Aquafeed Storage


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Aquafeed Storage

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Losses occurring in feedstuffs during storage fall under four major categories </li></ul><ul><li>1) weight loss, 2) quality loss, 3) health risk, and 4) economic loss. </li></ul><ul><li>These losses arise from </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the foraging activities of insects, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>micro-organisms and animals, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improper handling, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physical and chemical changes. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storage loss in a feed mill is due to insect ,animal pests and fungi . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. CONT … <ul><li>Intense insect activity often results in mould growth and it leads to complete destruction of the feedstuffs </li></ul><ul><li>also poses serious health risks to animals or fish feeding on rations containing damaged feed ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>When serious infestation by these pests occurs there is extensive weight loss accompanied by damage to quality </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of quality standards reflects in feed commodities qualities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. INSECTS <ul><li>Insects feed on most feed ingredients and contaminate them with faeces, webbing, body parts, foul odours, and micro-organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Beetles and moths are the most destructive of the grain insects, and many are capable of destroying an entire store of feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Some insects are not discriminatory in their feeding habits whereas others are highly selective in their feeding </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Moth larvae generally feed on or near the surface of the grain mass, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Beetles are destructive throughout. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. WEEVILS Acorn weevil Blue Weevil Clover leaf weevil Stout Weevil
  6. 6. 33-37 * 24 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed, pulses Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium 32-35 30 23 Cereal grains, pulses, dried roots Lesser grain borer Rhizopertha dominica 28-32 25 17 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed Tropical warehouse moth Cadra cantella 30-33 50 21 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed Flat grain beetles Cryptolestes spp. 31-34 10 21 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed Saw-tooth grain beetles Oryzaephilus spp. 30-33 * 21 Cereal grains and cereal by-products, oilseed cakes and meals, finished feed Flour beetles Tribolium spp. 26-30 30 16 Cereal grains Grain moth Sitotroga cerealella 26-30 50 15 Cereal grains Weevils Sitophilus spp. Temp, °C Rel. Hum, % Temp, °C Common name Scientific name Optimum range for increase Minimum for increase to epidemic numbers Susceptible feedstuffs Species
  7. 7. FACTORS AFFECTING INSECT INFESTATION OF FEEDSTUFFS <ul><li>The occurrence and development of an insect infestation is dependent on </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>source of insects, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>available food, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>temperature, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moisture, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>air, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>condition of the feed-stuff, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>presence of other organisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Major factors affecting insect population growth is temperature, relative humidity, and moisture, content of the feed ingredient. </li></ul>
  8. 8. LOSSES DUE TO INSECT ATTACK <ul><li>The best warning of serious weight loss is the presence of a large insect population. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss may be aggravated by prolonged storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to keep the storage area clean and retention of infested sweepings will increase the liability of insect attack. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality loss </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. CONTROL <ul><li>Climate is the most important factor determining the effectiveness of a storage system </li></ul><ul><li>close relationship between insect growth and ambient climatic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Total eradication of insects in tropical climate is tedious one but we can control it’s population through GMPs </li></ul><ul><li>Better should not carry any infested feed materials into the storage room before proper fumigation has been done. </li></ul>
  10. 10. MICRO-ORGANISMS <ul><li>Micro-organisms are biological contaminants of the natural environment and are present in all feedstuffs </li></ul><ul><li>Post-harvest processing of feed materials such as heat , chemical and mechanical extraction , and dehydration eliminate most of the native micro flora </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi spores are highly resistant in nature . Once fungi has grown on the feed it is better to avoid that feed for feeding the fish. </li></ul><ul><li>These organisms are cause more harm to the fishes. </li></ul>
  11. 11. FACTORS AFFECTING FUNGAL GROWTH IN FEEDSTUFFS <ul><li>Factors can influence the growth of Fungi </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Temperature ( 25-35 °c) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Humidity ( 70-90% ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Moisture ( 15-20% ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The most common fungi involved in the spoilage of feedstuffs belong to the Aspergillus spp. and the Penicillium spp. </li></ul><ul><li>They are most destructive when temperatures exceed 25 ° C and relative humidity exceeds 85 percent. </li></ul>
  12. 12. DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF STORAGE FUNGI ON FEEDSTUFFS <ul><li>The chief effects of storage fungi on feedstuffs are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(a) mycotoxin production, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(b) heating and moisture increase, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(c) mustiness (staleness). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. MYCOTOXIN PRODUCTION <ul><li>Mycotoxins are compounds produced by fungi growing in infested feed materials </li></ul><ul><li>They are toxic to both humans and animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Aflatoxins: </li></ul><ul><li>A group of highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus are perhaps the most important among mycotoxins contaminating feedstuffs. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cont… <ul><li>Transmission of the toxin from feed to animals/fish through feeding on contaminated feed poses an increasing health hazard. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on the toxicity of aflatoxin to fish have not been extensively studied. </li></ul><ul><li>Aflatoxin toxicity to trout (oral LD50: 0.5 mg/kg body weight) is reported. </li></ul><ul><li>In fishes, it causes decreased feed intake, reduced growth, tumor formation, and eventually mass mortality. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cont… <ul><li>Feedstuffs known to be contaminated by A . flavus include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>groundnut cakes, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maize, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sorghum, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sunflower, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cottonseed cakes, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>copra, and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cassava. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Cont… <ul><li>To produce aflatoxin, A. flavus must be present in a pure culture form. </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of other fungi, yeast, or bacteria seems to interfere with aflatoxin production. </li></ul><ul><li>Crops such as peanuts, cottonseed , and copra are high aflatoxin risks precisely because A. flavus often infest them as a practically pure culture with few or no other microflora. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the fungus produces the toxin in these crops at relatively low moisture levels, 9 to 10 percent, compared with 17 to 18 percent moisture for most feed grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed grains such as maize and sorghum grown in the tropics, therefore, also pose high risk. </li></ul>
  18. 18. DISCOLOURATIONS <ul><li>Feedstuffs that are damaged by fungi tend to become lumpy. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed grains exhibit discolouration due to fungal action. </li></ul><ul><li>Maize turns a dark brown with some blackened kernels because of fungi growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Also exhibits a bluish discolouration . </li></ul>
  19. 19. CONTROL MEASURES <ul><li>Aflatoxins are not inactivated by normal pelleting process. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Mycotoxin binder ( Mycosorb- Alltech ) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of mould growth is the best means to avoid contamination of feed ingredients. </li></ul><ul><li>Removal and disposal of mould-damaged material is essential in preventing contamination. </li></ul>
  20. 20. DETERIORATIVE CHANGES IN STORED FEEDSTUFFS <ul><li>Rancidity ( Lipid Oxidation): </li></ul><ul><li>Rancidity resulting from lipid oxidation is the most important deteriorative change occurring in stored feedstuffs. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedstuffs containing lipids which are highly unsaturated (e.g., rice bran and fish meal), are especially susceptible to oxidation. </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanism of lipid oxidation begins with auto-oxidation involving the direct reaction of lipids with molecular oxygen to form hydroperoxides. </li></ul><ul><li>This is followed by secondary reactions yielding diperoxides </li></ul><ul><li>Fission of hydroperoxides yield products containing carbonyl and hydroxy groups which will react further to form other products. </li></ul>
  22. 22. PREVENTION OF RANCID OXIDATION OF FATS <ul><li>Blocking of Hydrogen supply </li></ul><ul><li>Addition of anti-oxidant such as Vit-E and Vit-C </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid direct contact with oxygen </li></ul>
  23. 23. DO S AND DON’T S IN FEED STORAGE ROOM <ul><li>Provide a building storage that is secured and adequately locked. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t accept deliveries of raw materials that are visibly damped. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase required quantity of ingredient so that you do not need to keep great quantity in stock. </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep the store clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Make small stack. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that ingredients are clearly and neatly labeled. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t walk over the feed bags. </li></ul>
  24. 24. CONT… <ul><li>Feed should not be stored in direct sun light. This would adversely-affect the vitamin and lipid quality of the feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed should be used within 2-3 months of manufacturing. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed should be stored on wooden spacers not more than 5 bags high to maintain air circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeds store should be 100% water proof and damp proof. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper ventilation should be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry feed should be stored under cool and dry condition with temperature of < 20°c and humidity < 70%. </li></ul>
  25. 25. CONCLUSION <ul><li>In a culture system, feed is the most important key factor that influence the production cost. </li></ul><ul><li>This feed should be stored at proper controlled condition, so that the quality of feed is not affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Good feed storage should provide protection against high temperature, humidity, moisture and insect and rodent infestations. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedstuffs should, as far as possible, be stored for a minimum length of time. Prolonged storage leads to deterioration of feed quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage never enhances feed quality, but proper storage reduces the deleterious changes in feed quality. </li></ul>