% and4% respondents into satisfied customers that will not only give their future business to thebank but also do positive word of mouth that is the best communication tool used by anycompany. None of the respondents use platinum card scheme. Thus, BOB should come upwith many such loyalty schemes that help in identifying and retaining most valuablecustomers of the bank.
  • 26. Recommendation to both banks to improve CRMBoth the banks need to understand the needs and demands of their target customers andthen formulate their strategies and practices to serve them efficiently and effectively.Technological solutions are also compulsory but they must be user friendly. To make CRMa successful story banks have to take some critical steps:ING Vysya Bank�Banks should recognize the diversity of experience and needs of different customers.�Banks need to develop the propositions both relevant and practical, but not too complex.�Banks should get support from local media, newspapers and magazines to buildcommitment and trust in the community and to reflect values and aspiration of localcommunity in services and products.�Banks should sponsor different social and cultural activities of their stakeholders tobuild the mutual confidence and relationship.�Customer education programmes should be launched to improve understanding ofbank’s procedures and decision making and increase comfort levels.Bank of Baroda�Banks should hire professional people from the local community they are trying to serveto improve understanding and performance, also increased comfort levels and trust forcustomers. Attractive salaries and befits can motivate employees to perform their dutieswell.�Bank should focus on measuring current business volumes in branch/geographicpenetration, to help predict future value/growth patterns; in branch marketing research, toensure understanding of customers’ satisfaction levels, service expectations, customerloyalty etc. and tracking the success of advertising and PR and transfer learning into futurecampaigns.�Measurement is a key to the understanding, learning and improvement customerexperience. Banking sector management needs actively to articulate the need for animproved and consistent customer experience and branch mangers should localize thisapproach and coach their staff to deliver it.�Banks should use customer friendly technology – which their customer can use andbrings value in their life.