IS2 Classification PPT
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IS2 Classification PPT

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IS2 Classification PPT IS2 Classification PPT Presentation Transcript

  • Classification
    IS2
  • Essential Questions
    Why do we need to classify things?
    How do we classify things?
  • Binomial System
    Used to categorize organisms
    Created by Linnaeus in 18th century
    2 Latin names: Homo sapiens
    Homo = genus Homo sapiens = species
    Genus= always written with an initial capital letter
    Specific name = lower case
    Always italic (or different from text font) or underlined (when handwritten)
    Examples:
    Tiger= PantheratigrisLion = Pantheraleo
    Dog = CanisfamiliarisWolf = Canis lupus
    Sunflower = Helianthusannuus
    View slide
  • Helianthus annuus
    Sunflower
    Canisfamiliaris
    Dog
    BINNOMIAL SYSTEM
    Canis lupus
    Wolf
    Pantheraleo
    Lion
    Escherichia coli
    bacteria
    View slide
  • Hierarchy
    KINGDOM
    PHYLLUM
    CLASS
    ORDER
    FAMILY
    GENUS
    SPECIES
    If you need a trick to remember the sequence:
    “king phillip came over for green soup”
  • Basic features to remember...
    Prokaryotic cell x Eukaryotic cell
    Autotroph x Heterotroph
  • Classification
    For a long time: two kingdoms = ANIMALS AND PLANTS
    With the microscope = more creatures discovered
    Now:
  • Kingdom Eubacteria
    bacteria, blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)
    Unicellular organisms
    Prokaryotes
    Some move (flagellum), some don’t
    Some autotrophic, some heterotrophic
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria
    Live in extreme environments:
    Rich in methane (found for example in the digestive system of ruminants)
    Salt
    Hot springs
    Ocean (plankton)
    Closer to eukaryotes
    Classification is still changing
  • Kingdom Protista
    Amoeba, Plasmodium, Trypanosomacruzi, Toxoplasma, Euglena, Paramecium
    ALL unicellular
    Eukaryotes
    Some move (cilia, flagellum), some don’t
    Some autotrophic, some heterotrophic
    Amoeba moving/feeding: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W6rnhiMxtKU&feature=related
  • Kingdom Plantae
    algae, mosses, ferns, flowering plants
    ALL multicellular
    Eukaryotes
    ALL autotrophic
    4 main divisions:
    Bryophytes (moss)
    Ferns (ferns)
    Gimnospermophytes (pine trees)
    Angiospermophytes (flowering plants)
  • Kingdom Fungi
    fungi, molds, mushrooms, yeasts, mildews
    Some unicellular, some multicellular
    Eukaryotes
    ALL heterotrophic (saprotrophic: absorb organic matter from decaying organisms)
    Do not move
    Cells: no chlorophyll, cell wall made of chitin (not cellulose like plants)
  • Kingdom Animalia
    invertebrates and vertebrates
    ALL multicellular
    Eukaryotes
    ALL heterotrophic
    Some move, some don’t
    Many phyla:
    Porifera (sponge)
    Cnidaria (jellyfish)
    Platyhelminthe (flatworm)
    Nematoda (roundworm)
    Annelida (earthworm)
    Arthropoda (ant)
    Mollusca (snail)
    Echinodermata (sea star)
    Chordata (includes vertebrates)
  • What is a dichotomous key?
    tool that allows the user to determine the identity of a certain item (like, for example, a tree, a flower, an animal or a simple object)
    "Dichotomous" means "divided into two parts". Therefore, dichotomous keys always give two choices in each step.
  • Engage Activity – Create your own dichotomous key
    Create a dichotomous key to identify all students in this classroom, using questions based on gender, hair length/color, glasses (or not), clothing color/type, etc
    Rule: You must not use characteristics that might make people feel uncomfortable!!!
    1. Gender
    1a. Is this person male? Go to question 2.
    1b. Is this person female? Go to question 3.
  • Kingdom Animalia
    IS2
  • Phyllum Porifera
    Sponges
    Aquatic environments
    Oldest of the animal phyla /
    Porifera = "pore bearer"
    Asymmetrical / Stationary animals
    No specialized tissues
    No “real” skeleton
    Body structure = numerous small pores + few large openings
    Food: filters plankton
    Respiration: diffusion of O2 and CO2
    Hermaphrodites
    Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
  • Phyllum Cnidaria
    Jellyfish, anemone, coral, hydra
    Cnidos = “stinging needle”
    Aquatic environments
    Radial symmetry
    Two layers of tissue (including some nerve cells)
    Two main life forms: free-swimming medusa (jellyfish) or stationary polyp (anemone)
    Body = single opening to gastrovascular cavity that serves as the mouth and anus and is typically surrounded by a ring of tentacles packed with stinging cells
    Stinging cells: offense and defense
    Food: from tiny protists to large fish
    Reproduction: sexual and asexual
  • Phyllum Platyhelminthes
    Planaria, tapeworm
    Platy = "flat" ; helminth = “worm”
    Marine, freshwater, damp environments
    Bilateral symmetry
    Nervous system present
    Three tissue layers
    No circulatory system and no hard skeleton
    Their bodies have only a single opening, which serves as both a mouth and an anus.
    Food: carnivorous OR steal food from host
    Eyespot = group of light-sensitive cells
    Respiration: diffusion through skin
    Hermaphrodites
    Sexual and asexual reproduction
    Some parasites
  • PhyllumNematoda
    Unsegmented cylindrical body
    Nematos= “thread"
    Freshwater, sea, soil + parasites
    Bilateral symmetry
    Body with 2 openings: mouth and anus
    Nervous system present
    Respiration: diffusion through skin
    Separate genders
    Wuchereriabancrofti
    Larva migrans
    Free living nematode
    Ascarislumbricoides
  • Phyllum Mollusca
    Clams, Snails, Slugs, Squid, Octopus
    Mollis – “soft”
    Terrestrial, Aquatic (freshwater + marine)
    Muscular foot: used for locomotion or grasping
    A calcium shell present in most mollusks: some mollusks have greatly reduced their shells (squid); while others have completely lost it, e.g., slugs and octopus
    Octopus/squid: eyes with retina and lenses
    Nervous system (with brain)
    Respiration: gills / lungs / skin
    Main body systems
    Octopus = venom
    Sexual Reproduction
  • Sepia
    Sea slugs
    Nautilus
  • Phyllum Annelida
    Earthworms, Leeches, Polychaetes
    Anellus = "little ring”
    Terrestrial, freshwater, marine, parasites
    Bilateral symmetry
    Movement: muscles
    Body divided into segments (“rings”)
    Circulatory system present
    Two openings: mouth and anus
    Respiration: diffusion through skin
    Food: small invertebrates, earth, blood
    Sexual and asexual reproduction
    Some hermaphrodites
  • Phyllum Arthropoda
    Crabs, barnacles, lobsters, shrimp, spiders, mites, scorpions, millipedes, centipedes, insects
    All environments
    Arthron = “joint”; podos: “foot”
    Hard exoskeleton
    Jointed appendages + segmented body
    Must molt to grow = shed exoskeleton and inflate the body before the new skeleton hardens.
    Many appendages : antennae, claws, wings, shields, mouth parts – allow arthropods to exploit nearly every niche on Earth.
    Circulatory, excretory and nervous systems present
    Respiration: gills, trachea
    Sexual Reproduction
  • Phyllum Echinodermata
    Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Sand Dollar, Brittle Star
    Marine
    Larva: bilateral symmetry/ later: radial symmetry
    No central brain
    Internal skeleton made of little calcium plates
    Move, feed and breathe with a unique water-vascular system ending in what are called tube feet
    Most are either stationary or slow-moving animals
    Main body systems present
    Food: from particles to other starfish/shellfish
    External fertilization
    Regeneration
    Sexual and asexual reproduction
  • Phyllum Chordata
    97% are vertebrates -- animals whose skeletons include a backbone (which include Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals)
    Notochord: an elongate rod-like structure replaced by vertebral column in vertebrates
    Dorsal nerve cord: a hollow tube that turns into central nervous system
    Pharyngeal gill slits or clefts: structures located behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus
    Endoskeleton
    Lancelet or Amphioxus
    Ascidea or Tunicata
  • Vertebrates
    Skin: 2 layers – epidermis and dermis
    Vertebral column + skull
    Brain + spinal cord
    Endoskeleton
    Main classes (one of which is extinct):
    • Agnatha - jawlessfishes (lamprey/hagfish: scavengers/parasites)
    • Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes
    • Osteichthyes - bony fishes
    • Amphibia - Amphibians
    • Reptilia - Reptiles
    • Birds
    • Mammalia – Mammals
  • Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes
    Sharks, rays
    Cartilaginous endoskeleton, gill slits, and paired fins and nostrils
    Heart: 2 chambers
    Ventral mouth
    No bone marrow
    Scales
    Ectothermic
    Lateral line (vibrations)
    Internal fertilization
    Whale shark
    Hammerhead and Sting ray
  • Osteichthyes - bony fishes
    96% of living fish species.
    Most numerous and diverse of the vertebrates.
    eel, seahorse, tuna, clownfish
    Anterior mouth
    Swim bladder: allows them to float
    Gills protected by operculum
    Scales
    Ectothermic
    bone replaces cartilage
    External fertilization
    tuna/seahorse/eel/moonfish
  • Amphibia - Amphibians
    There are three living amphibian groups:
    • Frogs and toads
    • Salamanders
    • Caecilians
    Originated from fishes
    All have bony endoskeletons and usually four legs
    Ectothermic
    Metamorphosis (some species)
    All require water at some stage in the life cycle.
    Most shed their eggs into water, which is also home to a free-swimming larval stage.
    Respiration: gills, lungs (less efficient) , skin
    WET skin = respiratory organ (usually thin and sometimes supplied with glands that produce toxins)
    Heart: 3 chambers
    External fertilization
    Eardrums
    Vocal cords
    Caecilia – vestigial eyes + no legs
  • Reptilia
    Crocodiles, Alligators, Turtles, Snakes, Lizards
    Evolved from amphibians
    Heart = 4 chambers
    Ectothermic
    Skin = dry and full of scales (prevent dehydration)
    Eggs with shell, amniotic sac (allows them to live on dry land)
    Well developed lungs
    Internal fertilization
  • Birds
    Penguin, Kiwi, Hawk, Ostrich
    Eggs amnion: can develop on land
    Heart – 4 chambers
    Internal fertilization
    Endothermic
    Muscular stomach with stones for grinding food
    Oil gland (help some float in water)
    Flight adaptations:
    Feathers – insulation/flight
    Hollow bones
    Toothless
    Strong muscles
    No bladder (why do you think?)
    Lungs with air sacs
    Cerebellum developed (balance)
    Good vision
    Membrane covering eye (not eyelid)
    Some binocular vision (hunters)
    Blue-footedBoobyBird
    kiwi
    Harpia
  • Mammalia
    3 groups:
    • Monotremes = platypus and equidna (egg layers)
    • Marsupials = pouch (where baby finishes its development)
    • Placental = most mammals
    Mammary glands
    Parental care
    Hair
    Diaphragm
    Differentiation of teeth
    Large brain
    Endothermic
    Heart = 4 chambers
    Internal fertilization
  • Kingdom Plantae
    IS2
  • Bryophytes
    Simple plants, limited size
    Hold loose dirt in place: avoid weathering/erosion
    Live in moist areas
    Depend on water for sexual reproduction: motile male gamete
    No vascular tissue = absorbs nutrients from environment
    No true roots = have rhizoids - like root hairs (absorb water, anchor plant)
    No real stems
    No real leaves = similar structures but only one cell thick
    Produce spores involved in asexual reproduction
    moss
    liverwort
  • Have vascular tissue: can be bigger
    Xylem: H2O + minerals
    Phloem: sap (sugar, hormones...)
    Have real roots, stems and leaves (aka fronds)
    Live in moist areas: still needs water for sexual reproduction
    Spores produced generally on the underside of the leaf (asexual reproduction)
    Filicinophytes, or Ferns
    frond
    young frond
    rhizome
    roots
  • http://www.biology87.org/apbio/diversity/PlantLabPicts/statio6.jpg
    http://www.biology87.org/apbio/diversity/PlantLabPicts/statio4.jpg
  • GimnospermophytesConifers
    • Pines, cypress, sequoias
    • Contain a well developed vascular tissue (big plants!), roots, woody stems and leaves
    • Produce male (contain pollen) and female (contain ovules) cones
    • Pollen = gamete = does not depend on water for reproduction
    • Produce seeds which develop on the scales of the female cones
    • NO REAL FLOWERS + NO FRUITS
  • Sequoias
    National Park in California
  • AngiospermophytesFloweringPlants
    Flowering plants with real roots, stems and leaves
    Occupy all environments
    Male gamete = pollen (does not need water for reproduction)
    Seeds are produced – develop inside the ovaries in the flower
    Ovary develops into a fruit which aids in seed dispersal