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End Of Life Care
 

End Of Life Care

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End Of Life Care End Of Life Care Presentation Transcript

  • Communication and Decision Making Near the End of Life Dalhousie Critical Care Lecture Series
  • Learning Objectives
    • Understand why EOL care is an important part of your curriculum
    • Explain the nature of physician-patient relationships and how clinical decisions are made
    • Articulate a practical approach to communication around EOL decisions.
  • Dying in Canada: Is it an Institutionalized, Technologically Supported Experience? Proportion of Hospital Deaths in 1997 Heyland Journal of Palliative Care 2000;16:S10
  • Proportion of Hospital Deaths in a ICU Dying in Canada: Is it an Institutionalized, Technologically Supported Experience? Heyland Journal of Palliative Care 2000;16:S10
  • “ Welcome to God’s waiting room!”
  • What is Quality End of Life Care?
  • Quality of End of Life Care in Canada Results from Patient’s Perspective N= 440 Heyland CMAJ 2006;174:627 41.8 To have an adequate plan of care and services available to look after you at home upon discharge 41.8 To not be a physical or emotional burden on your family 43.9 To complete things and prepare for life’s end 44.1 That information about your disease be communicated to you in a honest manner 55.7 Not to be kept alive on life support when there is little hope for a meaningful recovery 55.8 To have trust and confidence in the Doctor looking after you % “Extremely Important ” Areas of Greatest “Importance”
  • Quality of End of Life Care in Canada Results from Family Member’s Perspective N= 160 Heyland CMAJ 2006;174:627 69.4 To have an adequate plan of care and services available to look after you at home upon discharge 68.1 That your family member not be kept alive on life supports when there is little hope of recovery 70.6 That information about your disease be communicated to you in a honest manner 70.6 That your family member has relief of physical symptoms 74.4 To have trust and confidence in the Doctor looking after you % “Extremely Important ” Areas of Greatest “Importance”
  • End of Life Decisions
    • Review of the Literature:
      • Poor communication between physician and patient
      • Infrequently done
      • Interventional studies have failed
      • Complex decision making process
  • Importance of Communication
    • “ The way the physician spoke to me caused me more pain than I experienced from the disease itself,”
            • Majorie
    • “ In my research, a portion of the suffering that people experienced resulted from the way in which doctors communicated with them.”
    • Dr David Kuhl
            • What Dying People Want, David Kuhl, 2002
  • End of Life Decisions
    • Narrow definition:
      • Application or withdraw of life sustaining therapies
    • Broader definition
      • “ As you approach the end of your life, what do you want to happen?”
      • Other issues unrelated to health care
    • Imminent Death
    • Talking about wanting to die
    • Inquiries about hospice or palliative care
    • Recently hospitalized for severe, progressive illness
    • Severe suffering and poor prognosis
    Clinical Indications for Discussion EOL Care: Urgent Indications Quill JAMA :282;2502
    • Discussing Prognosis
    • Discussing treatment with low probability of success
    • Discussing hopes and fears
    • Physician would not be surprised if patient died in next 6-12 months
    Clinical Indications for Discussion EOL Care: Routine Indications Quill JAMA :282;2502
  • Patient Provider Surrogate Characteristics Relationship, Attitude, Knowledge, Values, Preferences, Perceptions, Insurance, Wealth 1) Info exchange 2) Deliberation 3) Decisional Responsibility Characteristics Age, Race, Gender, Capacity, Willingness to Discuss Attitude, Knowledge, Values, Preferences, Perceptions Symptoms, Quality of Life, Wealth, Insurance Characteristics Age, Gender, Profession, Years of Practice, Attitude, Knowledge, Values , Preferences, Training, Communication Strategies
    • Environmental
    • Timing
    • Barriers
    • Institutional policies
    Resuscitation or WLS? Conceptual Framework for End of Life Decisions “ consideration of patient preferences” an essential element of physician competence. CanMEDS
  • Models Describing Patient- Physician Relationships Active Role Shared Passive Role Patient Decides Physician Decides
  • Decision Making During Serious Illness: What role do patients really want to play?
    • I prefer to make the decision about which treatment I will receive.
    • I prefer to make the final decision about my treatment after seriously considering my doctor’s opinion.
    • I prefer that my doctor and I share responsibility for deciding which treatment is best for me.
    • I prefer that my doctor makes the final decision about which treatment will be used but seriously considers my opinion.
    • I prefer to leave all decision regarding my treatment to my doctor.
    (Degner et al.)
    • 64% public want to select own treatment
    • 59% newly Dx’d breast cancer want MD to make Rx decisions
    • Most want MD and family to share responsibility if too ill to participate
    Decision Making During Serious Illness: What role do patients really want to play?
  • Patient Population (n=440)
    • Inclusion Criteria
      • - 55 years of age
      • - admitted for medical reasons
      • - have advanced COPD, CHF, cancer, or cirrhosis
      • - expected hospital stay of at least 72 hours
      • - speak English
    • Exclusion Criteria
      • - psychiatric illness
      • - expected difficulty with communication
    Decision Making During Serious Illness: What role do patients really want to play?
  • Patient Preferences for Decisional Responsibility Per cent Heyland Chest 2006
  • Who Would You Like to be Involved? Per cent Heyland Chest 2006 (in press)
  • Substitute Decision Makers’ Preferences for Decisional Responsibility Per cent n=789 Heyland Int Care Med 2003;29:75
  • Information Most Important to Patients Facing a Life-threatening Illness
    • Most Important
      • chances of surviving
      • resultant health state
    • Moderate Importance
      • Impact on family’s lives
    • Least Important
      • Length of hospital stay,
      • probability of institutionalization
      • amount of pain
      • ICUs, ventilators etc.
    Heyland Chest 2006
  • ME Let Decide What do you want us to do? US Let Decide
  • End-of-life discussions should not be like a fast food restaurant menu
  • Case Presentation
    • 91 yo female
    • significant co morbiditiies
    • Admitted 3 days previous with small bowel obstruction
    • Now in respiratory failure, semi- comatose
    • R1 phones daughter ” Every thing done”
    • ICU consulted
    • What next?
  • Principles of Communication Around EOL issues
    • General principles
      • quiet, private environment
      • eye contact, non verbal body language
      • listen empathetically/reflectively
      • acknowledge/validate reactions or emotions
      • have a nurse or other witness present
  • Principles of Communication Around EOL issues
    • Who are you talking to?
      • What is their life story?
      • level of understanding?
      • language/education?
      • willingness to discuss?
      • do they need support?
  • Principles of Communication Around EOL issues
    • What are you going to say?
      • Like any other technical procedure, you need an approach
        • Set or Introduction
        • Body or main exchange
        • Closure
  • EoL Communication
    • Establish roles, relationships and responsibilities
      • “ I’m Dr. X and I am supervising your care…”
      • “ ..work together to determine best treatments..”
      • “ .. other family members involved?…”
    • Assess understanding of disease
      • “ What do you understand about what’s happening?
    The Set
    • Assess impact of illness on patient/family
      • “ How are you (and family) coping….
      • “ What concerns you most about your illness?”
    • Review goals/treatments to date and obtain permission to speak about EOL issues
      • “ .. you came in with pneumonia, we started on antibiotics, worried not getting better, can we talk about our game plan if you get worse…”
    EoL Communication The Set
    • Provide medical, prognostic information
      • use straightforward but sensitive language that’s understandable; no medical jargon
      • Prepare them for bad news
        • “ The test results are in and unfortunately, I have some bad news to discuss with you”
      • Assess Understanding
    EoL Communication The Body
    • Assess goals and values
      • Patient
        • “ As you think about the future, what is important?”
        • “ As you think about your illness, what is the best and worst thing that might happen?”
      • Family
        • “ How would [the patient] respond to this information, what would he or she say?”
        • Check for advance directives, either verbal or written
    EoL Communication The Body
    • Help clarify values and preferences
      • “ So what I hear you say is…” NOT “What do you want us to do?”
    EoL Communication The Body
      • Shared
        • “ Based on what you’ve told me. it seems like we should….”
      • Active
        • “ Some people in your circumstances would…” “What would your wishes be….”
      • Passive
        • “ We would propose…”
    Making the Decision EOL Communication and Decision Making
    • General: Overall goals of treatment
      • Relative emphasis on life prolongation
      • Relative emphasis on quality of life (or death)
    • Specific: Range of Interventions
      • Use of Life sustaining technologies
      • Palliative care
      • Social work
      • Pastoral care
    Developing the Plan Quill JAMA :282;2502
      • Identify key “clinical milestones”
      • Establish time to review plan again
    Developing the Plan
    • Resolve any other concerns
      • “ Are there any other concerns or questions you might have?”
      • “ Would you like to speak to someone regarding spiritual or religious concerns?” or “What role does spirituality or religion play in his/her life?”
    EoL Communication The Body
    • Restate the Plan
      • “ OK, our plan then is to…..” (look for verbal and/or non-verbal assent)
    • Provide opportunity for future communication
      • “ We will see you again and revisit these issues if you like…”
    • Leave with a message of hope
      • Hope for recovery but prepare for the worst (use patient’s words)
    EoL Communication The Closure
  • Language Problems
    • Don’t say “He is not doing very well”
      • … when you meant to say “he is dying”!
    • Don’t say “Do you want us to do everything?” rather say, “Do you want us to do everything as long as it probable that we can achieve our goal?”
    • Don’t say “life expectancy of 6 months” when you mean to say “ for every 100 patients like you, XX% will be alive in 6 months”
  • Substitute Decision Makers
    • Half of families do not understand role of surrogates
    • Educate them as to their role:
      • You are asking them for an assessment of what the PATIENT would have wanted.
      • If the PATIENT had not communicated that to them; use their best judgement as to what the PATIENT would have wanted.
    • They are NOT making the decision to “pull the plug”.
      • It is a shared decision
      • Redirect them that we are acting in the patient’s best interest
    ^ LeClaire Chest 2005;128:1728
  • When Withdrawing Life Sustaining Technology
    • Explain process
      • Focus on comfort
      • Stepwise reduction in support
      • Agonal breathing
    • Help them bring closure
      • Take time to say “good-byes”
      • Sit with, touch, talk to patient
      • Many as want can be in room
  • Families Looking Back: One year after discussion of withdrawal or withholding
    • Many families perceived conflict
      • Communication – needed more info
      • Behavior of staff- uncaring, disrespect
    • Sources of support
      • Pastoral care or clergy
      • Other family members
      • Previous discussions with patient
    Abbott SCCM 2001;29:197
  • Family Satisfaction with family conferences about end of life care
    • Family conferences
      • mean duration 32 mins (range 7-74)
      • On average, family members spoke 29% and clinicians spoke 71 %
      • Increased proportion of family speech was significantly associated with family satisfaction
    McDonagh Crit Care Med 2004;32:1484
  • Conclusions
    • EOL decision making is complex process
    • Specific communication/language strategies may help initiate and make difficult decisions.
    • Using open-ended questions, empathetic listening, and shared decision making may be therapeutic as patients (families) bring closure to life.
    • More research needed to determine optimal strategies.