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IB Classification PPT
 

IB Classification PPT

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    IB Classification PPT IB Classification PPT Presentation Transcript

    • Classification System
      IB Biology
    • Binomial System
      Used to categorize organisms
      Created by Linnaeus in 18th century
      2 Latin names: Homo sapiens
      Homo = genus Homo sapiens = species
      Genus= always written with an initial capital letter
      Specific name = lower case
      Always italic (or different from text font) or underlined (when handwritten)
      Examples:
      Tiger= PantheratigrisLion = Panthera Leo
      Dog = CanisfamiliarisWolf = Canis lupus
      Sunflower = Helianthus annuus
      Sometimes subspecies used:
      Bengal Tiger - Panthera tigris tigris / Siberian Tiger – Panthera tigris altaica
    • Helianthus annuus
      Sunflower
      Canisfamiliaris
      Dog
      BINNOMIAL SYSTEM
      Canis lupus
      Wolf
      Panthera tigristigris
      Tigre-de-bengala
      Panthera tigris altaica
      Tigre siberiano
    • Hierarchy
      KINGDOM
      PHYLLUM (PHYLA - plural)
      CLASS
      ORDER
      FAMILY
      GENUS
      SPECIES
    • What is a dichotomous key?
      tool that allows the user to determine the identity of a certain item (like, for example, a tree, a flower, an animal or a simple object)
      "Dichotomous" means "divided into two parts". Therefore, dichotomous keys always give two choices in each step.
    • Basic features to remember...
      Prokaryotic cell x Eukaryotic cell
      Autotroph x Heterotroph
    • Classification
      For a long time: two kingdoms = ANIMALS AND PLANTS
      With the microscope = more creatures discovered
      Now:
    • Kingdom Eubacteria
      bacteria, blue-green algae (cyanobacteria)
      Unicellular organisms
      Prokaryotes
      Some move (flagellum), some don’t
      Some autotrophic, some heterotrophic
    • Kingdom Archaebacteria
      Live in extreme environments:
      Rich in methane (found for example in the digestive system of ruminants)
      Salt
      Hot springs
      Ocean (plankton)
      Closer to eukaryotes
      Classification is still changing
    • Kingdom Protista
      Amoeba, Plasmodium, Trypanosomacruzi, Toxoplasma, Euglena, Paramecium
      ALL Unicellular
      Eukaryotes
      Some move (cilia, flagellum, pseudopods), some don’t
      Some autotrophic, some heterotrophic
    • Kingdom Fungi
      funguses, molds, mushrooms, yeasts, mildews
      Some unicellular, some multicellular
      Eukaryotes
      ALL heterotrophic (saprotrophic: absorb organic matter from decaying organisms)
      Do not move
      Cells: no cholophyll, cell wall made of chitin
    • Kingdom Plantae
      algae, mosses, ferns, flowering plants
      ALL multicellular
      Eukaryotes
      ALL autotrophic
    • Kingdom Animalia
      invertebrates and vertebrates
      ALL multicellular
      Eukaryotes
      ALL heterotrophic
      Some move, some don’t
    • KINGDOM ANIMALIA
    • Phyllum Porifera
      Sponges
      Aquatic environments
      Oldest of the animal phyla /
      Porifera = "pore bearer"
      Asymmetrical / Stationary animals
      No specialized tissues
      No “real” skeleton
      Body structure = numerous small pores + few large openings
      Food: filters plankton
      Respiration: diffusion of O2 and CO2
      Hermaphrodites
      Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
    • Phyllum Cnidaria
      Jellyfish, anemone, coral, hydra
      Cnidos = “stinging needle”
      Aquatic environments
      Radial symmetry
      Two layers of tissue (including some nerve cells)
      Two main life forms: free-swimming medusa (jellyfish) or stationary polyp (anemone)
      Body = single opening to gastrovascular cavity that serves as the mouth and anus and is typically surrounded by a ring of tentacles packed with stinging cells
      Stinging cells: offense and defense
      Food: from tiny protists to large fish
      Reproduction: sexual and asexual
    • Phyllum Platyhelminthes
      Planaria, tapeworm
      Platy = "flat" ; helminth = “worm”
      Marine, freshwater, damp environments
      Bilateral symmetry
      Nervous system present
      Three tissue layers
      No circulatory system and no hard skeleton
      Their bodies have only a single opening, which serves as both a mouth and an anus.
      Food: carnivorous OR steal food from host
      Eyespot = group of light-sensitive cells
      Respiration: diffusion through skin
      Hermaphrodites
      Sexual and asexual reproduction
      Some parasites
    • PhyllumNematoda
      Unsegmented cylindrical body
      Nematos= “thread"
      Freshwater, sea, soil + parasites
      Bilateral symmetry
      Body with 2 openings: mouth and anus
      Nervous system present
      Respiration: diffusion through skin
      Separate genders
      Wuchereriabancrofti
      Larva migrans
      Free living nematode
      Ascarislumbricoides
    • Phyllum Mollusca
      Clams, Snails, Slugs, Squid, Octopus
      Mollis – “soft”
      Terrestrial, Aquatic (freshwater + marine)
      Muscular foot: used for locomotion or grasping
      A calcium shell present in most mollusks: some mollusks have greatly reduced their shells (squid); while others have completely lost it, e.g., slugs and octopus
      Octopus/squid: eyes with retina and lenses
      Nervous system (with brain)
      Respiration: gills / lungs / skin
      Main body systems
      Octopus = venom
      Sexual Reproduction
    • Sepia
      Sea slugs
      Nautilus
    • Phyllum Annelida
      Earthworms, Leeches, Polychaetes
      Anellus = "little ring”
      Terrestrial, freshwater, marine, parasites
      Bilateral symmetry
      Movement: muscles
      Body divided into segments (“rings”)
      Circulatory system present
      Two openings: mouth and anus
      Respiration: diffusion through skin
      Food: small invertebrates, earth, blood
      Sexual and asexual reproduction
      Some hermaphrodites
    • Phyllum Arthropoda
      Crabs, barnacles, lobsters, shrimp, spiders, mites, scorpions, millipedes, centipedes, insects
      All environments
      Arthron = “joint”; podos: “foot”
      Hard exoskeleton
      Jointed appendages + segmented body
      Must molt to grow = shed exoskeleton and inflate the body before the new skeleton hardens.
      Many appendages : antennae, claws, wings, shields, mouth parts – allow arthropods to exploit nearly every niche on Earth.
      Circulatory, excretory and nervous systems present
      Respiration: gills, trachea
      Sexual Reproduction
    • Phyllum Echinodermata
      Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sea Cucumbers, Sand Dollar, Brittle Star
      Marine
      Larva: bilateral symmetry/ later: radial symmetry
      No central brain
      Internal skeleton made of little calcium plates
      Move, feed and breathe with a unique water-vascular system ending in what are called tube feet
      Most are either stationary or slow-moving animals
      Main body systems present
      Food: from particles to other starfish/shellfish
      External fertilization
      Regeneration
      Sexual and asexual reproduction
    • Phyllum Chordata
      97% are vertebrates -- animals whose skeletons include a backbone (which include Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals)
      Notochord: an elongate rod-like structure replaced by vertebral column in vertebrates
      Dorsal nerve cord: a hollow tube that turns into central nervous system
      Pharyngeal gill slits or clefts: structures located behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus
      Endoskeleton
      Lancelet or Amphioxus
      Ascidea or Tunicata
    • Vertebrates
      Skin: 2 layers – epidermis and dermis
      Vertebral column + skull
      Brain + spinal cord
      Endoskeleton
      Main classes (one of which is extinct):
      • Agnatha - jawlessfishes (lamprey/hagfish: scavengers/parasites)
      • Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes
      • Osteichthyes - bony fishes
      • Amphibia - Amphibians
      • Reptilia - Reptiles
      • Birds
      • Mammalia – Mammals
    • Chondrichthyes - cartilaginous fishes
      Sharks, rays
      Cartilaginous endoskeleton, gill slits, and paired fins and nostrils
      Heart: 2 chambers
      Ventral mouth
      No bone marrow
      Scales
      Ectothermic
      Lateral line (vibrations)
      Internal fertilization
      Whale shark
      Hammerhead and Sting ray
    • Osteichthyes - bony fishes
      96% of living fish species.
      Most numerous and diverse of the vertebrates.
      eel, seahorse, tuna, clownfish
      Anterior mouth
      Swim bladder: allows them to float
      Gills protected by operculum
      Scales
      Ectothermic
      bone replaces cartilage
      External fertilization
      tuna/seahorse/eel/moonfish
    • Amphibia - Amphibians
      There are three living amphibian groups:
      • Frogs and toads
      • Salamanders
      • Caecilians
      Originated from fishes
      All have bony endoskeletons and usually four legs
      Ectothermic
      Metamorphosis (some species)
      All require water at some stage in the life cycle.
      Most shed their eggs into water, which is also home to a free-swimming larval stage.
      Respiration: gills, lungs (less efficient) , skin
      WET skin = respiratory organ (usually thin and sometimes supplied with glands that produce toxins)
      Heart: 3 chambers
      External fertilization
      Eardrums
      Vocal cords
      Caecilia – vestigial eyes + no legs
    • Reptilia
      Crocodiles, Alligators, Turtles, Snakes, Lizards
      Evolved from amphibians
      Heart = 4 chambers
      Ectothermic
      Skin = dry and full of scales (prevent dehydration)
      Eggs with shell, amniotic sac (allows them to live on dry land)
      Well developed lungs
      Internal fertilization
    • Birds
      Penguin, Kiwi, Hawk, Ostrich
      Eggs amnion: can develop on land
      Heart – 4 chambers
      Internal fertilization
      Endothermic
      Muscular stomach with stones for grinding food
      Oil gland (help some float in water)
      Flight adaptations:
      Feathers – insulation/flight
      Hollow bones
      Toothless
      Strong muscles
      No bladder (why do you think?)
      Lungs with air sacs
      Cerebellum developed (balance)
      Good vision
      Membrane covering eye (not eyelid)
      Some binocular vision (hunters)
      Blue-footedBoobyBird
      kiwi
      Harpia
    • Mammalia
      3 groups:
      • Monotremes = platypus and equidna (egg layers)
      • Marsupials = pouch (where baby finishes its development)
      • Placental = most mammals
      Mammary glands
      Parental care
      Hair
      Diaphragm
      Differentiation of teeth
      Large brain
      Endothermic
      Heart = 4 chambers
      Internal fertilization
    • Plant Classification
      IB Biology
    • Bryophytes
      Simple plants, limited size
      Hold loose dirt in place
      Live in moist areas
      Depend on external water transport for reproduction: motile male gamete
      No vascular tissue = movement through osmosis/diffusion
      No true roots = have rhizoids - like root hairs (absorb water, anchor plant)
      No stems
      No leaves = similar structures but only one cell thick.
      Produce spores in a capsule at end of a stalk
      moss
      liverwort
    • Have vascular tissue: can be bigger
      Xylem: H2O + minerals
      Phloem: sap (sugar, AAs, hormones...)
      Live in moist areas
      Have roots, stems and leaves (fronds)
      Motile male gametes: can occupy terrestrial environments BUT still needs water for reproduction
      Spores produced in sporangia, generally on the underside of the leaf
      Leaves are curled, and then uncurl as they mature
      Filicinophytes, or Ferns
      frond
      young frond
      rhizome
      roots
    • http://www.biology87.org/apbio/diversity/PlantLabPicts/statio6.jpg
      http://www.biology87.org/apbio/diversity/PlantLabPicts/statio4.jpg
    • ConiferophytesConifer
      e.g. pines, spruces, firs, cypress, yews
      • Contain a well developed vascular tissue (big plants!), roots, stems (woody) and leaves
      • Produce male (contain pollen) and female (contain ovules) cones
      • Produce seeds which develop on the scales of the female cones
      • Gametes are not motile: does not depend on water for reproduction
      • Tough, needlelike leaves with thick cuticles and sunken stomata: adaptations for dry environments
      • NO REAL FLOWERS + NO FRUITS
    • Sequoias
      National Park in California
    • AngiospermophytesFloweringPlants
      Flowering plants with roots, stems and leaves
      Occupy all environments
      Gametes are not motile (does not need water for reproduction)
      Seeds are produced – develop inside the ovaries in the flower
      Ovary develops into a fruit which aids in seed dispersal
    • Drawing a flower:
      • Female Reproductive Organs: stigma + style + ovary = PISTIL
      • Male Reproductive Organs: anther + filament = STAMEN
      • Petals: attract animals
      • Sepals: protection
    • Two types of angiospermophytes
      Cotyledon= seed leaf
      Differences in leaves, arrangement of vascular tissue, root system and stem composition.
      Monocotiledonous x Dicotiledonous
    • Monocotiledonous x Dicotiledonous
    • Dicotyledenous PlantsBean, etc.
      Monocotyledenous PlantsCorn and wheat, etc.