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INTRODUCTION From ancient times to nowadays builders have used a wide variety of construction materials: stone, cement, mortar, concrete, plaster, clay...
STONE Stone is an ancient natural material, that we extract from quarries.Many differents types of rocks are used, such us , slate, granite or marble.Stone stil has several uses as a contruction material.Stone can be shaped into blocks or into panels.
CEMENT Cement is a blinder. It is a dry powder that blinds other materials together.Cement is a mixture of ground and baked minerals, oxides, and something other substances. Depending on which mineral and oxides we put in the mix and in what percentage, the properties of cement are different. Portlan cement is considered to be the standard mixture. The first step in making cement is to grind chalk and limestone. Then the grind chalk and limestone are calcinated at 1450ºC in an oven called kiln. The calcinated ground is called clinker.The clinker is the ground with a bit of gypsum.Then all the ingredients are mixed with the clinker and the gypsum
Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water. it´s best to mix the cement and the sand first because they mix more easily without water. When we add water it becomes a paste. When cement and water come into contac they start a chemical reaction called “setting”. MORTAR
CONCRETE Concrete is mortar whith added pebbles, so it is a mixture of cement, water and pebbles. The pebbles make the concrete stronger than the mortar.
Reinforced concrete is concrete with steel bars inside it. Concrete has good resistance to compression but not to tension and steel has a good resistance to both tension and compresion.we always reinforce concrete beams.
PLASTER Plaster is a soft solid that we normally use for aesthetic purpose, to cover brick walls which have a rough surface. Plaster foam is used as Fire-resistance material. Plaster comes from gypsum :gypsum is mixed with water, it becomes a paste and we can spread it on interior walls.
CERAMICS 1.1Ceramic is made from clay. Clay is a mass of very small particles of rock.We normally use the best clay we can find in the same country of the contruction to reduce costs.
1.2 The most common ceramic product are bricks. Other ceramic materials are tiles, such as roofing tiles, walls tiles, and floor tiles. Walls and floor tiles are coated with porcelain. Porcelain is much harder , it gives a soft surface, and it is completely waterproof.
MANUFACTURING CERAMICS 1º-Moulding: The first step in making ceramics is to give the clay the required shape. We make a mould with the negative shape of a brick, then we fill the mould with clay. The mould goes through a kiln on a conveyor belt . 2º-Drying: When the water evaporates, the clay becomes hard, but if water is added, it becomes soft again. Drying the clay can be done under the sun or with fans. 3º-Firing: Firing is done in a kiln, at temperatures between1000ºC and 1600ºC. After firing, the material is ceramic: the tiny bits of rocks have now bonded together.
The Stages of construction a building
Preliminary Work is Begun Plans are chosen, materials are ordered, and our Superintendents secure has all necessary permits required to begin the building process. A schedule that will be adjusted and revised many times is begun.
Foundations are poured Each home site is graded and staked. Form boards are meticulously measured and placed, the plumbing lines are run, and inspection officials are called. Once approved, we pour the concrete foundation.
Frames are Raised We start framing the exterior and interior walls then raise the roof trusses and any stairs. We attach wall sheathing to enclose the home and roof sheathing over the trusses
Exterior Finishes are Applied Roofing materials and attic vents are installed. Windows and exterior doors are set into place and façade materials, such as brick and siding, are applied. Finally, exterior trim and accents are added.
Mechanical Systems are Installe The plumbing, heating & air, and electrical systems are “roughed-in” at this stage. Bathtubs and shower units are installed. Ends of pipes, wiring, and ductwork are left exposed for completion later. At the end of this stage, each home is inspected closely by a SHB superintendent and the local building inspection official.
BY: -JOSE LUIS ASTASIO VILAPLANA -FERMÍN RODRÍGUEZ GÓMEZ