Aquafeed Storage
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Aquafeed Storage

on

  • 2,627 views

Prepared by FEROSEKHAN.S, CIFE, MUMBAI

Prepared by FEROSEKHAN.S, CIFE, MUMBAI

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,627
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
2,514
Embed Views
113

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
62
Comments
0

3 Embeds 113

http://www.scoop.it 110
http://pinterest.com 2
http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Aquafeed Storage Aquafeed Storage Presentation Transcript

    • Ferosekhan. S FNB-41 AQUAFEED STORAGE – PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
    • INTRODUCTION
      • Losses occurring in feedstuffs during storage fall under four major categories
      • 1) weight loss, 2) quality loss, 3) health risk, and 4) economic loss.
      • These losses arise from
              • the foraging activities of insects,
              • micro-organisms and animals,
              • improper handling,
              • physical and chemical changes.
              • Storage loss in a feed mill is due to insect ,animal pests and fungi .
    • CONT …
      • Intense insect activity often results in mould growth and it leads to complete destruction of the feedstuffs
      • also poses serious health risks to animals or fish feeding on rations containing damaged feed ingredients
      • When serious infestation by these pests occurs there is extensive weight loss accompanied by damage to quality
      • The lack of quality standards reflects in feed commodities qualities.
    • INSECTS
      • Insects feed on most feed ingredients and contaminate them with faeces, webbing, body parts, foul odours, and micro-organisms
      • Beetles and moths are the most destructive of the grain insects, and many are capable of destroying an entire store of feed.
      • Some insects are not discriminatory in their feeding habits whereas others are highly selective in their feeding
      • For example,
            • 1) Moth larvae generally feed on or near the surface of the grain mass,
            • 2) Beetles are destructive throughout.
    • WEEVILS Acorn weevil Blue Weevil Clover leaf weevil Stout Weevil
    • 33-37 * 24 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed, pulses Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium 32-35 30 23 Cereal grains, pulses, dried roots Lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica 28-32 25 17 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed Tropical warehouse moth Cadra cantella 30-33 50 21 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed Flat grain beetles Cryptolestes spp. 31-34 10 21 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed Saw-tooth grain beetles Oryzaephilus spp. 30-33 * 21 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed Flour beetles Tribolium spp. 26-30 30 16 Cereal grains Grain moth Sitotroga cerealella 26-30 50 15 Cereal grains Weevils Sitophilus spp. Temp, °C Rel. Hum, % Temp, °C Common name Scientific name Optimum range for increase Minimum for increase to epidemic numbers Susceptible feedstuffs Species
    • FACTORS AFFECTING INSECT INFESTATION OF FEEDSTUFFS
      • The occurrence and development of an insect infestation is dependent on
          • source of insects,
          • available food,
          • temperature,
          • moisture,
          • air,
          • condition of the feed-stuff,
          • presence of other organisms
      • Major factors affecting insect population growth is temperature, relative humidity, and moisture, content of the feed ingredient.
    • LOSSES DUE TO INSECT ATTACK
      • The best warning of serious weight loss is the presence of a large insect population.
      • Loss may be aggravated by prolonged storage.
      • Failure to keep the storage area clean and retention of infested sweepings will increase the liability of insect attack.
              • Weight loss
              • Quality loss
    • CONTROL
      • Climate is the most important factor determining the effectiveness of a storage system
      • close relationship between insect growth and ambient climatic conditions
      • Total eradication of insects in tropical climate is tedious one but we can control it’s population through GMPs
      • Better should not carry any infested feed materials into the storage room before proper fumigation has been done.
    • MICRO-ORGANISMS
      • Micro-organisms are biological contaminants of the natural environment and are present in all feedstuffs
      • Post-harvest processing of feed materials such as heat , chemical and mechanical extraction , and dehydration eliminate most of the native micro flora
      • Fungi spores are highly resistant in nature . Once fungi has grown on the feed it is better to avoid that feed for feeding the fish.
      • These organisms are cause more harm to the fishes.
    • FACTORS AFFECTING FUNGAL GROWTH IN FEEDSTUFFS
      • Factors can influence the growth of Fungi
          • 1. Temperature ( 25-35 °c)
          • 2. Humidity ( 70-90% )
          • 3. Moisture ( 15-20% )
      • The most common fungi involved in the spoilage of feedstuffs belong to the Aspergillus spp. and the Penicillium spp.
      • They are most destructive when temperatures exceed 25 ° C and relative humidity exceeds 85 percent.
    • DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF STORAGE FUNGI ON FEEDSTUFFS
      • The chief effects of storage fungi on feedstuffs are:
          • (a) mycotoxin production,
          • (b) heating and moisture increase,
          • (c) mustiness (staleness).
    • MYCOTOXIN PRODUCTION
      • Mycotoxins are compounds produced by fungi growing in infested feed materials
      • They are toxic to both humans and animals.
      • Aflatoxins:
      • A group of highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus are perhaps the most important among mycotoxins contaminating feedstuffs.
    • Cont…
      • Transmission of the toxin from feed to animals/fish through feeding on contaminated feed poses an increasing health hazard.
      • Studies on the toxicity of aflatoxin to fish have not been extensively studied.
      • Aflatoxin toxicity to trout (oral LD50: 0.5 mg/kg body weight) is reported.
      • In fishes, it causes decreased feed intake, reduced growth, tumor formation, and eventually mass mortality.
    • OTHER MYCOTOXINS
    • Cont…
      • Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A . flavus include:
            • groundnut cakes,
            • maize,
            • sorghum,
            • sunflower,
            • cottonseed cakes,
            • copra, and
            • cassava.
    • Cont…
      • To produce aflatoxin, A. flavus must be present in a pure culture form.
      • The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production.
      • Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed , and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora.
      • In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains.
      • Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk.
    • DISCOLOURATIONS
      • Feedstuffs that are damaged by fungi tend to become lumpy.
      • Feed grains exhibit discolouration due to fungal action.
      • Maize turns a dark brown with some blackened kernels because of fungi growth.
      • Also exhibits a bluish discolouration .
    • CONTROL MEASURES
      • Aflatoxins are not inactivated by normal pelleting process.
      • Use of Mycotoxin binder ( Mycosorb- Alltech )
      • Prevention of mould growth is the best means to avoid contamination of feed ingredients.
      • Removal and disposal of mould-damaged material is essential in preventing contamination.
    • DETERIORATIVE CHANGES IN STORED FEEDSTUFFS
      • Rancidity ( Lipid Oxidation):
      • Rancidity resulting from lipid oxidation is the most important deteriorative change occurring in stored feedstuffs.
      • Feedstuffs containing lipids which are highly unsaturated (e.g., rice bran and fish meal), are especially susceptible to oxidation.
      • The mechanism of lipid oxidation begins with auto-oxidation involving the direct reaction of lipids with molecular oxygen to form hydroperoxides.
      • This is followed by secondary reactions yielding diperoxides
      • Fission of hydroperoxides yield products containing carbonyl and hydroxy groups which will react further to form other products.
    • STEPS IN FAT OXIDATION
    • PREVENTION OF RANCID OXIDATION OF FATS
      • Blocking of Hydrogen supply
      • Addition of anti-oxidant such as Vit-E and Vit-C
      • Avoid direct contact with oxygen
    • DO S AND DON’T S IN FEED STORAGE ROOM
      • Provide a building storage that is secured and adequately locked.
      • Don’t accept deliveries of raw materials that are visibly damped.
      • Purchase required quantity of ingredient so that you do not need to keep great quantity in stock.
      • Always keep the store clean.
      • Make small stack.
      • Ensure that ingredients are clearly and neatly labeled.
      • Don’t walk over the feed bags.
    • CONT…
      • Feed should not be stored in direct sun light. This would adversely-affect the vitamin and lipid quality of the feed.
      • Feed should be used within 2-3 months of manufacturing.
      • Feed should be stored on wooden spacers not more than 5 bags high to maintain air circulation.
      • Feeds store should be 100% water proof and damp proof.
      • Proper ventilation should be provided.
      • Dry feed should be stored under cool and dry condition with temperature of < 20°c and humidity < 70%.
    • CONCLUSION
      • In a culture system, feed is the most important key factor that influence the production cost.
      • This feed should be stored at proper controlled condition, so that the quality of feed is not affected.
      • Good feed storage should provide protection against high temperature, humidity, moisture and insect and rodent infestations.
      • Feedstuffs should, as far as possible, be stored for a minimum length of time. Prolonged storage leads to deterioration of feed quality.
      • Storage never enhances feed quality, but proper storage reduces the deleterious changes in feed quality.
    •