Application Of Nirs In Feed Industry
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,398
On Slideshare
1,397
From Embeds
1
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
32
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 1

http://www.slideshare.net 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. APPLICATION OF NIRS IN FEED INDUSTRY FEROSEKHAN S FISHERIES SCIENCE CIFE,MUMBAI.
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    • Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a nondestructive and rapid technique applied increasingly for food quality evaluation in recent years.
    • The most wide spread use of NIRS has been for the determination of protein, moisture, starch, lipids, ash, oil and Nacl…
  • 3. NIR Spectra
    • The NIR spectrum extends from ≈ 800nm – 2500nm.
    Cosmic Gamma X UV IR Micro UHF Short Medium Long Ultra violet Infrared Near Mid Far 1 400 750 2500 16000 1000000 nm Radio Vis
  • 4. Theory and features of NIR spectra
    • NIR spectroscopy utilizes the spectral range from 780 to 2500 nm and provides much more complex structural information related to the vibration behavior of combinations of bonds.
    • The record of NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum involves the response of the molecular bonds O=H, C=H, C=O and N=H.
    • These bonds are subject to vibrational energy changes when irradiated by NIR frequencies, and two vibration patterns exist in these bonds including stretch vibration and bent vibration.
  • 5. Cont…
    • The energy absorption of organic molecules in NIR region occurs when molecules vibrate or is translated into an absorption spectrum within the NIR spectrometer.
    • These special bonds also play an important part in the field of food chemical analysis, and could extract information to analyze the chemical structures.
  • 6.  
  • 7. The sketch map of NIR spectrometer. 1- light source, 2-beam splitter system, 3-reflector, 4-sample chamber/detector inlet valve, 5-diffuse reflection detector, 6-transmission detector, 7-dcontrol and data processing analyzed system, 8-printer.
  • 8. Cont…
    • Beam splitter used to translate multi-color light into single-color light.
    • Liquid samples, such as fruit juice often adopt glass or quartz chamber with different sizes, while solid samples use diffuse reflection carrier accessories.
    • Tungsten halogen lamps are used .
    • A computer has software for data acquisition, analysis control communication and numerical analysis within the spectrometer system.
    • The selection of wavelength regions, solution, scan speed, number, mode and sampling interval would influence the precision and repetition of the experiment.
  • 9. Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Its Application
    • Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology is widely used for a vast number of applications, including in feed industries, textile industries, medical and pharmaceutical advances and agriculture.
    • The most wide spread use of NIRS has been for the determination of protein, moisture, starch, lipids and ash in feed ingredients.
    • NIRS has been accepted as an official AOAC method for crude protein and ADF and for moisture.
  • 10. Cont…
    • It has also been used for determining starch and non-starch polysaccharides , fat and oil , metabolizable energy , insect or weed seed contamination in feed grains and for the analysis of dried forages .
    • It can be used to identify feeds and perform authenticity checks. In addition, heat damaged protein , fungal contamination and adulteration can be detected with modern pattern recognition Software.
    • The ultimate aim is to formulate diets for optimum animal productivity , cost effectiveness and the least environmental effects.
  • 11. Calibration Procedures
    • Calibrations are based on the statistical analysis, termed “chemometrics” of the relationship between mathematically transformed spectra and the frequency of chemical bonds in an organic matrix.
    • Quantitative analysis by NIRS is based on the Beer-Lambert Law (Crooks 1978). Beer’s law states that log (1/R) is proportional to the concentration of the chemical bond absorbing the NIRS energy
    • As a result the degree of absorbance can be used to determine the concentration of those molecules present in the samples.
  • 12. Cont…
    • For calibration various statistical models including, Principal Component Regression Multiple Linear Regression and Partial Least Square Regression can be used.
    • Each statistical model allows exploration of relationships of reflectance/absorption values of diverse sets of chemical bonds in the dried/wet sample and wet chemistry values of samples.
  • 13. Fishmeal industry….
    • The assessment of the chemical composition of fishmeal by NIRS.
    • -predicting moisture (M),
    • -oil,
    • -crude protein (CP),
    • -ash,
    • -salt as NaCl,
    • -total volatile
    • -nitrogen (TVN)
    • -and buffer capacity in fishmeal.
  • 14. Other applications…
    • NIRS also used to predict
    • -the amino acid composition
    • -lysine availability
    • -protein denaturaton
    • -contamination of mammalian meat and bone meal in feed - risk of BSE and vCJD
    • -biogenic amine
    • -grain quality in storage
    • - soil qualities such as organic carbon, total nitrogen & micro elements.
  • 15. Advantages of NIRS
    • • Rapid, as minimal or no sample preparation necessary
    • • On-the-spot analysis of the whole sample, i.e. a non-destructive technique, allows simultaneous measurement of several parameters
    • • High precision
    • • High throughput makes NIR a cheap technique on a sample basis
    • • Environmentally friendly
    • ● no reagents, no chemical waste.
  • 16. Limitations of NIRS
    • • Suitable for major feed components, not for minor components
    • • Great care needed in developing calibrations as these are matrix specific
    • • Complexity in choice of data treatment is confusing for the novice.
    • • Calibration procedures are time consuming and only worthwhile for subsequent analysis of large sample numbers
    • • High instrument costs.
  • 17. Conclusion
    • In the light of the present situation of competitivity in the feed industry, any change from the classical strategy of obtaining information on nutritional value could represent a differential market position.
    • NlRS could bridge the gap between advanced nutritional scientific knowledge generated and application to practical feed formulation and rationing.
  • 18.
            • QUERIES ?