The birth of nationalism
In the modern and middle ages the word nation delimited the
group of people born in a same place and who were under the rule
of a same monarch.
So, a nation gathered people from different towns and cultures. In
the XIX century the word nation got a political dimension and
many people demanded that the states frontiers coincided with the
linguists, racial and histories.
Since, its origins there have been two different ideas of nationalism:
-The romantic Germans defended the cultural idea of
nation. For them the nation is a live being created during the
sequence of times with a culture, a language and history commons
which has the right to get organized as a sovereign state.
-The theoretical French planned a political idea of
nation. A nation is set up for the voluntary decision of a group
people. What typifies the citizens of a nation is the sharing of the
same laws, rights and duties not a culture.
These ideologies derived in two processes. On one hand the states
set up nationalizing politics. On the other hand many villages
fought to become states (nationalism movements).
The nationalism political of the states.
The nationalism is an ideology that has different meanings. The
creation of national States was a process that began in the liberal
revolutions of the 19th century.
- Were trying to develop the national feeling and the patriotic pride.
- The education made use a national language
- Symbols of the country were created
- The sports formed the feeling of the love to the country
- Had hated towards other countries because they saw them as a
threat for them.
The disintegrates nationalists
Part of the nationalists movements, gave place to the disaggregated
of the political society existing. For example, in 1830, Belgium had
separated of Low Countries and it had converted in an independent
The most serious cases were of the Austro-Hungarian and Turk
empires that were composed by diverse population. In the XIX
century, lots of that’s groups created political movements that
demanded the independence.
The Austro- Hungarian Empire resisted during all of the XIX
century. But the Turk empire has been separated along than
century. The first territory that was independent from the Turks was
Greece in 1829, and after that Serbia, Romania, Montenegro,
Bulgaria and Albania have independent too.
In Ireland, began an independent movement too. But the island
didn’t get it even 1922, although the north –Ireland had stilled under
the British domain.
The unifying movements: Italy and
Other nationalist movements caused the union of populations who
were divided. There were the cases of Italy and Germany.
The Italian peninsula was divided in different States, some of them
under the foreign domination: for example, the kingdom
Lombardo-Véneto belongs to Austrian empire. But the existence of
a common language forge a sentiment of unity between the Italians.
The process of unification of Italy was lead for the Piamonte and it
culminate in 1861.
In the case of Germany, Prussia was the State that lead the
unification. During the first part of the 19th century, it established
mechanisms of economic cooperation between the different
Germanic States. In 1862, the king Guillermo I of Prussia and his
first minister Bismarck speed up the unification for military way. In
1871 born the Germanic empire, the II Reich, that became in a big
1- What is a nation?
2- What pretended develop the States of the XIX
3- In which century has been created political
movements that demanded the independence?
4- What State lead the unification process? In
which year has been culminated?
1- The word nation delimited the group of people
born in a same place and who were under the rule
of a same monarch.
2- They pretended develop the national feeling,
they implant a national language, created the
symbol of the country and a feeling of love of the
3- In the nineteen century.
4- The process of unification was lead for
Piamonte. They culminated in the 1861.
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