Low Vision and Blindness Lois Gumataotao and Gladys Uy ED 443G: Assistive and Adaptive Technology November 5, 2008 Dr. Jacqui Cyrus
1. Be able to divide visual disabilities into two functional subgroups
2. Discuss ways to accommodate the general education setting for students with visual disabilities
3. Describe types of assistive technology that benefit people with visual disabilities at school, in the workplace and in independent living.
...means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
Two functional Subgroups
Low vision is also called partial sight. Sight that cannot be satisfactorily corrected with glasses, contacts, or surgery.
2. Blindness or being legally blind is the permanent loss of sight in both eyes, with a corrected visual acuity worse than 20/200 in both eyes or a field of vision less than 20 degrees in both eyes.
Types of Visual Loss
Peripheral vision: vision from the sides of your eyes
vision that is directly
In front of you
1.3 million Americans are legally blind
10 million have low vision
About 23,973 students between ages 6-17 receive SPED because of low vision or blindness
GPSS is servicing 10 students that are legally blind or have visual inpairments for SY 08-09
Signs of Visual Problems
Appearance of the eyes:
Are red or continually inflamed
Problems with School Work:
The student has difficulty:
Reading small print
Identifying details in pictures
Difficulty distinguishing letters
Causes and Prevention
Laser treatment, surgery, corneal implants
Wear protective eye gear
Eat vegetables high in Vitamin A
Due to vision loss, our other senses are enhanced.
Listen to the following sounds and try to identify them.
Identify the items in the bags through your sense of touch and smell
Two types of eye specialists provide diagnosis and treatment:
doctors who specialize
in eye disorders)
who measure vision and
prescribe corrective lenses
Orientation and mobility instructor
Understand the child’s visual functioning capabilities
Learn the child’s nonverbal cues indicating interest
Identify visual features that enhance the child’s visual functions (color, contrast, size)
Accommodating for Inclusive Environments
Making the Classroom safe :
Open or close the doors fully
Eliminate clutter from the room, especially from the aisles and movement paths
Don’t leave the room without telling the student.
Supplement Instruction :
Prepare enlarge-print or braille handouts, summarizing key points
Audio recorded lectures
Jason Cruz’s bio/ infomercial
Assistive Technology Devices:
Walking Canes $29.95
Talking watches $30
$8 - $300
Braille Books $23
The Rainbow Pro allows visually impaired people to view documents, photos, and three- dimensional objects otherwise too small for them to see. The Rainbow Pro displays the items in full color with a zoom lens for magnification control .
Begin the search for the right college program
Register for classes as early as possible
Contact readers, locate assistive devices and arrange for accommodations
Stay in close communication with faculty
Transition to work:
Community employment during high school
Internships in real work settings during high school
Teachers should collaborate with the
same professionals as in early intervention
processes. They are experts in their fields and are able to assist for effective instruction.
12 year old blind boy plays football
Smith, Deborah (2007), Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference 6th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.