IS2 Ionic Bonding

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  • 1. Ionic Bonding
  • 2. Valence Electrons
    • Number of electrons in highest occupied energy level
    • To find the number of valence electrons = look at its group number
  • 3.
    • atoms tend to gain or lose electrons in order to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas
    Octet Rule
  • 4. Octet Rule = atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have 8 electrons
    • C would like to
    • N would like to
    • O would like to
    Gain 4 electrons Gain 3 electrons Gain 2 electrons
  • 5. REMEMBER...
    • Metals tend to lose their valence electrons
    • Some nonmetals tend to gain electrons or to share with other nonmetallic elements to achieve a noble gas configuration
  • 6. Ion Formation
    • When an atom loses an electron it produces a positively charged ion (cation)
  • 7. Now has full shell with similar electronic configuration to Neon (stable noble gas configuration)
  • 8. Ion Formation
    • The gain of negatively charged electrons by a neutral atom produces an anion.
    • When an atom gains an electron it produces a negatively charged ion (anion)
  • 9. Now has full shell with similar electronic configuration to Argon (stable noble gas configuration)
  • 10. Lewis Dot Diagrams
  • 11. Ionic Bonds
    • Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds .
    • Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral .
    • The electrostatic force that hold ions together in ionic compounds is called Ionic Bond
  • 12.  
  • 13. Practice, Practice, Practice
    • Use electron dot structures to determine formulas of the ionic compounds formed when
    • 1. potassium reacts with iodine.
    • 2. Aluminum reacts with oxygen.
  • 14. Properties of Ionic Compounds
    • Most are crystalline solids at room temperature.
    • High melting points.
    • Conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water .
  • 15. Practice, Practice
    • Write the formulas for each compound:
    • Barium chloride
    • Lithium oxide
    • Magnesium oxide
    • Calcium flouride
  • 16. Learning Check
    • Give the ionic charge for each of the following:
    • A. 12 p + and 10 e -
    • 1) 0 2) 2+ 3) 2-
    • B. 50p + and 46 e-
    • 1) 2+ 2) 4+ 3) 4-
    • C. 15 p + and 18e-
    • 2) 3+ 2) 3- 3) 5-
  • 17. Learning Check
    • A. Number of valence electrons in aluminum
    • 1) 1 e - 2) 2 e - 3) 3 e -
    • B. Change in electrons for octet
    • 1) lose 3e - 2) gain 3 e - 3) gain 5 e -
    • C. Ionic charge of aluminum
    • 1) 3- 2) 5- 3) 3 +
  • 18. Review...
    • The number of valence electrons is the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom
    • A chemical bond is a force that holds two atoms together
    • An ionic bond is an electrostatic force that holds a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion together in an ionic compound
    • Atoms are always trying to achieve stability by having a configuration of a noble gas (2 electrons in first energy level OR 8 in the outermost energy level – OCTET RULE )