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  • 1. Low Vision and Blindness Lois Gumataotao and Gladys Uy ED 443G: Assistive and Adaptive Technology November 5, 2008 Dr. Jacqui Cyrus
  • 2. Objectives
    • 1. Be able to divide visual disabilities into two functional subgroups
    • 2. Discuss ways to accommodate the general education setting for students with visual disabilities
    • 3. Describe types of assistive technology that benefit people with visual disabilities at school, in the workplace and in independent living.
  • 3. IDEA Definition
    • ...means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
  • 4. Two functional Subgroups
    • Low vision is also called partial sight. Sight that cannot be satisfactorily corrected with glasses, contacts, or surgery.
    • 2. Blindness or being legally blind is
the permanent loss of sight in both eyes, with a corrected visual acuity worse than 20/200 in both eyes or a field of vision less than 20 degrees in both eyes.

  • 5. Types of Visual Loss
    • Activity 1:
    • Tunnel Vision
    • Peripheral Vision
    • Temporary Blindness
  • 6.
    • Peripheral vision: vision from the sides of your eyes
    • Tunnel vision:
    • vision that is directly
    • In front of you
  • 7. Prevalence/Incidence
    • Nationally:
    • 1.3 million Americans are legally blind
    • 10 million have low vision
    • About 23,973 students between ages 6-17 receive SPED because of low vision or blindness
    • Locally:
    • GPSS is servicing 10 students that are legally blind or have visual inpairments for SY 08-09
  • 8. Signs of Visual Problems
    • Appearance of the eyes:
    • Excessively watery
    • Are red or continually inflamed
    • Appear crusty
    • Are swollen
    • Problems with School Work:
    • The student has difficulty:
    • Reading small print
    • Identifying details in pictures
    • Difficulty distinguishing letters
  • 9. Causes and Prevention
    • Causes:
    • Prenatal factors…heredity…accidents
    • Treatments:
    • Laser treatment, surgery, corneal implants
    • Prevention:
    • Wear protective eye gear
    • Eat vegetables high in Vitamin A
  • 10. Activity 2
    • Due to vision loss, our other senses are enhanced.
    • Listen to the following sounds and try to identify them.
    • Identify the items in the bags through your sense of touch and smell
  • 11. Assessment
    • Two types of eye specialists provide diagnosis and treatment:
    • Ophthalmologists (medical
    • doctors who specialize
    • in eye disorders)
    • Optometrists (professionals
    • who measure vision and
    • prescribe corrective lenses
  • 12. Early Intervention
    • Ophthalmologist
    • Occupational therapist
    • Physical therapist
    • Orientation and mobility instructor
    • Social worker
  • 13. Teaching Tips
    • Understand the child’s visual functioning capabilities
    • Learn the child’s nonverbal cues indicating interest
    • Identify visual features that enhance the child’s visual functions (color, contrast, size)
  • 14. Accommodating for Inclusive Environments
    • Making the Classroom safe :
    • Open or close the doors fully
    • Eliminate clutter from the room, especially from the aisles and movement paths
    • Don’t leave the room without telling the student.
    • Supplement Instruction :
    • Prepare enlarge-print or braille handouts, summarizing key points
    • Audio recorded lectures
  • 15.
    • Jason Cruz’s bio/ infomercial
  • 16. Assistive Technology Devices:
    • Walking Canes $29.95
    • Magnifiers $30
    • Talking watches $30
    • Talking calculators
    • $8 - $300
    • Braille Books $23
  • 17.
    • Magnifiers:
    • The Rainbow Pro allows visually impaired people to view documents, photos, and three- dimensional objects otherwise too small for them to see. The Rainbow Pro displays the items in full color with a zoom lens for magnification control .
    • $3195
    • Braille Books
  • 18. Transition
    • Postsecondary Options:
    • Begin the search for the right college program
    • Register for classes as early as possible
    • Contact readers, locate assistive devices and arrange for accommodations
    • Stay in close communication with faculty
    • Transition to work:
    • Community employment during high school
    • Internships in real work settings during high school
  • 19. Collaboration
    • Teachers should collaborate with the
    • same professionals as in early intervention
    • processes. They are experts in their fields and are able to assist for effective instruction.
  • 20. Youtube
    • 12 year old blind boy plays football
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Ycdpxu51OA
  • 21. References
    • Smith, Deborah (2007), Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference 6th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Ycdpxu51OA
    • http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/532vitaminA.html
    • Mr.Jason Cruz
    • www.order-discount-contact-lens-online.com/discount-contact-lens-glossary.htm
    • www.insurance-journal.ca/tables/04_05mayL1.asp
    • http://www.fashionablecanes.com/blindstick.htm
    • http://www.abledata.com/abledata.cfm?pageid=19327&top=15480&productid=78692&trail=0&discontinued=0
  • 22. Thought Provoking Questions
    • If a blind student refuses an auditory/oral test and insists on a braille one, yet you have no materials, what would you do?
    • What kind of classroom rules would you implement if you had all visually impaired or blind students?
    • How would you teach a blind student if the parent refuses special education?