IS2 Ionic Bonding


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IS2 Ionic Bonding

  1. 1. Ionic Bonding
  2. 2. Valence Electrons <ul><li>Number of electrons in highest occupied energy level </li></ul><ul><li>To find the number of valence electrons = look at its group number </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>atoms tend to gain or lose electrons in order to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas </li></ul>Octet Rule
  4. 4. Octet Rule = atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have 8 electrons <ul><li>C would like to </li></ul><ul><li>N would like to </li></ul><ul><li>O would like to </li></ul>Gain 4 electrons Gain 3 electrons Gain 2 electrons
  5. 5. REMEMBER... <ul><li>Metals tend to lose their valence electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Some nonmetals tend to gain electrons or to share with other nonmetallic elements to achieve a noble gas configuration </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ion Formation <ul><li>When an atom loses an electron it produces a positively charged ion (cation) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Now has full shell with similar electronic configuration to Neon (stable noble gas configuration)
  8. 8. Ion Formation <ul><li>The gain of negatively charged electrons by a neutral atom produces an anion. </li></ul><ul><li>When an atom gains an electron it produces a negatively charged ion (anion) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Now has full shell with similar electronic configuration to Argon (stable noble gas configuration)
  10. 10. Lewis Dot Diagrams
  11. 11. Ionic Bonds <ul><li>Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds . </li></ul><ul><li>Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral . </li></ul><ul><li>The electrostatic force that hold ions together in ionic compounds is called Ionic Bond </li></ul>
  12. 13. Practice, Practice, Practice <ul><li>Use electron dot structures to determine formulas of the ionic compounds formed when </li></ul><ul><li>1. potassium reacts with iodine. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Aluminum reacts with oxygen. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Properties of Ionic Compounds <ul><li>Most are crystalline solids at room temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>High melting points. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water . </li></ul>
  14. 15. Practice, Practice <ul><li>Write the formulas for each compound: </li></ul><ul><li>Barium chloride </li></ul><ul><li>Lithium oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium flouride </li></ul>
  15. 16. Learning Check <ul><li>Give the ionic charge for each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>A. 12 p + and 10 e - </li></ul><ul><li>1) 0 2) 2+ 3) 2- </li></ul><ul><li>B. 50p + and 46 e- </li></ul><ul><li>1) 2+ 2) 4+ 3) 4- </li></ul><ul><li>C. 15 p + and 18e- </li></ul><ul><li>2) 3+ 2) 3- 3) 5- </li></ul>
  16. 17. Learning Check <ul><li>A. Number of valence electrons in aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>1) 1 e - 2) 2 e - 3) 3 e - </li></ul><ul><li>B. Change in electrons for octet </li></ul><ul><li>1) lose 3e - 2) gain 3 e - 3) gain 5 e - </li></ul><ul><li>C. Ionic charge of aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>1) 3- 2) 5- 3) 3 + </li></ul>
  17. 18. Review... <ul><li>The number of valence electrons is the number of electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical bond is a force that holds two atoms together </li></ul><ul><li>An ionic bond is an electrostatic force that holds a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion together in an ionic compound </li></ul><ul><li>Atoms are always trying to achieve stability by having a configuration of a noble gas (2 electrons in first energy level OR 8 in the outermost energy level – OCTET RULE ) </li></ul>