Application Of Nirs In Feed Industry
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    • Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a nondestructive and rapid technique applied increasingly for food quality evaluation in recent years.
    • The most wide spread use of NIRS has been for the determination of protein, moisture, starch, lipids, ash, oil and Nacl…
  • 3. NIR Spectra
    • The NIR spectrum extends from ≈ 800nm – 2500nm.
    Cosmic Gamma X UV IR Micro UHF Short Medium Long Ultra violet Infrared Near Mid Far 1 400 750 2500 16000 1000000 nm Radio Vis
  • 4. Theory and features of NIR spectra
    • NIR spectroscopy utilizes the spectral range from 780 to 2500 nm and provides much more complex structural information related to the vibration behavior of combinations of bonds.
    • The record of NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum involves the response of the molecular bonds O=H, C=H, C=O and N=H.
    • These bonds are subject to vibrational energy changes when irradiated by NIR frequencies, and two vibration patterns exist in these bonds including stretch vibration and bent vibration.
  • 5. Cont…
    • The energy absorption of organic molecules in NIR region occurs when molecules vibrate or is translated into an absorption spectrum within the NIR spectrometer.
    • These special bonds also play an important part in the field of food chemical analysis, and could extract information to analyze the chemical structures.
  • 6.  
  • 7. The sketch map of NIR spectrometer. 1- light source, 2-beam splitter system, 3-reflector, 4-sample chamber/detector inlet valve, 5-diffuse reflection detector, 6-transmission detector, 7-dcontrol and data processing analyzed system, 8-printer.
  • 8. Cont…
    • Beam splitter used to translate multi-color light into single-color light.
    • Liquid samples, such as fruit juice often adopt glass or quartz chamber with different sizes, while solid samples use diffuse reflection carrier accessories.
    • Tungsten halogen lamps are used .
    • A computer has software for data acquisition, analysis control communication and numerical analysis within the spectrometer system.
    • The selection of wavelength regions, solution, scan speed, number, mode and sampling interval would influence the precision and repetition of the experiment.
  • 9. Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Its Application
    • Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology is widely used for a vast number of applications, including in feed industries, textile industries, medical and pharmaceutical advances and agriculture.
    • The most wide spread use of NIRS has been for the determination of protein, moisture, starch, lipids and ash in feed ingredients.
    • NIRS has been accepted as an official AOAC method for crude protein and ADF and for moisture.
  • 10. Cont…
    • It has also been used for determining starch and non-starch polysaccharides , fat and oil , metabolizable energy , insect or weed seed contamination in feed grains and for the analysis of dried forages .
    • It can be used to identify feeds and perform authenticity checks. In addition, heat damaged protein , fungal contamination and adulteration can be detected with modern pattern recognition Software.
    • The ultimate aim is to formulate diets for optimum animal productivity , cost effectiveness and the least environmental effects.
  • 11. Calibration Procedures
    • Calibrations are based on the statistical analysis, termed “chemometrics” of the relationship between mathematically transformed spectra and the frequency of chemical bonds in an organic matrix.
    • Quantitative analysis by NIRS is based on the Beer-Lambert Law (Crooks 1978). Beer’s law states that log (1/R) is proportional to the concentration of the chemical bond absorbing the NIRS energy
    • As a result the degree of absorbance can be used to determine the concentration of those molecules present in the samples.
  • 12. Cont…
    • For calibration various statistical models including, Principal Component Regression Multiple Linear Regression and Partial Least Square Regression can be used.
    • Each statistical model allows exploration of relationships of reflectance/absorption values of diverse sets of chemical bonds in the dried/wet sample and wet chemistry values of samples.
  • 13. Fishmeal industry….
    • The assessment of the chemical composition of fishmeal by NIRS.
    • -predicting moisture (M),
    • -oil,
    • -crude protein (CP),
    • -ash,
    • -salt as NaCl,
    • -total volatile
    • -nitrogen (TVN)
    • -and buffer capacity in fishmeal.
  • 14. Other applications…
    • NIRS also used to predict
    • -the amino acid composition
    • -lysine availability
    • -protein denaturaton
    • -contamination of mammalian meat and bone meal in feed - risk of BSE and vCJD
    • -biogenic amine
    • -grain quality in storage
    • - soil qualities such as organic carbon, total nitrogen & micro elements.
  • 15. Advantages of NIRS
    • • Rapid, as minimal or no sample preparation necessary
    • • On-the-spot analysis of the whole sample, i.e. a non-destructive technique, allows simultaneous measurement of several parameters
    • • High precision
    • • High throughput makes NIR a cheap technique on a sample basis
    • • Environmentally friendly
    • ● no reagents, no chemical waste.
  • 16. Limitations of NIRS
    • • Suitable for major feed components, not for minor components
    • • Great care needed in developing calibrations as these are matrix specific
    • • Complexity in choice of data treatment is confusing for the novice.
    • • Calibration procedures are time consuming and only worthwhile for subsequent analysis of large sample numbers
    • • High instrument costs.
  • 17. Conclusion
    • In the light of the present situation of competitivity in the feed industry, any change from the classical strategy of obtaining information on nutritional value could represent a differential market position.
    • NlRS could bridge the gap between advanced nutritional scientific knowledge generated and application to practical feed formulation and rationing.
  • 18.
            • QUERIES ?